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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016367

RESUMO

The availability of large datasets from multiple sources [e.g. registries, biobanks, electronic health records (EHRs), claims or billing databases, implantable devices, wearable sensors, and mobile apps], coupled with advances in computing and analytic technologies, have provided new opportunities for conducting innovative health research. Equally, improved digital access to health information has facilitated the conduct of efficient randomized controlled trials (RCTs) upon which clinical management decisions can be based, for instance, by permitting the identification of eligible patients for recruitment and/or linkage for follow-up via their EHRs. Given these advances in cardiovascular data science and the complexities they behold, it is important that health professionals have clarity on the appropriate use and interpretation of observational, so-called 'real-world', and randomized data in cardiovascular medicine. The Cardiovascular Roundtable of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) held a workshop to explore the future of RCTs and the current and emerging opportunities for gathering and exploiting complex observational datasets in cardiovascular research. The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on the appropriate use of randomized and observational data and to outline the ESC plans for supporting the collection and availability of clinical data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with cardiovascular disease in Europe and provide an infrastructure for undertaking pragmatic RCTs. Moreover, the ESC continues to campaign for greater engagement amongst regulators, industry, patients, and health professionals in the development and application of a more efficient regulatory framework that is able to take maximal advantage of new opportunities for improving the design and efficiency of observational studies and RCT in patients with cardiovascular disease.

2.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043136

RESUMO

The past three decades have seen a steady increase in the availability of routinely collected health and social care data and the processing power to analyse it. These developments represent a major opportunity for ageing research, especially with the integration of different datasets across traditional boundaries of health and social care, for prognostic research and novel evaluations of interventions with representative populations of older people. However, there are considerable challenges in using routine data at the level of coding, data analysis and in the application of findings to everyday care. New Horizons in applying routine data to investigate novel questions in ageing research require a collaborative approach between clinicians, data scientists, biostatisticians, epidemiologists and trial methodologists. This requires building capacity for the next generation of research leaders in this important area. There is a need to develop consensus code lists and standardised, validated algorithms for common conditions and outcomes that are relevant for older people to maximise the potential of routine data research in this group. Lastly, we must help drive the application of routine data to improve the care of older people, through the development of novel methods for evaluation of interventions using routine data infrastructure. We believe that harnessing routine data can help address knowledge gaps for older people living with multiple conditions and frailty, and design interventions and pathways of care to address the complex health issues we face in caring for older people.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 301: 7-13, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend that for NSTEMI, the timing of invasive strategy (IS) is a function of patient's baseline risk. The extent to which this is delivered across and within healthcare systems is unknown. METHODS: Data were derived from 137,265 patients admitted with an NSTEMI diagnosis between 2010 and 2015 in England and Wales. Patients were stratified into low, intermediate and high-risk in keeping with international guidelines. Time to IS was categorised into early (24 h), intermediate (25-72 h) and late (>72 h). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors of guidelines recommended receipt of IS. RESULTS: There were 3608 (2.6%) low, 5037 (3.7%) intermediate and 128,621 (93.7%) high-risk patients. Guidelines recommended use of IS was significantly lower in high-risk (16.4%) compared to intermediate (64.7%) and low-risk (62.5%) groups. Both men and women in the low-risk category were almost twice as likely to receive early IS compared to high-risk men (28.9% vs 17%, p < 0.001) and women (26.9% vs 15%, p < 0.001). Women (OR 0.91 95%CI 0.88-0.94), troponin elevation (OR 0.39 95%CI 0.36-0.43) and acute heart failure on admission (OR 0.65 95%CI 0.61-0.70) were strong negative predictors of receiving IS within recommended time in the high-risk group. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that IS for management of NSTEMI is not delivered according to international guidelines recommendations. Specifically, the disconnect between baseline risk and utility of IS increases with increasing risk and women achieve slower access than men to IS.

4.
Heart ; 106(1): 33-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699696

RESUMO

AIM: To define trajectories of perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and identify factors associated with trajectories. METHODS: Data on HRQoL among 9566 survivors of AMI were collected from 77 National Health Service hospitals in England between 1 November 2011 and 24 June 2015. Longitudinal HRQoL was collected using the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire measured at hospitalisation, 1, 6 and 12 months post-AMI. Trajectories of perceived HRQoL post-MI were determined using multilevel regression analysis and latent class growth analysis (LCGA). RESULTS: One or more percieved health problems in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression was reported by 69.1% (6607/9566) at hospitalisation and 59.7% (3011/5047) at 12 months. Reduced HRQoL was associated with women (-4.07, 95% CI -4.88 to -3.25), diabetes (-2.87, 95% CI -3.87 to -1.88), previous AMI (-1.60, 95% CI -2.72 to -0.48), previous angina (-1.72, 95% CI -2.77 to -0.67), chronic renal failure (-2.96, 95% CI -5.08 to -0.84; -3.10, 95% CI -5.72 to -0.49), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (-3.89, 95% CI -5.07 to -2.72) and cerebrovascular disease (-2.60, 95% CI -4.24 to -0.96). LCGA identified three subgroups of HRQoL which we labelled: improvers (68.1%), non-improvers (22.1%) and dis-improvers (9.8%). Non-improvers and dis-improvers were more likely to be women, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and have long-term health conditions, compared with improvers. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life improves for the majority of survivors of AMI but is significantly worse and more likely to decline for women, NSTEMI and those with long-term health conditions. Assessing HRQoL both in hospital and postdischarge may be important in determining which patients could benefit from tailored interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01808027 and NCT01819103.

5.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 6(1): 19-22, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511861

RESUMO

AIMS: The Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) collects data from admissions in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland with Type 1 myocardial infarction (T1 MI). The project aims to improve clinical care through the audit process and to provide powerful high-resolution data for research. METHODS AND RESULTS: MINAP collects data spanning 130 data fields covering the course of patient care, from the moment the patient calls for professional help through to hospital discharge and rehabilitation. Data are entered by clinicians and clerical staff within hospitals, and pseudonymized records are uploaded centrally to the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR), hosted by Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK. Two hundred and six hospitals submit over 92 000 new cases to MINAP annually. Approximately 1.5 million patient records are currently held in the database. Patient demographics, medical history, clinical assessment, investigations, treatments, drug therapy prior to admission, during hospital stay, and at discharge are collected. Data completeness of three key data fields (age, admission blood pressure, and heart rate) is over 91%. Vital status following hospital discharge is obtained via linkage to data from the United Kingdom Office for National Statistics. An annual report is compiled using these data, with individual hospital summary data included. Datasets are available to researchers by application to NICOR. CONCLUSION: MINAP is the largest single healthcare system heart attack registry, and includes data from hospitalizations with T1 MI in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. It includes high-resolution data across the patient pathway and is a powerful tool for quality improvement and research.

7.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(1): 149-157, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350550

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) mortality between Sweden and the UK, adjusting for background population rates of expected death, case mix, and treatments. METHODS AND RESULTS: National data were collected from hospitals in Sweden [n = 73 hospitals, 180 368 patients, Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART)] and the UK [n = 247, 662 529 patients, Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP)] between 2003 and 2013. There were lower rates of revascularization [STEMI (43.8% vs. 74.9%); NSTEMI (27.5% vs. 43.6%)] and pharmacotherapies at time of hospital discharge including [aspirin (82.9% vs. 90.2%) and (79.9% vs. 88.0%), ß-blockers (73.4% vs. 86.4%) and (65.3% vs. 85.1%)] in the UK compared with Sweden, respectively. Standardized net probability of death (NPD) between admission and 1 month was higher in the UK for STEMI [8.0 (95% confidence interval 7.4-8.5) vs. 6.7 (6.5-6.9)] and NSTEMI [6.8 (6.4-7.2) vs. 4.9 (4.7-5.0)]. Between 6 months and 1 year and more than 1 year, NPD remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI [2.9 (2.5-3.3) vs. 2.3 (2.2-2.5)] and [21.4 (20.0-22.8) vs. 18.3 (17.6-19.0)], but was similar for STEMI [0.7 (0.4-1.0) vs. 0.9 (0.7-1.0)] and [8.4 (6.7-10.1) vs. 8.3 (7.5-9.1)]. CONCLUSION: Short-term mortality following STEMI and NSTEMI was higher in the UK compared with Sweden. Mid- and longer-term mortality remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI but was similar for STEMI. Differences in mortality may be due to differential use of guideline-indicated treatments.

8.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 69-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inconsistent outcome selection and reporting in clinical trials are important sources of research waste; it is not known how common this problem is in neonatal trials. Our objective was to determine whether large clinical trials involving infants receiving neonatal care report a consistent set of outcomes, how composite outcomes are used and whether parents or former patients were involved in outcome selection. DESIGN: A literature search of CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted; randomised trials published between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2017 and involving at least 100 infants in each arm were included. Outcomes and outcome measures were extracted and categorised by physiological system; reported former patient and parent involvement in outcome selection was extracted. RESULTS: Seventy-six trials involving 43 126 infants were identified; 216 different outcomes with 889 different outcome measures were reported. Outcome reporting covered all physiological systems but was variable between individual trials: only 67/76 (88%) of trials reported survival and 639 outcome measures were only reported in a single trial. Thirty-three composite outcomes were used in 41 trials. No trials reported former patient or parent involvement in outcome selection. CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistent outcome reporting and a lack of parent and former patient involvement in outcome selection in neonatal clinical trials limits the ability of such trials to answer clinically meaningful questions. Developing and implementing a core outcome set for future neonatal trials, with input from all stakeholders, should address these issues.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
9.
Eur Heart J ; 41(1): 12-85, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820000

RESUMO

AIMS: The 2019 report from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas provides a contemporary analysis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) statistics across 56 member countries, with particular emphasis on international inequalities in disease burden and healthcare delivery together with estimates of progress towards meeting 2025 World Health Organization (WHO) non-communicable disease targets. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this report, contemporary CVD statistics are presented for member countries of the ESC. The statistics are drawn from the ESC Atlas which is a repository of CVD data from a variety of sources including the WHO, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, and the World Bank. The Atlas also includes novel ESC sponsored data on human and capital infrastructure and cardiovascular healthcare delivery obtained by annual survey of the national societies of ESC member countries. Across ESC member countries, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes has increased two- to three-fold during the last 30 years making the WHO 2025 target to halt rises in these risk factors unlikely to be achieved. More encouraging have been variable declines in hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption but on current trends only the reduction in smoking from 28% to 21% during the last 20 years appears sufficient for the WHO target to be achieved. The median age-standardized prevalence of major risk factors was higher in middle-income compared with high-income ESC member countries for hypertension {23.8% [interquartile range (IQR) 22.5-23.1%] vs. 15.7% (IQR 14.5-21.1%)}, diabetes [7.7% (IQR 7.1-10.1%) vs. 5.6% (IQR 4.8-7.0%)], and among males smoking [43.8% (IQR 37.4-48.0%) vs. 26.0% (IQR 20.9-31.7%)] although among females smoking was less common in middle-income countries [8.7% (IQR 3.0-10.8) vs. 16.7% (IQR 13.9-19.7%)]. There were associated inequalities in disease burden with disability-adjusted life years per 100 000 people due to CVD over three times as high in middle-income [7160 (IQR 5655-8115)] compared with high-income [2235 (IQR 1896-3602)] countries. Cardiovascular disease mortality was also higher in middle-income countries where it accounted for a greater proportion of potential years of life lost compared with high-income countries in both females (43% vs. 28%) and males (39% vs. 28%). Despite the inequalities in disease burden across ESC member countries, survey data from the National Cardiac Societies of the ESC showed that middle-income member countries remain severely under-resourced compared with high-income countries in terms of cardiological person-power and technological infrastructure. Under-resourcing in middle-income countries is associated with a severe procedural deficit compared with high-income countries in terms of coronary intervention, device implantation and cardiac surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: A seemingly inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes currently provides the greatest challenge to achieving further reductions in CVD burden across ESC member countries. Additional challenges are provided by inequalities in disease burden that now require intensification of policy initiatives in order to reduce population risk and prioritize cardiovascular healthcare delivery, particularly in the middle-income countries of the ESC where need is greatest.

10.
Open Heart ; 6(2): e001156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803487

RESUMO

Introduction: Use of the prehospital 12-lead ECG (PHECG) is recommended in patients presenting to emergency medical services (EMS) with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Prior research found that although PHECG use was associated with improved 30-day survival, a third of patients (typically women, the elderly and those with comorbidities) under EMS care did not receive a PHECG.The overall aim of the PHECG2 study is to update evidence on care and outcomes for patients eligible for PHECG, specifically addressing the following research questions: (1) Is there a difference in 30-day mortality, and in reperfusion rate, between those who do and those who do not receive PHECG? (2) Has the proportion of eligible patients who receive PHECG changed since the introduction of primary percutaneous coronary intervention networks? (3) Are patients that receive PHECG different from those that do not in terms of social and demographic factors, or prehospital clinical presentation? (4) What factors influence EMS clinicians' decisions to perform PHECG? Methods and analysis: This is an explanatory, mixed-method study comprising four work packages (WPs). WP1 is a population-based, linked-data analysis of a national ACS registry (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project). WP2 is a retrospective chart review of patient records from three large regional EMS. WP3 comprises focus groups of EMS personnel. WP4 will synthesise findings from WP1-3 to inform the development of an intervention to increase PHECG uptake. Ethics and dissemination: The study has been approved by the London-Hampstead Research Ethics Committee (ref: 18LO1679). Findings will be disseminated through feedback to participating EMS, conference presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number: NCT03699137.

11.
Res Synth Methods ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834675

RESUMO

Trials evaluating the same interventions rarely measure or report identical outcomes. This limits the possibility of aggregating effect sizes across studies to generate high-quality evidence through systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To address this problem, core outcome sets (COS) establish agreed sets of outcomes to be used in all future trials. When developing COS, potential outcome domains are identified by systematically reviewing the outcomes of trials, and increasingly, through primary qualitative research exploring the experiences of key stakeholders, with relevant outcome domains subsequently determined through transdisciplinary consensus development. However, the primary qualitative component can be time consuming with unclear impact. We aimed to examine the potential added value of a qualitative systematic review alongside a quantitative systematic review of trial outcomes to inform COS development in neonatal care using case analysis methods. We compared the methods and findings of a scoping review of neonatal trial outcomes and a scoping review of qualitative research on parents', patients', and professional caregivers' perspectives of neonatal care. Together, these identified a wider range and greater depth of health and social outcome domains, some unique to each review, which were incorporated into the subsequent Delphi process and informed the final set of core outcome domains. Qualitative scoping reviews of participant perspectives research, used in conjunction with quantitative scoping reviews of trials, could identify more outcome domains for consideration and could provide greater depth of understanding to inform stakeholder group discussion in COS development. This is an innovation in the application of research synthesis methods.

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319876228, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of population-based geospatial data about the association between active transport and myocardial infarction. We investigated the association between active transport to work and incidence of myocardial infarction. DESIGN: This ecological study of 325 local authorities in England included 43,077,039 employed individuals aged 25-74 years (UK Census, 2011), and 117,521 individuals with myocardial infarction (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project, 2011-2013). METHODS: Bayesian negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the association of active transport to work and incidence of myocardial infarction adjusting for local levels of deprivation, obesity, smoking, diabetes and physical activity. RESULTS: In 2011, the prevalence of active transportation to work for people in employment in England aged 25-74 years was 11.4% (4,531,182 active transporters; 8.6% walking and 2.8% cycling). Active transport in 2011 was associated with a reduced incidence of myocardial infarction in 2012 amongst men cycling to work (incidence rate ratio (95% credible interval) 0.983 (0.967-0.999); and women walking to work (0.983 (0.967-0.999)) after full adjustments. However, the prevalence of active transport for men and women was not significantly associated with the combined incidence of myocardial infarction between 2011-2013 after adjusting for physical activity, smoking and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In England, the prevalence of active transportation was associated with a reduced incidence of myocardial infarction for women walking and men cycling to work in corresponding local geographic areas. The overall association of active transport with myocardial infarction was, however, explained by local area levels of smoking, diabetes and physical activity.

13.
Trials ; 20(1): 731, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to test whether a common set of key data items reported across high-impact neonatal clinical trials could be identified, and to quantify their completeness in routinely recorded United Kingdom neonatal data held in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD). METHODS: We systematically reviewed neonatal clinical trials published in four high-impact medical journals over 10 years (2006-2015) and extracted baseline characteristics, stratification items and potential confounders used to adjust primary outcomes. Completeness was examined using data held in the NNRD for identified data items, for infants admitted to neonatal units in 2015. The NNRD is a repository of routinely recorded data extracted from neonatal Electronic Patient Records (EPR) of all admissions to National Health Service (NHS) Neonatal Units in England, Wales and Scotland. We defined missing data as an empty field or an implausible value. We reported common data items as frequencies and percentages alongside percentages of completeness. RESULTS: We identified 44 studies involving 32,095 infants and 126 data items. Fourteen data items were reported by more than 20% of studies. Gestational age (95%), sex (93%) and birth weight (91%) were the most common baseline data items. The completeness of data in the NNRD was high for these data with greater than 90% completeness found for 9 of the 14 most common items. CONCLUSION: High-impact neonatal clinical trials share common data items. In the United Kingdom, these items can be obtained at a high level of completeness from routinely recorded data held in the NNRD. The feasibility and efficiency using routinely recorded EPR data, such as that held in the NNRD, for clinical trials, rather than collecting these items anew, should be examined. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42016046138. Registered prospectively on 17 August 2016.

14.
Heart ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: International studies report a decline in mortality following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The extent to which the observed improvements in STEMI survival are explained by temporal changes in patient characteristics and utilisation of treatments is unknown. METHODS: Cohort study using national registry data from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project between first January 2004 and 30th June 2013. 232 353 survivors of hospitalisation with STEMI as recorded in 247 hospitals in England and Wales. Flexible parametric survival modelling and causal mediation analysis were used to estimate the relative contribution of temporal changes in treatments and patient characteristics on improved STEMI survival. RESULTS: Over the study period, unadjusted survival at 6 months and 1 year improved by 0.9% and 1.0% on average per year (HR: 0.991, 95% CI: 0.988 to 0.994 and HR: 0.990, 95% CI: 0.987 to 0.993, respectively). The uptake of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (HR: 1.025, 95% CI: 1.021 to 1.028) and increased prescription of P2Y12 inhibitors (HR: 1.035, 95% CI: 1.031 to 1.039) were significantly associated with improvements in 1-year survival. Primary PCI explained 16.8% (95% CI: 10.8% to 31.6%) and 13.2% (9.2% to 21.9%) of the temporal survival improvements at 6 months and 1 year, respectively, whereas P2Y12 inhibitor prescription explained 5.3% (3.6% to 8.8%) of the temporal improvements at 6 months but not at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: For STEMI in England and Wales, improvements in survival between 2004 and 2013 were significantly explained by the uptake of primary PCI and increased use of P2Y12 inhibitors at 6 months and primary PCI only at 1 year. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03749694.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal research evaluates many different outcomes using multiple measures. This can prevent synthesis of trial results in meta-analyses, and selected outcomes may not be relevant to former patients, parents and health professionals. OBJECTIVE: To define a core outcome set (COS) for research involving infants receiving neonatal care in a high-income setting. DESIGN: Outcomes reported in neonatal trials and qualitative studies were systematically reviewed. Stakeholders were recruited for a three-round international Delphi survey. A consensus meeting was held to confirm the final COS, based on the survey results. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and fourteen former patients, parents, healthcare professionals and researchers took part in the eDelphi survey; 173 completed all three rounds. Sixteen stakeholders participated in the consensus meeting. RESULTS: The literature reviews identified 104 outcomes; these were included in round 1. Participants proposed 10 additional outcomes; 114 outcomes were scored in rounds 2 and 3. Round 1 scores showed different stakeholder groups prioritised contrasting outcomes. Twelve outcomes were included in the final COS: survival, sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis, brain injury on imaging, general gross motor ability, general cognitive ability, quality of life, adverse events, visual impairment/blindness, hearing impairment/deafness, retinopathy of prematurity and chronic lung disease/bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A COS for clinical trials and other research studies involving infants receiving neonatal care in a high-income setting has been identified. This COS for neonatology will help standardise outcome selection in clinical trials and ensure these are relevant to those most affected by neonatal care.

16.
Australas J Ageing ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A recent North American study reported seasonal differences in cognitive functioning in older adults. We assessed seasonality of cognitive functioning in a large data set of older adults in New Zealand. METHODS: The International Residential Assessment Instrument-Home Care (interRAI-HC) data set was analysed using a non-parametric method for testing seasonal distribution of cognitive and depression scale scores. RESULTS: Participants were 73 285 New Zealanders 65 years and older who completed their first interRAI-HC assessment (mean age, 81.4 years; 57% female). We analysed this sample cross-tabulating season (summer, autumn, winter and spring) and the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) score (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.45). Month-by-month CPS scores also demonstrated no variation (Spearman's test, P = 0.96). There was no association between season of assessment and the Depression Rating Scale score, ruling out variability in affect impacting on cognitive performance (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.99). CONCLUSION: Our findings, limited to the Southern Hemisphere, demonstrate a lack of seasonality in cognitive performance and impairment in older adults.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(17): 2204-2215, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648714

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) often coexist as they share multiple risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. Although there is irrefutable evidence supporting anticoagulation in AF in the general population, these data may not be transferable to the setting of advanced CKD, where the decision to commence anticoagulation poses a conundrum. In this cohort, there is a progressively increased risk of both ischemic stroke and hemorrhage as renal function declines, complicating the decision to initiate anticoagulation. No definitive clinical guidelines derived from randomized controlled trials exist to aid clinical decision-making, and the findings from observational studies are conflicting. In this review, the authors outline the pathophysiological mechanisms at play and summarize the limited existing data related to anticoagulation in those with concomitant CKD and AF. Finally, the authors suggest how to approach the decision of whether and how to use oral anticoagulation in these patients.

18.
BMJ ; 367: l5678, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if postnatal transfer or birth in a non-tertiary hospital is associated with adverse outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study with propensity score matching. SETTING: National health service neonatal care in England; population data held in the National Neonatal Research Database. PARTICIPANTS: Extremely preterm infants born at less than 28 gestational weeks between 2008 and 2015 (n=17 577) grouped based on birth hospital and transfer within 48 hours of birth: upward transfer (non-tertiary to tertiary hospital, n=2158), non-tertiary care (born in non-tertiary hospital; not transferred, n=2668), and controls (born in tertiary hospital; not transferred, n=10 866). Infants were matched on propensity scores and predefined background variables to form subgroups with near identical distributions of confounders. Infants transferred between tertiary hospitals (horizontal transfer) were separately matched to controls in a 1:5 ratio. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death, severe brain injury, and survival without severe brain injury. RESULTS: 2181 infants, 727 from each group (upward transfer, non-tertiary care, and control) were well matched. Compared with controls, infants in the upward transfer group had no significant difference in the odds of death before discharge (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.61) but significantly higher odds of severe brain injury (2.32, 1.78 to 3.06; number needed to treat (NNT) 8) and significantly lower odds of survival without severe brain injury (0.60, 0.47 to 0.76; NNT 9). Compared with controls, infants in the non-tertiary care group had significantly higher odds of death (1.34, 1.02 to 1.77; NNT 20) but no significant difference in the odds of severe brain injury (0.95, 0.70 to 1.30) or survival without severe brain injury (0.82, 0.64 to 1.05). Compared with infants in the upward transfer group, infants in the non-tertiary care group had no significant difference in death before discharge (1.10, 0.84 to 1.44) but significantly lower odds of severe brain injury (0.41, 0.31 to 0.53; NNT 8) and significantly higher odds of survival without severe brain injury (1.37, 1.09 to 1.73; NNT 14). No significant differences were found in outcomes between the horizontal transfer group (n=305) and controls (n=1525). CONCLUSIONS: In extremely preterm infants, birth in a non-tertiary hospital and transfer within 48 hours are associated with poor outcomes when compared with birth in a tertiary setting. We recommend perinatal services promote pathways that facilitate delivery of extremely preterm infants in tertiary hospitals in preference to postnatal transfer.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Salas de Parto , Doenças do Prematuro , Transferência de Pacientes , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Salas de Parto/classificação , Salas de Parto/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Masculino , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Australas Psychiatry ; : 1039856219878645, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Euthanasia has been considered unethical for most of the history of medicine. Recently it has been legalised in some countries, including parts of Australasia. We describe the recent history of euthanasia, paying attention to the extension of criteria that impact on the poor, elderly and vulnerable members of society in countries that currently have legalised this. In four of the five countries where euthanasia is legalised, there have been extensions of its criteria, either by revision of legislation or changes in practice. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that this dynamic can be halted by international agreements of medical societies to shun involvement in euthanasia, as has been the case with other legal interventions that stigmatise. We may, as we have in the past, need to work collectively to meet this ethical challenge.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605146

RESUMO

AIMS: The European Society of cardiology (ESC) EURObservational Research Programme (EORP) Chronic Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease registry Long Term (CICD) aims to study the clinical profile, treatment modalities and outcomes of patients diagnosed with CICD in a contemporary environment in order to assess whether these patients at high cardiovascular risk are treated according to ESC guidelines on prevention or on stable coronary disease and to determine mid and long term outcomes and their determinants in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: 9174 patients over 18 years with documented CICD defined by an history acute coronary syndrome with/without ST elevation, previous coronary revascularization or stable coronary artery disease were enrolled between May 1st 2015 and July 31st 2018.Individual patient data on clinical profile, biology and treatment modalities were collected across 154 centers from 20 ESC countries.A two years follow up is scheduled in order to determine the following clinical outcomes: all cause and cardio-vascular (CV) death, all cause and cardio-vascular hospitalizations, changes in medications and quality of life using the EuroQol5D-5L score. CONCLUSION: The CICD Long Term is an international registry of care and outcomes of patients hospitalised with Chronic Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease which will provide insights into the contemporary profile and management of patients with this common disease.

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