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1.
Parasite Immunol ; 41(5): e12623, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870579

RESUMO

Phenotypic and functional aspects of monocytes from Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) patients were evaluated. The frequencies of monocyte subsets and TLR2/TLR4 expression were evaluated in fresh peripheral blood whereas cytokine production was evaluated in whole blood cell cultures stimulated with TLR agonists or Leishmania braziliensis antigen (Ag). CD16+ monocytes frequency was increased in patients compared with controls. A TLR4 agonist (LPS) induced expression of TNF and IL-10 in monocyte subsets of patients and controls. The CD14+ CD16+ monocytes expressed higher levels of these cytokines than CD14+ CD16- cells. The levels of secreted TNF were higher in whole blood cell cultures from patients than controls after LPS/TLR4 or Ag stimulation. Whereas in controls there was a positive correlation between TNF and IL-10 levels, this was not observed in stimulated cell cultures from patients. The high levels of LPS-induced TNF were associated with the number of lesions and the percentages of CD14hi CD16+ monocytes. The levels of TLR2-induced TNF were also associated with number of lesions. All monocyte subsets from patients expressed higher levels of TLR2 and TLR4 than controls. Data suggest that systemically activated monocytes contribute for an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production during LCL, participating in the immunopathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cytokine ; 88: 184-192, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649507

RESUMO

While the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been investigated in murine models of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the interaction between TLRs and Leishmania sp. has not been investigated in human cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of TLR4 in cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by L. braziliensis, and whether the parasite alters the expression of TLR4 on monocytes/macrophages. Amastigote forms were obtained from mice lesions and PBMCs were isolated from healthy donors. PBMCs were cultured in absence or presence of IFNγ, TLR4 neutralizing antibodies, natural antagonist of TLR4 (Bartonella LPS), TLR4 agonist (E. coli LPS), and amastigote forms. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were assayed by ELISA and TLR4 expression by flow cytometry. Amastigotes forms of L. braziliensis induced TNFα and IL-10 production only in IFNγ-primed PBMCs. The TNFα and IL-10 production was inhibited by TLR4 neutralization, both with anti-TLR4 antibodies and Bartonella LPS. Interestingly, addition of E. coli LPS further increased TNFα but not IL-10 production induced by L. braziliensis amastigotes. Amastigotes of L. braziliensis strongly reduced membrane TLR4 expression on monocytes/macrophages, apparently by internalization after the infection. The present study reveals that TLR4 drives the production of TNFα and IL-10 induced by L. braziliensis amastigotes and that the parasites decrease TLR4 expression on monocyte surface.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10/imunologia , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Rev. RENE ; 16(4): 514-521, jul.-ago. 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: lil-776022

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar a adesão às medidas de precauções para aerossóis, bem como o conhecimento a respeito da aplicação dessas medidas entre os profissionais de saúde de um serviço especializado no atendimento a pacientes com tuberculose. Métodos: estudo transversal observacional, que avaliou as oportunidades de adesão por meio da observação (n=143) e o conhecimento por um questionário (76). Resultados: a porta dos isolamentos permaneceu aberta em 13,3%. As enfermarias possuíam filtro de alta filtragem, porém em 60,9% das observações este estava desligado. Quanto à máscara, 99,3% dos profissionais de saúde a utilizaram antes de entrar no isolamento e 58,7% permaneceram com a mesma após saírem. As respostas dos profissionais sobre as precauções para aerossóis caracterizaram pouco conhecimento sobre essas medidas. Conclusão: campanhas de educação permanente para sensibilizar podem ser adotadas para aumentar a adesão às precauções para aerossóis e reduzir os riscos de exposição ocupacional.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Tuberculose
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 14: 249, 2014 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24884781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by immune and non-immune cells. It can be induced during bacterial and viral infections, but its production was never investigated in protozoan infections. American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) is caused by Leishmania protozoan leading to cutaneous, nasal or oral lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of IL-32 in cutaneous and mucosal lesions as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. METHODS: IL-32, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-10 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in cutaneous, mucosal lesions and compared to healthy specimens. The isoforms of IL-32α, ß, δ, γ mRNA, TNF mRNA and IL-10 mRNA were assessed by qPCR in tissue biopsies of lesions and healthy skin and mucosa. In addition, PBMC from healthy donors were cultured with amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. In lesions, the parasite subgenus was identified by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: We showed that the mRNA expression of IL-32, in particular IL-32γ was similarly up-regulated in lesions of cutaneous (CL) or mucosal (ML) leishmaniasis patients. IL-32 protein was produced by epithelial, endothelial, mononuclear cells and giant cells. The IL-32 protein expression was associated with TNF in ML but not in CL. IL-32 was not associated with IL-10 in both CL and ML. Expression of TNF mRNA was higher in ML than in CL lesions, however levels of IL-10 mRNA were similar in both clinical forms. In all lesions in which the parasite was detected, L. (Viannia) subgenus was identified. Interestingly, L. (V.) braziliensis induced only IL-32γ mRNA expression in PBMC from healthy individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that IL-32 plays a major role in the inflammatory process caused by L. (Viannia) sp or that IL-32 is crucial for controlling the L. (Viannia) sp infection.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10/biossíntese , Interleucinas/biossíntese , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 81(3): 378-83, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19706899

RESUMO

Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterized by disseminated lesions and the absence of a specific cellular immune response. Here, the immunochemotherapy outcome of a patient with DCL from Amazonian Brazil infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is presented. After several unsuccessful chemotherapy treatment regimens and many relapses, a monthly immunotherapy scheme of L. amazonensis PH8 plus L. (Viannia) braziliensis M2903 monovalent vaccines associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was established, one round of which also included an M2903 vaccine associated with intermittent antimonial treatment. Temporary healing of all lesions was achieved, although Leishmania skin tests were negative and interferon gamma was not detected in mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with Leishmania antigens. The frequencies of CD16 (+)CD56(+) NK cells (approximately 2x) and CD14 (+)CD16(+) proinflammatory monocytes (approximately 8x) increased in peripheral blood, and CD56 (+) lymphocytes were found infiltrating the lesions. An association between the increase of the frequency of innate immune system cells and the healing of lesions is shown, suggesting that this protocol of immunotherapy reduced the parasite load and activated NK cells and monocytes.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais , Leishmania mexicana/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Tegumentar Difusa/tratamento farmacológico , Monócitos , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Protozoários/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Bioensaio , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Leishmania mexicana/imunologia , Leishmaniose Tegumentar Difusa/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Adulto Jovem
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