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5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262139

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prediction models for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are useful, but have considerable inaccuracy and imprecision. No current model includes covariates related to immune cells in the AML microenvironment. Here, an immune risk score was explored to predict the survival of patients with AML. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated the predictive accuracy of several in silico algorithms for immune composition in AML based on a reference of multi-parameter flow cytometry. CIBERSORTx was chosen to enumerate immune cells from public datasets and develop an immune risk score for survival in a training cohort using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox regression model. RESULTS: Six flow cytometry-validated immune cell features were informative. The model had high predictive accuracy in the training and four external validation cohorts. Subjects in the training cohort with low scores had prolonged survival compared with subjects with high scores, with 5-year survival rates of 46% versus 19% (P < 0.001). Parallel survival rates in validation cohorts-1, -2, -3, and -4 were 46% versus 6% (P < 0.001), 44% versus 18% (P = 0.041), 44% versus 24% (P = 0.004), and 62% versus 32% (P < 0.001). Gene set enrichment analysis indicated significant enrichment of immune relation pathways in the low-score cohort. In multivariable analyses, high-risk score independently predicted shorter survival with HRs of 1.45 (P = 0.005), 2.12 (P = 0.004), 2.02 (P = 0.034), 1.66 (P = 0.019), and 1.59 (P = 0.001) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our immune risk score complements current AML prediction models.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the visibility of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCA) lesions on the sequences multiparametric MRI of the prostate (mpMRI) and to evaluate whether the addition of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) improves the overall visibility. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated multiparametric MRI images of 119 lesions in 111 patients with biopsy-proven clinically significant PCA. Three readers assigned visual grading scores for visibility on each sequence, and a visual grading characteristic analysis was performed. Linear regression was used to explore which factors contributed to visibility in individual sequences. RESULTS: The visibility of lesions was significantly better with mpMRI when compared to biparametric MRI in visual grading characteristic (VGC) analysis, with an AUCVGC of 0.62 (95% CI 0.55-0.69; p < 0.001). This benefit was seen across all readers. Multivariable linear regression revealed that a location in the peripheral zone was associated with better visibility on T2-weighted imaging (T2w). A higher Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score was associated with better visibility on both diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and DCE. Increased lesion size was associated with better visibility on all sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Visibility of clinically significant PCA is improved by using mpMRI. DCE and DWI images independently improve lesion visibility compared to T2w images alone. Further research into the potential of DCE to impact on clinical decision-making is suggested. KEY POINTS: • DCE and DWI images independently improve clinically significant prostate cancer lesion visibility compared to T2w images alone. • Multiparametric MRI (DCE, DWI, T2w) achieved significantly higher visibility scores than biparametric MRI (DWI, T2w). • Location in the transition zone is associated with poor visibility on T2w, while it did not affect visibility on DWI or DCE.

8.
Acta Haematol ; : 1-2, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161397
10.
Blood Rev ; : 100773, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213985

RESUMO

The World Health Organization classification and definition of "myeloid sarcoma" is imprecise and misleading. A more accurate term is "extramedullary acute myeloid leukemia tumor (eAML)." The pathogenesis of eAML has been associated with aberrancy of cellular adhesion molecules, chemokine receptors/ligands and RAS-MAPK/ERK signaling. eAML can present with or without synchronous or metachronous intramedullary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) so a bone marrow evaluation is always recommended. Accurate diagnosis of eAML requires tissue biopsy. eAML confined to one or a few sites is frequently treated with local therapy such as radiotherapy. About 75-90% of patients with isolated eAML will develop metachronous intramedullary AML with a median latency period ranging from 4 to 12 months; thus, patients with isolated eAML may also be treated with systemic anti-leukemia therapy. eAML does not appear to have an independent prognostic impact; selection of post-remission therapy including allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHCT) is typically guided by intramedullary disease risk. Management of isolated eAML should be individualized based on patient characteristics as well as eAML location and cytogenetic/molecular features. The role of PET/CT in eAML is also currently being elucidated. Improving outcomes of patients with eAML requires further knowledge of its etiology and mechanism(s) as well as therapeutic approaches beyond conventional chemotherapy, ideally in the context of controlled trials.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249425

RESUMO

Recent therapy advances for haematological cancers including new drugs and targeted and immune therapies raise the question whether there is a future for haematopoietic cell transplants. Although encouraging, the survival improvements achieved with these new modalities in persons who might otherwise receive a transplant are modest. Furthermore, these modalities are likely to be complementary, not competitive. For example, randomised trials in multiple myeloma, the most common transplants, indicate an ongoing role for transplant despite new anti-myeloma drugs. Targeted therapies in myeloid cancers are estimated to be effective in only about 10 percent of persons with these cancers. The potential impact of current immune therapies on transplant activity is also limited because: (1) they predominately target B-cell rather than myeloid cancers; (2) many successful immune therapy recipients subsequently receive a transplant; (3) considerable data indicate much of the efficacy of allotransplants results from allogeneic rather than cancer-specific immunity not expected to operate with current immune therapies; and (4) they are at an early development stage with unknown long-term safety and efficacy. These data suggest an ongoing role for haematopoietic cell transplants in diverse haematological and genetic disorders.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 191(3): 442-452, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094839

RESUMO

We studied 2,528 patients with upfront autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) from 2008-2017 to develop a prognostic model to predict outcomes. High-risk cytogenetics included t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), del13q on karyotype, del17p, +1q or 1pdel. A Cox model identified factors prognostic of progression/relapse in a training subset (n = 1,246). A weighted score using these factors was assigned to a validation cohort (n = 774). Presence of high-risk cytogenetics [hazard ratio, (HR) 1·68 (1·3-2·17)] and pre-AHCT bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) ≥10% [1·68 (1·33-2·12)] were assigned 4 points each; albumin at diagnosis <3·5 g/dl [1·31 (1·07-1·61)] 2; standard risk cytogenetics 1, and no cytogenetics abnormality, BMPCs <10% at AHCT and albumin ≥3·5 g/dl at diagnosis 0 points each. A three-category system with low risk (0-3), intermediate risk (4-8) and high risk (9-10) showed 3-year progression-free survival in the low vs. intermediate vs. high risk of 58% (95% CI: 52-63) vs. 49% (95% CI: 43-56) vs. 31% (95% CI: 12-51), P < 0.001 respectively, and 3-year OS in low vs. intermediate vs. high risk of 88% (95% CI: 84-91) vs. 81% (95% CI: 76-86) vs. 64% (95% CI: 39-80); P < 0·001. Our prognostic scoring system can identify MM patients at risk for early relapse after AHCT.

13.
Blood Adv ; 4(19): 4748-4757, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007075

RESUMO

Comparative outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for BCR-ABL1- myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in blast phase (MPN-BP) vs de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and AML with prior myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs; post-MDS AML), are unknown. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we compared HCT outcomes in 177 MPN-BP patients with 4749 patients with de novo AML, and 1104 patients with post-MDS AML, using multivariate regression analysis in 2 separate comparisons. In a multivariate Cox model, no difference in overall survival (OS) or relapse was observed in patients with MPN-BP vs de novo AML with active leukemia at HCT. Patients with MPN-BP in remission had inferior OS in comparison with de novo AML in remission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.76]) due to higher relapse rate (HR, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.69-2.80]). MPN-BP patients had inferior OS (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.00-1.43]) and increased relapse (HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.31-1.96]) compared with post-MDS AML. Poor-risk cytogenetics were associated with increased relapse in both comparisons. Peripheral blood grafts were associated with decreased relapse in MPN-BP and post-MDS AML (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was similar between MPN-BP vs de novo AML, and MPN-BP vs post-MDS AML. Total-body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning was associated with higher NRM in both comparisons. Survival of MPN-BP after HCT is inferior to de novo AML in remission and post-MDS AML due to increased relapse. Relapse-prevention strategies are required to optimize HCT outcomes in MPN-BP.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myeloablative (MAC) as compared to reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is generally associated with lower risk of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), particularly with presence of pre-HCT measurable residual disease. However, other disease specific risk factors in AML and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) can further inform when MAC vs. RIC may yield differential clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed AML and MDS HCT outcomes stratified by the disease risk index (DRI) to identify the impact of transplant conditioning intensity. STUDY DESIGN: Using the CIBMTR database we studied 4387 adult patients (age 40-65 years) receiving HCT (2009-2015) for AML (68%) or MDS (32%) with low/intermediate risk (1539 MAC and 999 RIC) and high/very high risk (1121 MAC and 728 RIC). Non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse probabilities were calculated using cumulative incidence estimator. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to conduct the multivariable analyses. RESULTS: In the low/intermediate risk DRI cohort, RIC was associated with lower risk of NRM (HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.88; p<0.001), but significantly higher risk of relapse (HR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.35-1.76; p<0.001) with inferior DFS (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.33; p = 0.001). In the high/very high risk DRI cohort, RIC resulted in borderline lower NRM (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-1.00; p = 0.051), and significantly higher risk of relapse (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41; p = 0.002) leading to similar DFS using RIC (HR 1.07 (0.96-1.19), p = 0.24) or MAC. CONCLUSION: These data support MAC over RIC as the preferred conditioning intensity for AML/MDS in 40-65-years-old patients with low/intermediate risk DRI, but similar clinical benefit to RIC in high/very high risk DRI. Novel MAC regimens with less toxicity could benefit all, but particularly the high/very high risk DRI group.

16.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 17(7): 658-666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current conventional cognitive assessments are limited in their efficiency and sensitivity, often relying on a single score such as the total correct items. Typically, multiple features of response go uncaptured. OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore a new set of automatically derived features from the Digit Span (DS) task that address some of the drawbacks in the conventional scoring and are also useful for distinguishing subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from those with intact cognition. METHODS: Audio-recordings of the DS tests administered to 85 subjects (22 MCI and 63 healthy controls, mean age 90.2 years) were transcribed using an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system. Next, five correctness measures were generated from Levenshtein distance analysis of responses: number correct, incorrect, deleted, inserted, and substituted words compared to the test item. These per-item features were aggregated across all test items for both Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) tasks using summary statistical functions, constructing a global feature vector representing the detailed assessment of each subject's response. A support vector machine classifier distinguished MCI from cognitively intact participants. RESULTS: Conventional DS scores did not differentiate MCI participants from controls. The automated multi-feature DS-derived metric achieved 73% on AUC-ROC of the SVM classifier, independent of additional clinical features (77% when combined with demographic features of subjects); well above chance, 50%. CONCLUSION: Our analysis verifies the effectiveness of introduced measures, solely derived from the DS task, in the context of differentiating subjects with MCI from those with intact cognition.

17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6111-6114, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019365

RESUMO

This study describes a fully automated method of expressive language assessment based on vocal responses of children to a sentence repetition task (SRT), a language test that taps into core language skills. Our proposed method automatically transcribes the vocal responses using a test-specific automatic speech recognition system. From the transcriptions, a regression model predicts the gold standard test scores provided by speech-language pathologists. Our preliminary experimental results on audio recordings of 104 children (43 with typical development and 61 with a neurodevelopmental disorder) verifies the feasibility of the proposed automatic method for predicting gold standard scores on this language test, with averaged mean absolute error of 6.52 (on a observed score range from 0 to 90 with a mean value of 49.56) between observed and predicted ratings.Clinical relevance-We describe the use of fully automatic voice-based scoring in language assessment including the clinical impact this development may have on the field of speech-language pathology. The automated test also creates a technological foundation for the computerization of a broad array of tests for voice-based language assessment.


Assuntos
Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Voz , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem
18.
Leukemia ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077866

RESUMO

Safety and efficacy of allogeneic anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in persons with CD19-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) relapsing after an allotransplant remain unclear. Forty-three subjects with B-ALL relapsing post allotransplant received CAR-T cells were analyzed. 34 (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66, 92%) achieved complete histological remission (CR). Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) occurred in 38 (88%; 78, 98%) and was ≥grade-3 in 7. Two subjects died from multiorgan failure and CRS. Nine subjects (21%; 8, 34%) developed ≤grade-2 immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). Two subjects developed ≤grade-2 acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). 1-year event-free survival (EFS) and survival was 43% (25, 62%). In 32 subjects with a complete histological remission without a second transplant, 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 41% (25, 62%) and 1-year EFS and survival, 59% (37, 81%). Therapy of B-ALL subjects relapsing post transplant with donor-derived CAR-T cells is safe and effective but associated with a high rate of CRS. Outcomes seem comparable to those achieved with alternative therapies but data from a randomized trial are lacking.

19.
Leukemia ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077870

RESUMO

East Asians, Asian Indians and Amerindians have a five to ten-fold lower age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) compared with persons of predominately European descent. The data we review suggest a genetic rather than environmental basis for this discordance. All these populations arose from a common African Black ancestor but different clades have different admixture with archaic hominins including Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo erectus, which may explain different CLL incidences. There are also some differences in clinical laboratory and molecular co-variates of CLL between these populations. Because the true age-adjusted incidence rate in African Blacks is unknown it is not possible to determine whether modern Europeans acquired susceptibility to CLL or the other populations lost susceptibility and/or developed resistance to developing CLL. We also found other B-cell lymphomas and T- and NK-cell cancers had different incidences in the populations we studied. These data provide clues to determining the cause(s) of CLL.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic disrupted medical care for persons with cancer including those with lymphoma. Many professional societies recommend postponing, decreasing, or stopping anti-cancer therapy in selected persons during the pandemic. Although seemingly sensible, these recommendations are not evidence-based and their impact on anxiety and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) is unknown. METHODS: We surveyed 2532 subjects including 1060 persons with lymphoma, 948 caregivers, and 524 normals using a purposed-designed questionnaire on a patient organization website. Respondents also completed the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and patient respondents, the EORTC QLQ-C30 instruments to quantify anxiety, and HRQoL. We also evaluated caregiver support and an online education programme of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO). Data of HRQoL from a 2019 pre-pandemic online survey of 1106 persons with lymphoma were a control. RESULTS: 33% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30, 36%) of lymphoma patients and 31% (28, 34%) of caregivers but only 21% (17, 24%) of normals had any level of anxiety (both pair-wise P < 0.001). Among lymphoma respondents, physical exercise and better caregiver support were associated with less anxiety, whereas female sex, receiving therapy, and reduced therapy intensity were associated with more anxiety. Paradoxically, lymphoma respondents during the pandemic had better HRQoL than pre-pandemic controls. Reduced therapy intensity was associated with worse HRQoL, whereas respondents who scored caregiver support and the online patient education programme high had better HRQoL. CONCLUSION: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, lymphoma patients and their caregivers had significantly higher incidences of anxiety compared with normals. Lymphoma respondents reported better HRQoL compared with pre-pandemic controls. Reduced therapy intensity in persons with cancer may have unanticipated adverse effects on anxiety and HRQoL. Regular and intense support by caregivers and online education programmes alleviate anxiety and improve HRQoL.

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