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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445438

RESUMO

Gram-negative bacteria release Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) into the extracellular environment. Recent studies recognized these vesicles as vectors to horizontal gene transfer; however, the parameters that mediate OMVs transfer within bacterial communities remain unclear. The present study highlights for the first time the transfer of plasmids containing resistance genes via OMVs derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). This mechanism confers DNA protection, it is plasmid copy number dependent with a ratio of 3.6 times among high copy number plasmid (pGR) versus low copy number plasmid (PRM), and the transformation efficiency was 3.6 times greater. Therefore, the DNA amount in the vesicular lumen and the efficacy of horizontal gene transfer was strictly dependent on the identity of the plasmid. Moreover, the role of K. pneumoniae-OMVs in interspecies transfer was described. The transfer ability was not related to the phylogenetic characteristics between the donor and the recipient species. K. pneumoniae-OMVs transferred plasmid to Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. These findings address the pivotal role of K. pneumoniae-OMVs as vectors for antimicrobial resistance genes spread, contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance in the microbial communities.


Assuntos
Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Dosagem de Genes , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia
3.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: pericoronary fat over-inflammation might lead to the development and destabilization of coronary plaque in patients with pre-diabetes (PDM). Notably, pericoronary fat could over-express the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and leptin, along with decreased sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) expression in PDM vs. normoglycemic (NG) patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, in the current study, we evaluated inflammatory markers, SGLT2, SIRT6, and leptin levels in pericoronary fat and, subsequently, 12-month prognosis comparing PDM to NG subjected to CABG for AMI. In addition, we evaluated in PDM patients the effects of metformin therapy on SIRT6 expression, leptin, and SGLT2 levels, and assessed its beneficial effect on nitrotyrosine and inflammatory cytokine levels. METHODS: we studied AMI patients referred for CABG, divided into PDM and NG-patients. PDM patients were divided into never-metformin users and metformin users. Finally, we evaluated major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at a 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: the MACE was 9.1% in all PDM and 3% in NG patients (p < 0.05). Metformin users presented a significantly lower MACE rate in PDM than never-metformin users (p < 0.05). PDM showed higher inflammatory cytokines, 3-nitrotyrosine levels, SGLT2, and leptin content, and decreased SIRT6 protein levels in pericoronary fat compared to NG-patients (p < 0.05). PDM never-metformin-users showed higher SGLT2 and leptin levels in pericoronary fat than current-metformin-users (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: metformin therapy might ameliorate cardiovascular outcomes by reducing inflammatory parameters, SGLT2, and leptin levels, and finally improving SIRT6 levels in AMI-PDM patients treated with CABG.

4.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442628

RESUMO

In 2020, a global pandemic was declared following the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen responsible for COVID-19. The risk of infection is high due to the ease of transmission, which can occur orally, through droplets, or via contact with contaminated surfaces and objects. It has also been demonstrated that the ocular surface can constitute a transmission route, especially in hospital settings, where health care workers can become a dangerous source of infection. In order to increase prevention and reduce the spread of the virus on the ocular surface, the antiviral activity of already-marketed eye drops against SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated. Iodim, Ozodrop, Septavis, and Dropsept were tested against SARS-CoV-2 in plaque-assay experiments at different stimulation times. Furthermore, the expression levels of early and late genes were evaluated through molecular assays. Results indicated that three of the four ophthalmic solutions showed a considerable dose-dependent inhibition of viral replication, highlighting their use as potential antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and preventing other ocular infections.

5.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251733

RESUMO

AIMS: This study assessed the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry as an alternative method to identify species associated with the thanatomicrobiota and epinecrotic communities. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted on 10 murine cadavers, and microbiological swabs were collected from five external anatomical sites (eyes, ears, nose, mouth and rectum) and four internal organs (brain, spleen, liver, heart), during 16 and 30 days, for the thanatomicrobiota and epinecrotic communities, respectively. Our results revealed that the postmortem microbiota associated with the external cavities showed changes over time and reduced taxonomic diversity. The internal organs, initially sterile, showed signs of microbial invasion at 3 and 10 days postmortem for the liver-spleen and heart-brain, respectively. The postmortem microbiota was mainly dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF is a promising method for estimating postmortem interval (PMI), associated with rapid sample handling, good reproducibility and high productivity. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study investigated microbial changes during the decomposition process and proposed a simple strategy for PMI estimation. Results introducing the application of the MALDI-TOF method in the field of forensic.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208040

RESUMO

(1) Background: The pro-resolving lipid mediator Resolvin D1 (RvD1) has already shown protective effects in animal models of diabetic retinopathy. This study aimed to investigate the retinal levels of RvD1 in aged (24 months) and younger (3 months) Balb/c mice, along with the activation of macro- and microglia, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation. (2) Methods: Retinas from male and female mice were used for immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (3) Results: Endogenous retinal levels of RvD1 were reduced in aged mice. While RvD1 levels were similar in younger males and females, they were markedly decreased in aged males but less reduced in aged females. Both aged males and females showed a significant increase in retinal microglia activation compared to younger mice, with a more marked reactivity in aged males than in aged females. The same trend was shown by astrocyte activation, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and nitrosative stress, in line with the microglia and Müller cell hypertrophy evidenced in aged retinas by electron microscopy. (4) Conclusions: Aged mice had sex-related differences in neuroinflammation and apoptosis and low retinal levels of endogenous RvD1.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Retina/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/patologia , Células Ependimogliais/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Microglia/ultraestrutura , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 217, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons has been equal to that of symptomatic patients. On the other hand, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. Therefore, we evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial blush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. METHODS: This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. RESULTS: In the study population, ASAP vs. SANE showed a significant greater use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and of heparin (p < 0.05), and a higher thrombus grade 5 and thrombus dimensions (p < 0.05). Interestingly, ASAP vs. SANE patients had lower MBG and left ventricular function (p < 0.001), and 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. After PPCI, a MBG 2-3 was present in only 26.1% of ASAP vs. 97.7% of SANE STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Notably, death and nonfatal AMI were higher in ASAP vs. SANE patients (p < 0.05). Finally, in ASAP STEMI patients the thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p < 0.005). Thus, multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Intriguingly, in ASAP patients the female vs. male had higher thrombus viral load (15.53 ± 4.5 vs. 30.25 ± 5.51 CT; p < 0.001), and thrombus dimension (4.62 ± 0.44 vs 4.00 ± 1.28 mm2; p < 0.001). ASAP vs. SANE patients had a significantly lower in-hospital survival for MACE following PPCI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Trombose Coronária/virologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia
8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063711

RESUMO

Ocular bacterial infections represent a serious problem that affecting people of all age and genders. These infections can lead to visual impairment and blindness if not properly treated. The current study evaluates the antimicrobial resistance profiles and the resistance trend of both Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), the main pathogens involved in eye infections. A total of 322 isolates of S. aureus and CoNS, were collected from patients with bacterial conjunctivitis and keratitis at the "Luigi Vanvitelli" University Hospital of Campania in Naples, Italy, between 2017 and 2020. The isolated bacteria showed a high percentage of resistance to methicillin and other antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of ocular infections. Trends in antibiotic resistance were not encouraging, recording-especially among CoNS strains-an increase of more than 20% in resistance to methicillin and aminoglycosides during the study period. Instead, the resistance rates to tetracycline had a significant decrease in CoNS isolates while no changes in their susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and macrolides were observed. However, all isolates showed no resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In this scenario, preventive identification of the infection causative agents and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are essential to set up an ocular infection effective drug treatment and also prevent antibiotic resistance.

9.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808016

RESUMO

Despite advances in medical knowledge, parasitic diseases remain a significant global health burden and their pharmacological treatment is often hampered by drug toxicity. Therefore, drug delivery systems may provide useful advantages when used in combination with conventional therapeutic compounds. Dendrimers are three-dimensional polymeric structures, characterized by a central core, branches and terminal functional groups. These nanostructures are known for their defined structure, great water solubility, biocompatibility and high encapsulation ability against a wide range of molecules. Furthermore, the high ratio between terminal groups and molecular volume render them a hopeful vector for drug delivery. These nanostructures offer several advantages compared to conventional drugs for the treatment of parasitic infection. Dendrimers deliver drugs to target sites with reduced dosage, solving side effects that occur with accepted marketed drugs. In recent years, extensive progress has been made towards the use of dendrimers for therapeutic, prophylactic and diagnostic purposes for the management of parasitic infections. The present review highlights the potential of several dendrimers in the management of parasitic diseases.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 173: 108670, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of the coronary thrombus microbiota and relative metabolites with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in hyperglycemic patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia during STEMI may affect both development and progression of coronary thrombus via gut and thrombus microbiota modifications. METHODS: We undertook an observational cohort study of 146 first STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and thrombus-aspiration (TA). Patients were clustered, based on admission blood glucose levels, in hyperglycemic (≥140 mg/dl) and normoglycemic (<140 mg/dl). We analyzed gut and thrombus microbiota in all patients. Moreover, we assessed TMAO, CD40L and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in coronary thrombi. Cox regressions were used for the association between Prevotellaspp. and TMAO terziles and MACE. MACE endpoint at 1 year included death, re-infarction, unstable angina. RESULTS: In fecal and thrombus samples, we observed a significantly different prevalence of both Prevotellaspp. and Alistipesspp. between patients with hyperglycemia (n = 56) and those with normal glucose levels (n = 90). The abundance of Prevotella increased in hyperglycemic vs normoglycemic patients whereas the contrary was observed for Alistipes. Interestingly, in coronary thrombus, the content of Prevotella was associated with admission blood glucose levels (p < 0.01), thrombus dimensions (p < 0.01), TMAO, CDL40 (p < 0.01) and vWF (p < 0.01) coronary thrombus contents. Multivariate Cox-analysis disclosed a reduced survival in patients with high levels of Prevotella and TMAO in coronary thrombus as compared to patients with low levels of Prevotella and TMAO, after 1-year follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia during STEMI may increase coronary thrombus burden via gut and thrombus microbiota dysbiosis characterized by an increase of Prevotella and TMAO content in thrombi. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03439592. September 30, 2016. Ethic Committee Vanvitelli University: 268/2016.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/complicações , Microbiota/fisiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Trombose/microbiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Trombose Coronária/complicações , Trombose Coronária/mortalidade , Trombose Coronária/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 586529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343507

RESUMO

The human microbiota is an integral component in the maintenance of health and of the immune system. Microbiome-wide association studies have found numerous diseases associated to dysbiosis. Studies are needed to move beyond correlations and begin to address causation. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD) are one of the most common organ-specific autoimmune disorders with an increasing prevalence, higher than 5% worldwide. Most frequent manifestations of ATD are Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. The exact etiology of ATD remains unknown. Until now it is not clear whether bacterial infections can trigger ATD or modulate the efficacy of treatment and prognosis. The aim of our review is to characterize the microbiota and in ATD and to evaluate the impact of dysbiosis on treatment and prognosis. Moreover, variation of gut microbiome has been associated with thyroid cancer and benign nodules. Here we will characterize the microbioma in benign thyroid nodules, and papillary thyroid cancer to evaluate their implications in the pathophysiology and progression.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doença de Graves/microbiologia , Doença de Hashimoto/microbiologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/microbiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/microbiologia , Animais , Autoimunidade , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Sistema Endócrino/imunologia , Sistema Endócrino/microbiologia , Doença de Graves/epidemiologia , Doença de Graves/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/epidemiologia , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
12.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322147

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The spread of resistant strains of K. pneumoniae represents a growing threat to human health, due to the exhaustion of effective treatments. K. pneumoniae releases outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs are a vehicle for the transport of virulence factors to host cells, causing cell injury. Previous studies have shown changes of gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells after treatment with K. pneumoniae OMVs. These variations in gene expression could be regulated through microRNAs (miRNAs), which participate in several biological mechanisms. Thereafter, miRNA expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells were evaluated during infection with standard and clinical K. pneumoniae strains. Microarray analysis and RT-qPCR identified the dysregulation of miR-223, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-25 and hsa-let-7g miRNA sequences. Target gene prediction revealed the essential role of these miRNAs in the regulation of host immune responses involving NF-ĸB (miR-223), TLR4 (hsa-miR-21), cytokine (hsa-miR-25) and IL-6 (hsa-let-7g miRNA) signalling pathways. The current study provides the first large scale expression profile of miRNAs from lung cells and predicted gene targets, following exposure to K. pneumoniae OMVs. Our results suggest the importance of OMVs in the inflammatory response.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076256

RESUMO

(1) Background: Circulating micro-RNAs (miRNAs) modulate the expression of molecules in diabetes. We evaluated the expression of serum miRNA-195-5p and -451a in diabetic patients with ischemic stroke and correlated them with two markers of brain tissue integrity. (2) Methods: Seventy-eight subjects with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (40 with diabetes) were enrolled. Serum miRNA levels, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were assessed at admission and 24 and 72 h after a post-ischemic stroke, and were compared to 20 controls. (3) Results: Both circulating miRNAs were two-fold up-regulated in diabetic AIS and TIA patients compared to non-diabetics. Their levels progressively decreased at 24 and 72 h in both AIS and TIA patients. Interestingly, in the non-diabetic TIA group, both circulating miRNAs, although higher than the controls, tended to achieve a complete decay after 72 h. Furthermore, miRNA-195-5p and miRNA-451a levels inversely correlated with both BDNF and VEGF-A serum levels. (4) Conclusions: These data show a different profile of both micro-RNAs in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients after acute ischemic stroke, suggesting their pivotal role in cerebrovascular ischemic attack.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , AVC Isquêmico/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Masculino , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(21): 12298-12307, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058526

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the lipid mediator Resolvin D1 in experimental keratitis. C57BL/6J mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (2 µg/eye), and after 24 hours, the corneal damage was assessed. Clinical score was quantified, and corneal inflammatory biomarkers were detected by immunohistochemistry. A robust accumulation of sub-epithelial macrophages and polymorphonuclear leucocytes, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (also known as keratinocyte-derived chemokine), interleukin-10 and promoters of apoptosis was also observed in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Formyl peptide receptor 2 corneal expression was also assessed. The corneal stroma treated with lipopolysaccharide was characterized by presence of macrophages of M1-like subtype and immature fibroblastic cells, marked with Ki67, not fully differentiated in fibroblasts. Indeed, the staining of the cornea with anti-vimentin antibodies, a marker of differentiated myofibroblasts, was very faint. Resolvin D1 attenuated all the inflammatory parameters assessed in the present study, except for IL-10. In conclusion, the data presented here seem to be consistent with the hypothesis that Resolvin D1 protected the cornea from the lipopolysaccharide-induced keratitis by acting on several inflammatory components of this damage, pivoted by Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) activation and macrophages-leucocytes activity.


Assuntos
Substância Própria/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Ceratite/induzido quimicamente , Ceratite/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Vimentina/metabolismo
15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 37: 101871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891725

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an increasingly relevant viral zoonosis caused by the negative-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Orthonairovirus (CCHFV) (Nairoviridae family, Bunyavirales order). The viral genome is divided into three segments (L-M-S) of distinct size and functions. The infection is generally mediated by a tick vector, in particular belonging to the Hyalomma genus, and the transmission follows a tick-vertebrate-tick ecologic cycle, with asymptomatic infected animals functioning as reservoirs and amplifiers for CCHFV. Human hosts could be infected primarily through infected ticks or by contact with infected hosts or their body fluids and tissues, also in a nosocomial way and in occupational contexts. Infected symptomatic patients generally manifest a nonspecific illness, which progresses across four stages, with possibly lethal outcomes. Disease outbreaks show a widespread geographic diffusion and a highly variable mortality rate, dramatically peaking in untreated patients. The lack of an adequate animal model and the elevated virus biological risk (only manageable under biosafety level 4 conditions) represent strongly limiting factors for a better characterization of the disease and for the development of specific therapies and vaccines. The present review discusses updated information on CCHFV-related disease, including details about the virus (taxonomy, structure, life cycle, transmission modalities) and considering CCHF pathogenesis, epidemiology and current strategies (diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive).

16.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766136

RESUMO

Somatostatin analogs mantain their major role in the treatment of patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and have multiple modulatory effects on the immune system. Here, we evaluated the effects of lanreotide treatment on expression of Th1, Th2 cytokine patterns in serum of patients with NETs and in bronchial and pancreatic NET cell lines. Our results showed that lanreotide treatment promoted a Th1 cytotoxic immune-phenotype in patients with NETs originated by intestinal sites. Similar results were obtained also in vitro where lanreotide induced expression of Th1 cytokines only in pancreatic and not in bronchial-derived NET cell lines. It seems, therefore, that cytokinomics can represent a useful tool for the identification of tumor biomarkers for the early diagnosis and evaluation of the response to therapy in NET patients. To avoid the drug-resistance induced by everolimus (mTOR inhibitor), we made the pancreatic NET cell line resistant to this drug. After treatment with lanreotide we found that the drug reduced its viability compared to that of sensitive cells. These data may have direct implications in design of future translation combination trial on NET patients.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1063, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848728

RESUMO

Retinal hypoxia is one of the causative factors of diabetic retinopathy and is also one of the triggers of VEGF release. We hypothesized that specific dysregulated miRNAs in diabetic retinopathy could be linked to hypoxia-induced damage in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs). We investigated in HRECs the effects of chemical (CoCl2) hypoxia on the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, PlGF, and of a focused set of miRNAs. We found that miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-206-3p, miR-381-3p correlated also with expression of TGFß signaling pathway genes in HRECs, challenged with chemical hypoxic stimuli. In conclusion, our data suggest that retinal angiogenesis would be promoted, at least under HIF-1α activation, by upregulation of PlGF and other factors such as miRNAs, VEGFA, and TGFß1.

18.
Microorganisms ; 8(7)2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668575

RESUMO

The ocular surface microbiota refers to the resident non-pathogenic microorganisms that colonize conjunctiva and cornea. Several studies have shown that ocular surface epithelial cells can respond selectively to specific components of ocular pathogenic bacteria by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and, in contrast, they do not respond to non-pathogenic bacteria, thus supporting the colonization by a real microbiota. However, the analysis of the ocular microbiome composition is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of various ophthalmic diseases. In this scenario, the first studies, which used microbiological culture techniques, reported a less diverse profile of the ocular microbiota compared with that recently discovered using new molecular-based methods. Indeed, until a few years ago, the microbiota of the ocular surface appeared to be dominated by Gram-positive and a few Gram-negative bacteria, as well as some fungal strains. In contrast, genomics has nowadays detected a remarkable diversity in the ocular surface microorganisms. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the microbiota of other areas of the body, such as the gut and oral microbiota, are involved in the pathophysiology of several ophthalmic diseases. The aim of the present study is to highlight the current evidence on the ocular surface microbiota to better understand it and to investigate its potential role in the development of ophthalmic diseases.

20.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575585

RESUMO

Historically, natural products have been the most successful source of inspiration for the development of new drugs. Members of the Thymelaeaceae family have been of interest owing to their excellent medicinal value. Given the successful history of natural product-based drug discovery, extracts from the aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta were essvaluated for their potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity. Ethyl acetate extracts from leaves (71B) and branches (72B) of Thymelaea hirsuta showed potent and selective activity against HIV-1 wt (EC50 = 0.8 µg/mL) at non-cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 > 100 µg/mL). They proved to be active against HIV-1 variants carrying clinically relevant NNRTI and NRTI mutations at low concentration (0.3-4 µg/mL range) and against the M-tropic strain HIV-1 BaL. The 72B extract, chosen as a lead, was not able to inhibit the RT and protease enzymatic functions. Furthermore, it was not virucidal, since exposure of HIV to high concentration did not affect virus infectivity. The pre-clinical safety profile of this extract showed no adverse effect on the growth of Lactobacilli, and non-toxic concentration of the extract did not influence the Caco-2 epithelial cells monolayer integrity. Additionally, extract 72B prevented syncytia formation at low concentration (0.4 µg/mL). The potent inhibitory effect on the syncytia formation in co-cultures showed that 72B inhibits an early event in the replication cycle of HIV. All of these findings prompt us to carry on new studies on Thymelaea hirsuta extracts.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thymelaeaceae/química , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Células Vero
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