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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28038, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of serum hepcidin measurements in pediatrics would benefit from standardized age- and sex-specific reference ranges in children, in order to enable the establishment of clinical decision limits that are universally applicable. PROCEDURE: We measured serum hepcidin-25 levels in 266 healthy Dutch children aged 0.3-17 years, using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry assay, standardized with our commutable secondary reference material (RM), assigned by a candidate primary RM. RESULTS: We constructed age- and sex-specific values for serum hepcidin and its ratio with ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT). Serum hepcidin levels and hepcidin/ferritin and TSAT/hepcidin ratios were similar for both sexes. Serum hepcidin and hepcidin/ferritin ratio substantially declined after the age of 12 years and TSAT/hepcidin ratio gradually increased with increasing age. Serum hepcidin values for Dutch children <12 years (n = 170) and >12 years (n = 96) were 1.9 nmol/L (median); 0.1-13.1 nmol/L (p2.5-p97.5) and 0.9 nmol/L; 0.0-9.1 nmol/L, respectively. Serum ferritin was the most significant correlate of serum hepcidin in our study population, explaining 15.1% and 7.9% of variance in males and females, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis including age, blood sampling time, iron parameters, ALT, CRP, and body mass index as independent variables showed a statistically significant negative association between age as a dichotomous variable (≤12 vs >12 years) and log-transformed serum hepcidin levels in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that serum hepcidin relative to indicators of body iron is age dependent in children, suggesting that the set point of serum hepcidin relative to stored and circulating iron changes during childhood.

2.
Dermatology ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies regarding cigarette smoking causing a lower risk of melanoma are inconclusive. Here, we re-examined melanoma risk in relation to cigarette smoking in a large, case-control study. METHODS: In total 1,157 patients with melanoma diagnosed between 2003 and 2011 in the Netherlands and 5,595 controls from the Nijmegen Biomedical Study were included. Information concerning smoking habits and known risk factors for melanoma were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were performed to study the risk of cigarette smoking on melanoma risk, adjusted for age, marital status, highest level of education, skin type, sun vacation, use of solarium, time spent outdoors, and sun protective measures. RESULTS: Among men, current and former smokers did not have a higher risk of melanoma compared to never smokers: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.79) and adjusted OR = 0.50 (95% CI: 0.39-0.64), respectively. With an increasing number of years smoked the risk of melanoma decreased: <20 years: OR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.46-0.80); 21-40 years: OR = 0.50 (95% CI: 0.37-0.68); >40 years: OR = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.15-0.44). No clear trend was found for the number of cigarettes smoked. Results for females were less clear and not statistically significant (current smoker: adjusted OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.74-1.26, former smoker: adjusted OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.73-1.08). CONCLUSION: This study shows a strong inverse association between cigarette smoking and melanoma risk in men. Fundamental laboratory research is necessary to investigate the biological relation between smoking cigarettes and melanoma.

3.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(10): 1117-1126, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378654

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adults. It is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention (IA) and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity (HI). The ADHD diagnosis is hypothesized to represent the extreme of a continuous distribution of ADHD symptoms in the general population. In this study, we investigated whether factors linked to adult ADHD as a disorder are associated with adult ADHD symptoms in the general population. Our population-based sample included 4987 adults (mean age 56.1 years; 53.8% female) recruited by the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (NBS). Participants completed the Dutch ADHD DSM-IV Rating Scale for current and childhood ADHD symptoms, the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R) anxiety subscale, and the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-S). Partial Spearman correlation and Hurdle negative binomial regression analysis were used to assess how age, sex, childhood ADHD symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, and psychoticism) are associated with current IA and HI symptoms. Increasing age was associated with a lower proportion of participants reporting HI symptoms and with reduced levels of HI; IA levels remained fairly stable over the age-range, but the probability of reporting IA symptoms increased throughout middle/late adulthood. Females were more likely to report IA symptoms than males. Childhood ADHD symptoms, neuroticism, and psychoticism were positively associated with current IA and HI symptoms, while extraversion had an opposite association with these symptom domains. Anxiety symptoms affected HI symptoms in females. Our results indicate that factors associated with categorical ADHD are also correlated with ADHD symptoms in the adult population.

4.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(4): 381-389, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) causes a considerable health burden due to the high recurrence and progression rates. Past studies have identified multiple candidate loci associated with NMIBC prognosis, albeit lacking validation. Moreover, scarce reports exist on genetic susceptibility to independent prognostic predictors of NMIBC, such as stage or grade. OBJECTIVE: To investigate genetic associations with NMIBC tumour and patient characteristics at the time of diagnosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 653 NMIBC cases comes from the Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme. Replication of the significant findings was conducted in the Nijmegen Bladder Cancer Study cohort (N=1470). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out for outcomes of tumour size (as a continuous variable in centimetres), stage (Tis and T1 vs Ta), grade (G3 vs G2 and G1), and age (as continuous [years] and dichotomous [70.2 yr as a cut-off] variables). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Significant (p<5E-08) associations (N=61) with tumour size, stage, grade, and age were identified in the GWAS discovery stage. None of the variants were independently significantly associated in the replication cohort. A meta-analysis of both cohorts suggests that rs180940944 (13q13.3 locus, NBEA) was associated with tumour size as a continuous variable (ß=0.9cm, p=2.92E-09). However, other single nucleotide polymorphisms in this region did not show evidence of association in the meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that rs180940944 (NBEA) is associated with an increased NMIBC tumour size at the time of diagnosis. Given study limitations, further replication is essential to validate the finding. PATIENT SUMMARY: The current study reports on a genome-wide association study on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer tumour and patient characteristics. We suggest that NBEA gene might be associated with increased tumour size at the time of diagnosis. The result must be replicated to establish validity.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136621

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malformations (ARM) are rare congenital malformations, resulting from disturbed hindgut development. A genetic etiology has been suggested, but evidence for the involvement of specific genes is scarce. We evaluated the contribution of rare and low-frequency coding variants in ARM etiology, assuming a multifactorial model. METHODS: We analyzed 568 Caucasian ARM patients and 1,860 population-based controls using the Illumina HumanExome Beadchip array, which contains >240,000 rare and low-frequency coding variants. GenomeStudio clustering and calling was followed by re-calling of 'no-calls' using zCall for patients and controls simultaneously. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed to identify statistically significant associations, applying Bonferroni correction. Following an extra quality control step, candidate variants were selected for validation using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: When we applied a MAF of ≥1.0%, no variants or genes showed statistically significant associations with ARM. Using a MAF cut-off at 0.4%, 13 variants initially reached statistical significance, but had to be discarded upon further inspection: ten variants represented calling errors of the software, while the minor alleles of the remaining three variants were not confirmed by Sanger sequencing. CONCLUSION: Our results show that rare and low-frequency coding variants with large effect sizes, present on the exome chip do not contribute to ARM etiology.

6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4455, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367059

RESUMO

Thyroid dysfunction is an important public health problem, which affects 10% of the general population and increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many aspects of thyroid hormone regulation have only partly been elucidated, including its transport, metabolism, and genetic determinants. Here we report a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for thyroid function and dysfunction, testing 8 million genetic variants in up to 72,167 individuals. One-hundred-and-nine independent genetic variants are associated with these traits. A genetic risk score, calculated to assess their combined effects on clinical end points, shows significant associations with increased risk of both overt (Graves' disease) and subclinical thyroid disease, as well as clinical complications. By functional follow-up on selected signals, we identify a novel thyroid hormone transporter (SLC17A4) and a metabolizing enzyme (AADAT). Together, these results provide new knowledge about thyroid hormone physiology and disease, opening new possibilities for therapeutic targets.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116028

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic background, hampering identification of underlying genetic risk factors. We hypothesized that combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multi-generation pedigrees with multiple affected individuals can point toward novel ADHD genes. Three families with multiple ADHD-affected members (Ntotal = 70) and apparent dominant inheritance pattern were included in this study. Genotyping was performed in 37 family members, and WES was additionally carried out in 10 of those. Linkage analysis was performed using multi-point analysis in Superlink Online SNP 1.1. From prioritized linkage regions with a LOD score ≥ 2, a total of 24 genes harboring rare variants were selected. Those genes were taken forward and were jointly analyzed in gene-set analyses of exome-chip data using the MAGMA software in an independent sample of patients with persistent ADHD and healthy controls (N = 9365). The gene-set including all 24 genes together, and particularly the gene-set from one of the three families (12 genes), were significantly associated with persistent ADHD in this sample. Among the latter, gene-wide analysis for the AAED1 gene reached significance. A rare variant (rs151326868) within AAED1 segregated with ADHD in one of the families. The analytic strategy followed here is an effective approach for identifying novel ADHD risk genes. Additionally, this study suggests that both rare and more frequent variants in multiple genes act together in contributing to ADHD risk, even in individual multi-case families.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(9): 967-974, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767749

RESUMO

Background: Most pathogenic mutations in the BRCA2 gene carry a high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, a stop-gain mutation, K3326* (rs11571833), confers risk of lung cancer and cancers of the upper-aero-digestive tract but only a modest risk of breast or ovarian cancer. The Icelandic population provides an opportunity for comprehensive characterization of the cancer risk profiles of K3326* and HBOC mutations because a single mutation, BRCA2 999del5, is responsible for almost all BRCA2-related HBOC in the population. Methods: Genotype information on 43 641 cancer patients and 370 971 control subjects from Iceland, the Netherlands, and the United States was used to assess the cancer risk profiles of K3326* and BRCA2 999del5. BRCA2 expression was assessed using RNAseq data from blood (n = 2233), as well as 52 tissues reported in the GTEx database. Results: The cancer risks associated with K3326* are fundamentally different from those associated with 999del5. We report for the first time an association between K3326* and small cell lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35 to 3.16) and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.26 to 2.26). Individuals homozygous for K3326* reach old age and have children. Unlike BRCA2 999del5, the K3326* allele does not affect the level of BRCA2 transcripts, and the allele is expressed to the same extent as the wild-type allele. Conclusions: K3326* associates primarily with cancers that have strong environmental genotoxic risk factors. Expression of the K3326* allele suggests that a variant protein may be made that retains the DNA repair capabilities important to hormone-responsive tissues but may be less efficient in responding to genotoxic stress.

9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 188: 94-101, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and tobacco use are heritable phenotypes. However, only a small number of common genetic variants have been identified, and common variants account for a modest proportion of the heritability. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of low-frequency and rare variants in alcohol and tobacco use. METHODS: We meta-analyzed ExomeChip association results from eight discovery cohorts and included 12,466 subjects and 7432 smokers in the analysis of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, respectively. The ExomeChip interrogates low-frequency and rare exonic variants, and in addition a small pool of common variants. We investigated top variants in an independent sample in which ICD-9 diagnoses of "alcoholism" (N = 25,508) and "tobacco use disorder" (N = 27,068) had been assessed. In addition to the single variant analysis, we performed gene-based, polygenic risk score (PRS), and pathway analyses. RESULTS: The meta-analysis did not yield exome-wide significant results. When we jointly analyzed our top results with the independent sample, no low-frequency or rare variants reached significance for alcohol consumption or tobacco use. However, two common variants that were present on the ExomeChip, rs16969968 (p = 2.39 × 10-7) and rs8034191 (p = 6.31 × 10-7) located in CHRNA5 and AGPHD1 at 15q25.1, showed evidence for association with tobacco use. DISCUSSION: Low-frequency and rare exonic variants with large effects do not play a major role in alcohol and tobacco use, nor does the aggregate effect of ExomeChip variants. However, our results confirmed the role of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in tobacco use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Éxons/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Uso de Tabaco/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 910, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030599

RESUMO

Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. Here, using genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, we discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). We also validate previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity. Next we show that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new experience and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are most positively genetically correlated with lifespan while susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), cigarettes smoked per day, lung cancer, insulin resistance and body fat are most negatively correlated. We suggest that the effect of education on lifespan is principally mediated through smoking while the effect of obesity appears to act via CAD. Using instrumental variables, we suggest that an increase of one body mass index unit reduces lifespan by 7 months while 1 year of education adds 11 months to expected lifespan.Variability in human longevity is genetically influenced. Using genetic data of parental lifespan, the authors identify associations at HLA-DQA/DRB1 and LPA and find that genetic variants that increase educational attainment have a positive effect on lifespan whereas increasing BMI negatively affects lifespan.


Assuntos
Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Estilo de Vida , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Longevidade/genética , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Educação , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3119, 2017 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28596592

RESUMO

Appendicitis is one of the most common conditions requiring acute surgery and can pose a threat to the lives of affected individuals. We performed a genome-wide association study of appendicitis in 7,276 Icelandic and 1,139 Dutch cases and large groups of controls. In a combined analysis of the Icelandic and Dutch data, we detected a single signal represented by an intergenic variant rs2129979 [G] close to the gene PITX2 associating with increased risk of appendicitis (OR = 1.15, P = 1.8 × 10-11). We only observe the association in patients diagnosed in adulthood. The marker is close to, but distinct from, a set of markers reported to associate with atrial fibrillation, which have been linked to PITX2. PITX2 has been implicated in determination of right-left symmetry during development. Anomalies in organ arrangement have been linked to increased prevalence of gastrointestinal and intra-abdominal complications, which may explain the effect of rs2129979 on appendicitis risk.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14694, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272467

RESUMO

Male-pattern baldness (MPB) is a common and highly heritable trait characterized by androgen-dependent, progressive hair loss from the scalp. Here, we carry out the largest GWAS meta-analysis of MPB to date, comprising 10,846 early-onset cases and 11,672 controls from eight independent cohorts. We identify 63 MPB-associated loci (P<5 × 10-8, METAL) of which 23 have not been reported previously. The 63 loci explain ∼39% of the phenotypic variance in MPB and highlight several plausible candidate genes (FGF5, IRF4, DKK2) and pathways (melatonin signalling, adipogenesis) that are likely to be implicated in the key-pathophysiological features of MPB and may represent promising targets for the development of novel therapeutic options. The data provide molecular evidence that rather than being an isolated trait, MPB shares a substantial biological basis with numerous other human phenotypes and may deserve evaluation as an early prognostic marker, for example, for prostate cancer, sudden cardiac arrest and neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Alopecia/genética , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/genética , Adipogenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Melatonina , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transativadores/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166628, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846281

RESUMO

Serum hepcidin concentration is regulated by iron status, inflammation, erythropoiesis and numerous other factors, but underlying processes are incompletely understood. We studied the association of common and rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) with serum hepcidin in one Italian study and two large Dutch population-based studies. We genotyped common SNVs with genome-wide association study (GWAS) arrays and subsequently performed imputation using the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Cohort-specific GWAS were performed for log-transformed serum hepcidin, adjusted for age and gender, and results were combined in a fixed-effects meta-analysis (total N 6,096). Six top SNVs (p<5x10-6) were genotyped in 3,821 additional samples, but associations were not replicated. Furthermore, we meta-analyzed cohort-specific exome array association results of rare SNVs with serum hepcidin that were available for two of the three cohorts (total N 3,226), but no exome-wide significant signal (p<1.4x10-6) was identified. Gene-based meta-analyses revealed 19 genes that showed significant association with hepcidin. Our results suggest the absence of common SNVs and rare exonic SNVs explaining a large proportion of phenotypic variation in serum hepcidin. We recommend extension of our study once additional substantial cohorts with hepcidin measurements, GWAS and/or exome array data become available in order to increase power to identify variants that explain a smaller proportion of hepcidin variation. In addition, we encourage follow-up of the potentially interesting genes that resulted from the gene-based analysis of low-frequency and rare variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepcidinas/genética , Inflamação/genética , Ferro/sangue , Eritropoese/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hepcidinas/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 68(9): 934-45, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27561768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that high circulating cystatin C is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of creatinine-based renal function measurements. It is unclear whether this relationship is causal, arises from residual confounding, and/or is a consequence of reverse causation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use Mendelian randomization to investigate whether cystatin C is causally related to CVD in the general population. METHODS: We incorporated participant data from 16 prospective cohorts (n = 76,481) with 37,126 measures of cystatin C and added genetic data from 43 studies (n = 252,216) with 63,292 CVD events. We used the common variant rs911119 in CST3 as an instrumental variable to investigate the causal role of cystatin C in CVD, including coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and heart failure. RESULTS: Cystatin C concentrations were associated with CVD risk after adjusting for age, sex, and traditional risk factors (relative risk: 1.82 per doubling of cystatin C; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56 to 2.13; p = 2.12 × 10(-14)). The minor allele of rs911119 was associated with decreased serum cystatin C (6.13% per allele; 95% CI: 5.75 to 6.50; p = 5.95 × 10(-211)), explaining 2.8% of the observed variation in cystatin C. Mendelian randomization analysis did not provide evidence for a causal role of cystatin C, with a causal relative risk for CVD of 1.00 per doubling cystatin C (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.22; p = 0.994), which was statistically different from the observational estimate (p = 1.6 × 10(-5)). A causal effect of cystatin C was not detected for any individual component of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Mendelian randomization analyses did not support a causal role of cystatin C in the etiology of CVD. As such, therapeutics targeted at lowering circulating cystatin C are unlikely to be effective in preventing CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Cistatina C/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Alelos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cistatina C/sangue , Genótipo , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Health Psychol ; 35(8): 861-5, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27505208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stigmatization is common in people with chronic skin conditions and may also affect their significant others (SOs). The fast and implicit processing of stigmatization-related stimuli has received little attention in these populations; however, such knowledge may offer indications for new treatment methods. This study aimed to investigate implicit processing of stigmatization-related stimuli in people with skin conditions and their SOs. METHOD: A modified Stroop task and 2 approach-avoidance tasks were administered to participants with chronic skin conditions (alopecia: n = 50 and psoriasis: n = 50); their significant others (alopecia SOs: n = 47 and psoriasis SOs: n = 50); and controls (n = 50). The aim was to examine attentional and behavioral biases toward disease-related and social threat-related stigmatization stimuli. RESULTS: An attentional bias to disease-related stimuli was found in participants with alopecia and their SOs, compared with controls (p < .001). This effect was not found for participants with psoriasis and their SOs. Increased behavioral avoidance of disgusted faces was found in participants with psoriasis and their SOs, compared with controls (p = .047). This effect was not found in participants with alopecia and their SOs. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the idea that individuals with skin conditions and their SOs are characterized by a stigmatization-related stimulus bias regarding implicit cognitive and behavioral reactions, in comparison to healthy individuals. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that these processes may differ across skin conditions, with people with psoriasis being more affected by social reactions (i.e., disgusted faces) and people with alopecia by disease-related cues possibly related to internalized self-stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Alopecia/psicologia , Psoríase/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Atenção , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 26(9): 1527-1532, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27480019

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex genetic background. DRD5, the gene encoding the dopamine receptor D5, was recently confirmed as a candidate gene for ADHD in children through meta-analysis. In this study, we aimed at studying the association of the ADHD-associated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism upstream of DRD5 with adult ADHD. We compiled data from six sites of the International Multicentre persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT) and reached N=6979 (3344 cases and 3635 healthy participants), the largest sample investigated so far. We tested the association of the common DRD5 alleles with categorically defined ADHD and with inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptom counts. Our findings provide evidence that none of the common DRD5 alleles are associated with ADHD risk or ADHD symptom counts in adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Repetições Minissatélites , Receptores de Dopamina D5/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
18.
N Engl J Med ; 374(22): 2131-41, 2016 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27192541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several sequence variants are known to have effects on serum levels of non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol that alter the risk of coronary artery disease. METHODS: We sequenced the genomes of 2636 Icelanders and found variants that we then imputed into the genomes of approximately 398,000 Icelanders. We tested for association between these imputed variants and non-HDL cholesterol levels in 119,146 samples. We then performed replication testing in two populations of European descent. We assessed the effects of an implicated loss-of-function variant on the risk of coronary artery disease in 42,524 case patients and 249,414 controls from five European ancestry populations. An augmented set of genomes was screened for additional loss-of-function variants in a target gene. We evaluated the effect of an implicated variant on protein stability. RESULTS: We found a rare noncoding 12-base-pair (bp) deletion (del12) in intron 4 of ASGR1, which encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor, a lectin that plays a role in the homeostasis of circulating glycoproteins. The del12 mutation activates a cryptic splice site, leading to a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon that renders a truncated protein prone to degradation. Heterozygous carriers of the mutation (1 in 120 persons in our study population) had a lower level of non-HDL cholesterol than noncarriers, a difference of 15.3 mg per deciliter (0.40 mmol per liter) (P=1.0×10(-16)), and a lower risk of coronary artery disease (by 34%; 95% confidence interval, 21 to 45; P=4.0×10(-6)). In a larger set of sequenced samples from Icelanders, we found another loss-of-function ASGR1 variant (p.W158X, carried by 1 in 1850 persons) that was also associated with lower levels of non-HDL cholesterol (P=1.8×10(-3)). CONCLUSIONS: ASGR1 haploinsufficiency was associated with reduced levels of non-HDL cholesterol and a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).


Assuntos
Receptor de Asialoglicoproteína/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência de Bases , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Islândia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Nature ; 533(7604): 539-42, 2016 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225129

RESUMO

Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Escolaridade , Feto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Cognição , Biologia Computacional , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Esquizofrenia/genética , Reino Unido
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(6): 1203-14, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732427

RESUMO

Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P < 1 × 10(-6)), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 × 10(-11)) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 × 10(-10)). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region-the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r(2) = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case-case P ≤ 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 13 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etnologia
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