Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
1.
Regen Med ; 16(4): 347-357, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834843

RESUMO

Background: Stem cells offer great hope and promise as a potential treatment for human diseases. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the public perception of stem cells for neurological conditions. Materials & methods: A paper-based questionnaire was administered to all attendees of a free, public stem cell forum. Results: Of 203 respondents, >95% believe that stem cells have the potential to treat neurological conditions. There was also high support (92%) for the use of embryonic/fetally derived cells, and 67% of respondents indicated a high likelihood to participate in a clinical trial of stem cell treatment(s), indicating overall support for research and translation. Conclusion: Our data demonstrates a positive perception of stem cell treatments for neurological conditions in our cohort.

2.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cerebral oxygenation (cTOI) and cerebral perfusion in preterm infants in supine versus prone positions. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty preterm infants, born before 32 weeks gestation, were enrolled; 30 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, defined as the need for respiratory support and/or supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks post menstrual age). Cerebral perfusion, cTOI and polysomnography was measured in both the supine and prone position with the initial position being randomized. Infants with a major intra-ventricular hemorrhage or major congenital abnormality were excluded. RESULTS: Cerebral perfusion was unaffected by position or BPD status. In the BPD group, the mean cTOI was higher in the prone position as compared with the supine position by a difference of 3.27% (P = .03; 95% CI: 6.28 to 0.25) with no difference seen in the no-BPD group. For the BPD group, the burden of cerebral hypoxemia (cumulative time spent with cTOI < 55%) was significantly lower in the prone position (23%) compared with the supine position (29%) (p < 0.001). In those without BPD, position had no effect on cTOI. CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants with BPD, the prone position improved cerebral oxygenation and reduced cerebral hypoxemia. These findings may have implications for positioning practices. Further research will establish the impact of position on short and long-term developmental outcomes.

3.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reorientation programmes have been an important component of neurotrauma rehabilitation for adults who suffer from post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, research testing the efficacy of acute programmes is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if it is feasible to provide a standardized environmental reorientation programme to adults suffering from PTA after TBI in an acute care hospital setting, and whether it is likely to be beneficial. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 40 participants suffering from PTA after TBI were included. The control group received usual care; the experimental group received usual care plus a standardized orientation programme inclusive of environmental cues. The primary outcome measure was time to emergence from PTA measured by the Westmead PTA Scale, assessed daily from hospital admission or on regaining consciousness. RESULTS: Adherence to the orientation programme was high, and there were no study-related adverse responses to the environmental orientation programme. Although there were no statistically significant between-group differences in time to emergence, the median time to emergence was shorter for those who received the standardized reorientation programme (9.0 (6.4-11.6) versus 13.0 (4.5-21.5) days). Multivariate analysis showed that the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at scene (P = 0.041) and GCS at arrival at hospital (P = 0.0001) were significant factors contributing to the longer length of PTA. CONCLUSION: Providing an orientation programme in acute care is feasible for adults suffering from PTA after TBI. A future efficacy trial would require 216 participants to detect a between-group difference of 5 days with an alpha of 0.05 and a power of 80%.


Assuntos
Amnésia/etiologia , Amnésia/reabilitação , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Orientação , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitória
4.
Clin J Pain ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore then validate the factor structure of the Pain Assessment Tool (PAT). METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed of all infants who were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between 2008-2018 and had one PAT assessment (n=2111). Scores on items of the PAT were collected. Infants were randomised to either the Principal Components Analysis (n=1100) to explore the factor structure or Confirmatory Factor Analysis (n=1011). RESULTS: Infants in the two samples were demographically comparable. A two-factor model, consisting of factors Behavioural and Physiological Pain Measures, was extracted, explaining 39.8% of the total variance. There was a low inter-factor correlation (r=0.12), and both Behavioural (r=0.59) and Physiological Pain (r=0.37) Measures factor scores were correlated with nurses' perception of pain scores. When the frequencies in the Gestational age at birth categories were compared between upper and lower quartile score infants, there was more with pain at preterm than at term (χ2(3)=44.9, P<0.001) for the Physiological Pain Measures factor, whereas Behavioural Pain Measures frequency was higher at term than at preterm (χ2(3)=8.1, P<0.043). A similar pattern was observed for Postmenstrual age at assessment categories: Behavioural Pain Measures (χ2(3)=41.8, P<0.001), Physiological Pain Measures (χ2(3)=46.1, P<0.001). The two-factor correlated model performed better at explaining the observed variances: (χ2(13)=41.6, P<0.001) compared to rival models. DISCUSSION: The PAT assesses both Behavioural Pain and Physiological Pain Measures, and these dimensions need to be considered separately when assessing pain in infants in the NICU. Behavioural item scores may be insufficient for detecting pain in premature infants if used alone.

5.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 63, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited research exists to guide clinical decisions about trialling, selecting, implementing and evaluating eye-gaze control technology. This paper reports on the outcomes of a Delphi study that was conducted to build international stakeholder consensus to inform decision making about trialling and implementing eye-gaze control technology with people with cerebral palsy. METHODS: A three-round online Delphi survey was conducted. In Round 1, 126 stakeholders responded to questions identified through an international stakeholder Advisory Panel and systematic reviews. In Round 2, 63 respondents rated the importance of 200 statements generated by in Round 1. In Round 3, 41 respondents rated the importance of the 105 highest ranked statements retained from Round 2. RESULTS: Stakeholders achieved consensus on 94 of the original 200 statements. These statements related to person factors, support networks, the environment, and technical aspects to consider during assessment, trial, implementation and follow-up. Findings reinforced the importance of an individualised approach and that information gathered from the user, their support network and professionals are central when measuring outcomes. Information required to support an application for funding was obtained. CONCLUSION: This Delphi study has identified issues which are unique to eye-gaze control technology and will enhance its implementation with people with cerebral palsy.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Fixação Ocular , Tecnologia/instrumentação , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Aust Crit Care ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental care consists of a range of clinical, infant-focused, and family-focused interventions designed to modify the neonatal intensive care environment and caregiving practices to reduce stressors on the developing brain. Since the inception of developmental care in the early 1980s, it has been recommended and adopted globally as a component of routine practice for neonatal care. Despite its application for almost 40 y, little is known of the attitude of neonatal nurses in Australia towards the intervention. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to establish Australian neonatal nurse perceptions of developmental care and explore associations between developmental care education levels of the nurses and personal beliefs in the application of developmental care. DESIGN: This involves a cross-sectional survey design. METHODS: An online questionnaire was completed by 171 neonatal nurses. Participants were members of the Australian College of Neonatal Nursing (n = 783). Covariate associations between key components of developmental care and respondents' geographical location, place of employment, professional qualifications, and developmental care education level were analysed. The reporting of this study is in accordance with the Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys. RESULTS: Differences were observed between groups for geographical location, place of employment, and professional qualification level. Rural nurses were less likely to support the provision of skin-to-skin care (odds ratio [OR]: 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2-1.8) than nurses in a metropolitsan unit. Nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit and nurses with postgraduate qualifications were more likely to support parental involvement in care ([OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 0.9-6.2] and [OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 0.6-7.4], respectively). Rural respondents were more likely to have attended off-site education (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-9.9) than metropolitan respondents. CONCLUSION: The application of developmental care in Australia may be influenced by inadequate resources and inequitable access to educational resources, and similar challenges have been reported in other countries. Overcoming the challenges requires a focused education strategy and support within and beyond the neonatal intensive care unit.

7.
Eur J Pain ; 24(9): 1822-1830, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was (a) to statistically identify distinct trajectories of pain following surgery in infants less than 6 months of age, and (b) to compare these trajectories to descriptions of chronic pain in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective medical record review of infants admitted to a NICU between 2008 and 2018 following surgery. All infants who underwent one major procedure to the abdomen or thorax and returned to the NICU following surgery were included. Pain was assessed regularly using a validated Pain Assessment Tool. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to determine the trajectory of recovery from pain following surgery. RESULTS: A total of 726 infants were included in the study. A two-group trajectory model, defined as typical and atypical pain trajectories, was selected. The typical group (n = 467) consisted of infants who had significantly fewer days (1.5 ± 2.3 vs 5.3 ± 5.5, p < .001) and recorded instances of pain (2.0 ± 3.4 vs 9.7 ± 10.5, p < .001) compared to infants in the atypical group (n = 259). The incidence of iatrogenic neonatal abstinence syndrome was greater in the atypical than the typical group (11% vs 5%, p = .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study has revealed two distinct pain trajectories in infants after surgery. While recovery from pain occurs within days in the typical group, the atypical group demonstrates pain for a significantly longer period, often weeks and months following surgery. This latter group adheres closely to current descriptions of chronic pain in infants.

8.
J Child Neurol ; 35(11): 773-783, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516012

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Placental pathology may be an important missing link in the causal pathway of perinatal stroke. The study aim was to systematically review the literature regarding the role of the placenta in perinatal stroke. MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases were searched from 2000 to 2019. Studies were selected based on predefined criteria. To enable comparisons, placental abnormalities were coded using Redline's classification. RESULTS: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Less than a quarter of stroke cases had placental pathology reported. Placental abnormalities were more common among children with perinatal stroke than in the control group. The most frequent placental abnormality was Redline's category 2 (thrombo-inflammatory process). CONCLUSIONS: Placental abnormalities appear to be associated with perinatal stroke, supporting additional indirect evidence and biological plausibility of a causative role. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously considering the low frequency of placental examination and lack of uniformity in placental pathology reporting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Registration no: CRD42017081256.

9.
Vox Sang ; 115(8): 712-721, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In anaemic preterm infants who receive packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions, changes to mesenteric tissue oxygenation and perfusion have been reported using a restrictive haemoglobin (Hb)-based threshold. We aimed to investigate changes to hepatic tissue oxygenation and abdominal blood flow after PRBC transfusion and its association with enteral feeding using a liberal Hb threshold (as shown inTable1). [Table: see text] MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively studied a cohort of preterm infants born at < 32 weeks' gestation who received at least one PRBC transfusion and monitored them immediately before (Time 1), immediately after (Time 2) and 24 hours after transfusion (Time 3). Data obtained included physiological parameters, the hepatic tissue oxygenation index and pulsed Doppler ultrasound measurements in the abdominal arterial circulation. Additionally, the effects of withholding enteral feeds were investigated. RESULTS: We monitored 50 PRBC transfusion episodes in 40 preterm infants, in whom the mean gestational age was 26.72 weeks (±1.6 weeks) and the mean birth weight was 855.25 g (±190.7 g). We observed significant changes to pulsed Doppler measurements in abdominal arterial circulation (coeliac artery mean peak systolic velocity Time 2 [75.08 cm/sec] versus Time 3 [71.13 cm/sec]; mean end-diastolic velocity Time 2 [15.71 cm/sec] versus Time 3 [13.76 cm/sec]; mean resistive index Time 2 0.78 versus Time 3 0.80, right renal artery mean peak systolic velocity Time 1 58.28 cm/sec versus Time 2 50.97 cm/sec, left renal artery mean peak systolic velocity Time 1 49.20 cm/sec versus Time 2 45.40 cm/sec), but not to hepatic tissue oxygenation after PRBC transfusion (Time 1 mean 53.66 [SD, 13.34]; Time 2 mean 54.93 [SD, 9.3]; Time 3 mean 55.64 [SD, 12.86]). There were no changes to hepatic tissue oxygenation or mesenteric blood flow from withholding enteral feeds during PRBC transfusion. There were no local adverse effects from hepatic tissue oxygenation monitoring. CONCLUSION: In mildly anaemic preterm infants, when allowing a liberal Hb threshold-based trigger for PRBC transfusion, changes in abdominal arterial circulation were present, but not in hepatic tissue oxygenation. Withholding enteral feeds during PRBC transfusion had no impact on hepatic tissue oxygenation or mesenteric flows.

10.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 67(3): 269-280, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neuroplasticity is harnessed through high-intensity or high-dose training. Given the costs and time burden for families of children with cerebral palsy (CP), it is important to quantify which rehabilitation training approaches and doses confer the largest clinical gain. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine any threshold dose of upper limb training needed for children with CP to achieve clinically significant functional improvements. METHODS: This systematic review included studies if they were as follows: randomised controlled trials; participants had a diagnosis of CP or brain injury; mean age of participants was 0-18 years; and intervention was an active upper limb training intervention. Two raters independently extracted data. Data were pooled and analysed using a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and odds ratios to investigate the dose of practice that led to clinically significant gains. RESULTS: A total of 74 trials were included in this review. Quantitative analyses included 25 studies (707 participants; age range 18 months to 21 years) for motor function (Assisting Hand Assessment) and 20 studies (491 participants; age range 3 months to 17 years) for individual goal achievement (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure). ROC curve analyses found that approximately 40 hr of practice is needed to improve upper limb motor ability in the unilateral population. For all typographies of CP, individual goals were achieved at a lower dose (14-25 hr) of practice when goal-directed interventions were provided. CONCLUSION: To improve individual goals, children need to practice goals for more than 14-25 hr, combining face-to-face therapy with home practice. To improve general upper limb function (based on evidence in the unilateral population), children need to practice for more than 30-40 hr. Interventions that set functional goals and involve actual practice of those goals lead to goal achievement at a lower dose than general upper limb motor training.

11.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(6): 495-501, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169955

RESUMO

AIM: The inverse care law suggests that those with the greatest need for services are least likely to receive them. Our aim of this study was to test the inverse care law in relation to the use of health services by children aged 4-5 years in Australia who were developmentally vulnerable and socioeconomically disadvantaged. METHOD: Cross-sectional data were collected from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children birth cohort when the children were aged 4-5 years. Children were grouped according to the combination of developmental vulnerability (yes, no) and socioeconomic disadvantage (lower, higher), resulting in four groups (reference group: developmentally vulnerable and disadvantaged). Multivariate regression was used to examine the impact of the combination of developmental vulnerability and disadvantage on health service use, adjusting for other sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: 3967 (90%) of children had data on developmental vulnerability at 4-5 years. A third of children (32.6%) were classified as developmentally vulnerable, and 10%-25% of these children had used health services. Non-disadvantaged children who were developmentally vulnerable (middle need) had 1.4-2.0 times greater odds of using primary healthcare, specialist and hospital services; and non-disadvantaged children who were not developmentally vulnerable (lowest need) had 1.6-1.8 times greater odds of using primary healthcare services, compared with children who were developmentally vulnerable and disadvantaged (highest need). CONCLUSION: We found some evidence of the inverse care law. Equity in service delivery remains a challenge that is critically important to tackle in ensuring a healthy start for children.

12.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 20(2): 3, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086598

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood, but the rate is falling, and severity is lessening. We conducted a systematic overview of best available evidence (2012-2019), appraising evidence using GRADE and the Evidence Alert Traffic Light System and then aggregated the new findings with our previous 2013 findings. This article summarizes the best available evidence interventions for preventing and managing cerebral palsy in 2019. RECENT FINDINGS: Effective prevention strategies include antenatal corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, caffeine, and neonatal hypothermia. Effective allied health interventions include acceptance and commitment therapy, action observations, bimanual training, casting, constraint-induced movement therapy, environmental enrichment, fitness training, goal-directed training, hippotherapy, home programs, literacy interventions, mobility training, oral sensorimotor, oral sensorimotor plus electrical stimulation, pressure care, stepping stones triple P, strength training, task-specific training, treadmill training, partial body weight support treadmill training, and weight-bearing. Effective medical and surgical interventions include anti-convulsants, bisphosphonates, botulinum toxin, botulinum toxin plus occupational therapy, botulinum toxin plus casting, diazepam, dentistry, hip surveillance, intrathecal baclofen, scoliosis correction, selective dorsal rhizotomy, and umbilical cord blood cell therapy. We have provided guidance about what works and what does not to inform decision-making, and highlighted areas for more research.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Paralisia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Paralisia Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Paralisia Cerebral/cirurgia , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Criança , Humanos
13.
J Pediatr ; 219: 111-117.e1, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term developmental and behavioral outcomes in an established cohort of children hospitalized as infants with human parechovirus (HPeV) infection and sepsis-like illness. STUDY DESIGN: The HPeV cohort was composed of children 3 years of age after HPeV infection and hospitalization in early infancy that occurred during a well-documented HPeV genotype 3 outbreak in Australia. We assessed neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and the Child Behavior Checklist. We compared their outcomes with a subsample of healthy control infants drawn from the independently sampled Triple B Pregnancy Cohort Study. RESULTS: Fifty children, with a mean age of 41 months, were followed for 3 years after hospital admission with HPeV infection. There were 47 children whose original illness was fever without source or sepsis-like illness and 3 who had encephalitis. All children in the HPeV cohort showed age-specific development within the population normal range on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. There was no difference in developmental attainment compared with 107 healthy control infants after adjusting for measured confounders. The HPeV cohort showed higher average scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and a higher frequency of clinical range scores compared with healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPeV sepsis-like illness did not result in neurodevelopmental delay at 3 years of age, it was associated with increased behavioral problems compared with healthy controls. The behavioral problems reached a clinical threshold in a minority of children. Results inform clinical management and planning for children after severe HPeV infection in infancy.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/virologia , Parechovirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 67(3): 229-236, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The second edition of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M ABC-2) is a standardised, norm referenced assessment that is frequently used by therapists to identify children with motor difficulties. The norms for the M ABC-2 were derived from a sample of children in the United Kingdom (UK) and are combined across the age groups for boys and girls. The aims of this research were to investigate gender differences in the performance of 8- and 9-year-old Australian children and if the norms in our cohort differed from UK-based M ABC-2 norms. METHODS: Children aged 8 or 9 years of age who underwent major neonatal cardiac or non-cardiac surgery and healthy controls were assessed using the M ABC-2 as part of the Development After Infant Surgery (DAISy) study. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the scores for boys and girls aged 8- and 9-years old on the M ABC-2. Girls performed better than boys in manual dexterity and on total standard scores. Our control group compared to the assessment norms scored significantly poorer in manual dexterity, aiming and catching and total standard scores. CONCLUSION: Caution should be used when interpreting the results of the M ABC-2 for Australian 8- and 9-year olds. Contemporary Australian, gender-specific M ABC-2 norms should be considered. Further research is required to investigate gender differences and differences in performance of Australian children compared to the assessment norms in other age groups on the M ABC-2.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 18, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents with CP in low and middle-income countries is often poor, as is the case in Bangladesh. This exploratory study examined what factors predict the proxy-reported HRQoL of adolescents with CP in rural Bangladesh, a typical low- and middle-income country (LMIC). METHODS: Adolescents with CP (10 to 18y) were identified using the Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register. HRQoL was assessed using the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life-Teens proxy-report questionnaire (CPQoL-Teens), adolescent mental health using the Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) and caregiver mental health using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Theoretical and statistical interests (i.e. bivariate analysis, p < 0.05) identified potential predictors which were entered into hierarchical multiple linear regression (HMLR) models in order of clinical significance; HMLR related adolescent clinical characteristics, adolescent and caregiver mental health and proxies of socioeconomic status to CPQoL-Teens dimensions. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four adolescents with CP (mean age 15y 1mo, SD 1y 8mo, female 31.2%) participated in this study. Twenty-four factors were identified to explore for relationship to adolescent proxy-reported HRQoL. Fifteen of the factors correlated to one or more CPQoL-Teens dimension; strongest correlation was between 'feelings about functioning' and motor impairment (r = 0.545). Nine were predictive of CPQoL-Teens dimensions; adolescent sex, school attendance, severity of motor impairment, hearing and speech impairment, mother's education, primary caregiver depression and stress, and having a sanitary latrine at home resulting in score changes of between 0.79 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.35) to 35.1 (95% CI 6.03 to 64.22). CONCLUSIONS: Many of the factors predicting the proxy-reported HRQoL of adolescents with CP are amenable to intervention, and have the potential to improve adolescent wellbeing. Several determinants are priorities of the sustainable development goals (SDGs); these findings should inform resource prioritization to improve the wellbeing of adolescents with CP in Bangladesh and other LMICs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(7): 1296-1301, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a pathological increase of the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) with dysfunction of one or more organs. There is lack of clarity in neonates regarding what intravesical pressure (IVP) value, a surrogate marker for IAP, indicates the need for intervention for ACS. METHODS: The medical records at a Children's Hospital NICU were reviewed to identify all neonates that had IVP/s monitored over a 10-year period (2008-2017). Demographic parameters, IVPs, and important clinical outcomes were obtained. Associations between IVP monitoring and clinical outcomes were explored. RESULTS: Forty-six neonates had IVP monitoring, with 4 (8%) being diagnosed with ACS requiring further operative intervention. There was no significant correlation between IVP and need for surgery. There was a significant positive correlation between the maximum IVP and the need for total parenteral nutrition (rs = 0.350, p = 0.017), ventilator support (rs = 0.321, p = 0.034) and length of stay (rs = 0.362, p = 0.016) and between a diagnosis of ACS and neonatal mortality (rs = 0.299, p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: IVP monitoring and raised IVP did not correlate with the need for surgical intervention. Raised IVP was associated with neonatal morbidity and maybe neonatal mortality. A large, prospective, observational study is required to evaluate the role of IVP monitoring in ACS and its associated outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

17.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 56(4): 550-556, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714662

RESUMO

AIM: The use of umbilical arterial catheters (UACs) is a standard of care in monitoring critically unwell infants. Serious vascular complications are rare but when they do occur, they can be associated with significant morbidity, risking limb loss or even death. Near infra-red spectroscopy has the potential to monitor limb perfusion. Our study investigates changes in tissue oxygenation and perfusion in the abdominal and leg circulation following UAC insertion. METHODS: A prospective observational study performing ultrasound pulsed Doppler measurements in the coeliac, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries and the femoral arteries as well as near infrared spectroscopy measurements of both thighs at three time points (immediately before = Time 1, 1 h after = Time 2 and 24 h after UAC insertion = Time 3). RESULTS: We monitored 30 infants, the mean gestational age was 30 weeks (24-41) and the mean birthweight was 1720 g (600-4070 g). We observed statistically significant changes (P < 0.05) in pulse Doppler measurements in coeliac (mean peak systolic velocity (PSV): Time 1 = 70.51, Time 2 = 61.75; resistive index (RI): Time 1 = 0.75, Time 2 = 0.67), superior mesenteric (PSV: Time 1 = 41.72, Time 2 = 36.10; RI: Time 1 = 0.92, Time 2 = 0.87), renal (same side end-diastolic velocity: Time 1 = 1.98, Time 2 = 3.80; RI: Time 1 = 0.93, Time 2 = 0.87; opposite side end-diastolic velocity: Time 1 = 2.62, Time 2 = 3.84; RI: Time 1 = 0.92, Time 2 = 0.85) and femoral arteries (same side PSV: Time 1 = 72.75, Time 2 = 62.18; opposite side PSV: Time 1 = 81.89, Time 2 = 62.74). Tissue oxygenation in lower limbs remained unaffected (same side (mean): Time 1 = 68.59, Time 2 = 68.99, Time 3 = 66.40, opposite side: Time 1 = 67.72, Time 2 = 66.92, Time 3 = 65.40). All infants on clinical examination had normal lower limb perfusion, lower limb arterial pulses and normal perfusion to the gluteal region before and after insertion of UAC. CONCLUSIONS: While sub-clinical changes in perfusion occur in abdominal and leg circulation, these changes are not consistent across vessels and regional tissue oxygenation remains unaffected.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical guidelines recommend using neuroimaging, Prechtls' General Movements Assessment (GMA), and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) to diagnose cerebral palsy (CP) in infancy. Previous studies provided excellent sensitivity and specificity for each test in isolation, but no study has examined the pooled predictive power for early diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 441 high-risk infants born between 2003 and 2014, from three Italian hospitals. Infants with either a normal outcome, mild disability, or CP at two years, were matched for birth year, gender, and gestational age. Three-month HINE, GMA, and neuroimaging were retrieved from medical records. Logistic regression was conducted with log-likelihood and used to determine the model fit and Area Under the Curve (AUC) for accuracy. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity for detecting CP were 88% and 62% for three-month HINE, 95% and 97% for absent fidgety GMs, and 79% and 99% for neuroimaging. The combined predictive power of all three assessments gave sensitivity and specificity values of 97.86% and 99.22% (PPV 98.56%, NPV 98.84%). CONCLUSION: CP can be accurately detected in high-risk infants when these test findings triangulate. Clinical implementation of these tools is likely to reduce the average age when CP is diagnosed, and intervention is started.

19.
Transfusion ; 59(10): 3093-3101, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a standard treatment for anemia of prematurity. Cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood flow velocities improve when a restrictive transfusion threshold is followed, but little is known about the effect of practicing a liberal transfusion threshold on cerebral tissue oxygenation, cerebral blood flow velocities, and cardiac output measurements. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective observational study of preterm infants under 32 weeks' gestation who received RBC transfusion. Monitoring was performed immediately before, immediately after, and 24 hours after transfusion. Data obtained included physiologic parameters, cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI), anterior and middle cerebral artery pulsed Doppler ultrasound measurements, and cardiac output measurements. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures. RESULTS: Fifty RBC transfusion episodes in 40 preterm infants were monitored. The mean gestational age was 26.72 weeks (±1.6 weeks), and the mean birth weight was 855.25 g (±190.7 g). We did not observe significant changes in cerebral TOI (pretransfusion mean TOI = 70.5 [11.54], immediately after transfusion = 71.38 [12.51], [p = 0.924; 95% confidence interval (CI), -4.64 to 6.39], and 24 hours after transfusion = 75.64 [14.4]; [p = 0.07; 95% CI, -0.37 to 10.65]), cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (pretransfusion = 0.25 [0.12], immediately after transfusion = 0.24 [0.13], and 24 hours after transfusion = 0.20 [0.15]), cerebral resistive index, cerebral pulsatility index, or right ventricular output. Statistically significant changes were observed immediately after transfusion in peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and time-averaged maximum velocity in the cerebral arterial circulation. Left ventricular output (pretransfusion = 374.32 mL/kg/min, immediately after transfusion = 346.67 mL/kg/min [p = 0.000; 95% CI, -39.61 to -15.68], and 24 hours after transfusion = 361.17 mL/kg/min [p = 0.027; 95% CI, -25.11 to -1.18]) and heart rate (pretransfusion = 163.37 [9.49], immediately after transfusion = 157.29 [10.2] [p = 0.000; 95% CI, -8.96 to -3.20], and 24 hours after transfusion = 160.40 [10.4] [p = 0.041; 95% CI, -5.85 to -0.09]) showed statistically significant changes throughout the monitoring period. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that practicing liberal transfusion thresholds did not improve cerebral TOI in preterm infants who have mild anemia, but it did improve the compensatory response in cerebral arterial blood flow and cardiac output.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco , Artérias Cerebrais , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia Doppler de Pulso , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Cerebrais/metabolismo , Artérias Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Hand Ther ; 32(1): 10-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089196

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Two-group randomized controlled trial. INTRODUCTION: Upper limb orthoses worn during functional tasks are commonly used in pediatric neurologic rehabilitation, despite a paucity of high-level evidence. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a customized functional wrist orthosis, when placed on the limb, leads to an immediate improvement in hand function for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury. METHODS: A 2-group randomized controlled trial involving 30 children was conducted. Participants were randomized to either receive a customized functional wrist orthosis (experimental, n = 15) or not receive an orthosis (control, n = 15). The box and blocks test was administered at baseline and repeated 1 hour after experimental intervention, with the orthosis on if randomized to the orthotic group. RESULTS: After intervention, there were no significant differences on the box and blocks test between the orthotic group (mean, 10.13; standard deviation, 11.476) and the no orthotic group (mean, 14.07; standard deviation, 11.106; t[28], -0.954; P = .348; and 95% confidence interval, -12.380 to 4.513). DISCUSSION: In contrast to the findings of previous studies, our results suggest that a functional wrist orthosis, when supporting the joint in a 'typical' position, may not lead to an immediate improvement in hand function. CONCLUSIONS: Wearing a functional wrist orthosis did not lead to an immediate improvement in the ability of children with cerebral palsy or brain injury to grasp and release. Further research is needed combining upper limb orthoses with task-specific training and measuring outcomes over the medium to long term.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Articulação do Punho , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reabilitação Neurológica/instrumentação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...