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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413902

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Chronic glucocorticoids excess leads to morphological and functional cardiac alterations, a substrate for arrhythmias. Autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) in adrenal incidentalomas is a model of chronic endogenous hypercortisolism. OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a large cohort of patients with ACS. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University Hospital. PATIENTS: Patients evaluated between 1990 and 2018 for adrenal incidentalomas (n=632), without pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, Cushing syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and adrenal malignancy. Cortisol after 1 mg-dexamethasone suppression test < or >50 nmol/L defined non-secreting tumors (NST) (n=420) and ACS (n=212), respectively. INTERVENTION: Assessment of AF at baseline (n=632) and during a median follow-up of 7.7 years retrospectively (NST n=249, ACS n=108). Comparison with general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence and incidence of AF. RESULTS: AF prevalence was higher in patients with ACS (8.5%) than NST (3.1%, P=0.003) and the general population (1.7%; P<0.001 vs ACS, P=0.034 vs NST). The age-adjusted rate ratio to the general population was 1.0 for NST and 2.6 for ACS. AF was associated with ACS (odds ratio 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-5.39; P=0.035). The proportion of patients with AF at last evaluation was higher in ACS (20.0%) than NST (11.9%; P=0.026). ACS showed a higher risk of incident AF than NST (HR 2.95; 95%CI 1.27-6.86; P=0.012), which was associated with post-dexamethasone cortisol (HR 1.15; 95%CI 1.07-1.24; P<0.001), independently of known contributing factors. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adrenal incidentalomas and ACS are at risk of AF. ECG monitoring may be recommended during follow-up.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 342, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Purulent pericarditis is an infectious disease, frequently caused by gram-positive bacteria, that is rarely observed in healthy individuals, and is often associated with predisposing conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present the case of an Escherichia coli post-surgical localized purulent pericarditis complicated by transient constrictive pericarditis and its diagnostic and therapeutic management. CONCLUSIONS: Our case report focuses on the importance of imaging-guided treatment of purulent pericardial diseases, in particular on the emerging role of 18 F-labelled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in pericardial diseases and on the management of transient constrictive pericarditis, often seen after thoracic surgery.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 191, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This case represents the first report of malignant primary cardiac tumour in a patient with Lynch Syndrome associated with MSH2 pathogenic variant. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman with previous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma was admitted to the emergency room for hematic pericardial effusion. Multimodal diagnostic imaging revealed two solid pericardial vascularized masses. After pericardiectomy, the final histological diagnosis was poorly differentiated pleomorphic sarcomatoid carcinoma. During follow-up she developed an ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma. Genetic analysis identified an MSH2 pathogenic variant. CONCLUSION: This case contributes to expand the tumour spectrum of Lynch syndrome, suggesting that MSH2 pathogenic variants cause a more complex multi-tumour cancer syndrome than the classic Lynch Syndrome. In MSH2 variant carriers, symptoms such as dyspnoea and chest discomfort might alert for rare tumours and a focused cardiac evaluation should be considered.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(6): 739-747, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of coronary protection by preventive coronary wiring and stenting across the coronary ostia in patients at high risk for coronary obstruction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Coronary obstruction following TAVR is a life-threatening complication with high procedural and short-term mortality. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from a multicenter international registry between April 2011 and February 2019. RESULTS: Among 236 patients undergoing coronary protection with preventive coronary wiring, 143 had eventually stents implanted across the coronary ostia after valve deployment. At 3-year follow-up, rates of cardiac death were 7.8% in patients receiving stents and 15.7% in those not receiving stents (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.14 to 1.28; p = 0.13). There were 2 definite stent thromboses (0.9%) in patients receiving stents, both occurring after TAVR in "valve-in-valve" procedures. In patients not receiving stents, there were 4 delayed coronary occlusions (DCOs) (4.3%), occurring from 5 min to 6 h after wire removal. Three cases occurred in valve-in-valve procedures and 1 in a native aortic valve procedure. Distance between the virtual transcatheter valve and the protected coronary ostia <4 mm was present in 75.0% of patients with DCO compared with 30.4% of patients without DCO (p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing TAVR at high risk for coronary obstruction, preventive stent implantation across the coronary ostia is associated with good mid-term survival rates and low rates of stent thrombosis. Patients undergoing coronary protection with wire only have a considerable risk for DCO.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 309: 63-69, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess whether coronary bypass (CABG) or stenting reduce the risk of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) compared with optimal medical therapy (OMT) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of contemporary randomized controlled trials comparing OMT, CABG and different stent types in stable CAD. All-comer trials were included if the rate of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was≤20%. Endpoints were all-cause mortality and MI. RESULTS: Ninety-seven trials including 75,754 patients were analyzed at a weighted mean follow up of 42.5 months. Compared to OMT, CABG was associated with a lower risk of death (OR = 0.84; 95%CI:0.71-0.97). After exclusion of trials in left main and/or multivessel disease(LM/MVD) this benefit was not statistically significant (OR = 0.89; 95%CI:0.74-1.06). CABG was associated with a lower risk of MI (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.49-0.91) showing, however, a certain degree of inconsistency (p=0.10). None of the stent types included was associated with a lower risk of death. However, durable-polymer-CoCr-everolimus-eluting stent, by mixed evidence, after exclusion of either LM/MVD (OR = 0.73;95%CI: 0.54-0.98) or all-comer/post-MI trials (OR = 0.62;95%CI:0.39-0.98) was associated with a lower risk of MI than OMT. Similar findings, by indirect evidence, were confirmed for bio-absorbable-polymer-CoCr-sirolimus eluting stent (LMV/MVD trials excluded OR = 0.46; 95%CI = 0.29-0.74, all-comer/post-MI trials excluded: OR = 0.41;95%CI:0.22-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: In stable CAD, CABG reduces the risk of mortality and MI compared to OMT, especially in patients with higher extent of CAD. Our study suggests that some of second and latest-generation drug-eluting stents may reduce the risk of MI. Future research should confirm these latter findings.

6.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(4): 300-309, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approaches to risk assessment in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) include the noninvasive French risk assessment approach (number of low-risk criteria based on the European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society guidelines) and Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL) 2.0 risk calculator. The prognostic and predictive value of these methods for morbidity/mortality was evaluated in the predominantly prevalent population of GRIPHON, the largest randomized controlled trial in PAH. METHODS: GRIPHON randomized 1,156 patients with PAH to selexipag or placebo. Post-hoc analyses were performed on the primary composite end-point of morbidity/mortality by the number of low-risk criteria (World Health Organization functional class I-II; 6-minute walk distance >440 m; N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide <300 ng/liter) and REVEAL 2.0 risk category. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Both the number of low-risk criteria and the REVEAL 2.0 risk category were prognostic for morbidity/mortality at baseline and any time-point during the study. Patients with 3 low-risk criteria at baseline had a 94% reduced risk of morbidity/mortality compared to patients with 0 low-risk criteria and were all categorized as low-risk by REVEAL 2.0. The treatment effect of selexipag on morbidity/mortality was consistent irrespective of the number of low-risk criteria or the REVEAL 2.0 risk category at any time-point during the study. Selexipag-treated patients were more likely to increase their number of low-risk criteria from baseline to week 26 than placebo-treated patients (odds ratio 1.69, p = 0.0002); similar results were observed for REVEAL 2.0 risk score. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the association between risk profile and long-term outcome and suggest that selexipag treatment may improve risk profile.

7.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 125-126: 106648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with higher mortality and morbidity after valvular heart surgery, mainly through its adverse effect on right ventricular hemodynamic. Recently, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) PH guidelines introduced a PH probability grading that lists additional parameters related to right ventricular dimensions. We evaluated the impact of such score on short- and mid-term outcomes in patients undergoing left heart valvular surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 60 consecutive patients (mean age 70 ±â€¯9 years) undergoing left heart valvular surgery with or without coronary artery bypass. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the PH probability: "low" (n = 18), "intermediate" (n = 18), or "high" (n = 24). The high PH probability group had higher rate of World Health Organization-Functional Class (WHO-FC) III and IV, hemodynamic complications, deaths, major bleeding events and infections after heart surgery than the other groups. A "high" PH probability was associated with reduced right ventricular systolic function, as measured by the fractional area change (FAC), but not with the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). CONCLUSION: The high PH probability as evaluated by the ESC PH echocardiographic probability model, is associated with increased short- and mid-term mortality and morbidity and reduced right ventricular systolic function after cardiac surgery, Thus, additional echocardiographic parameters assessing PH probability are valuable tools to stratify risk in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

9.
Thromb Res ; 185: 43-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756574

RESUMO

AIMS: We sought to investigate the thrombogenicity of different DES and BMS in an in vitro system of stent perfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The experimental model consisted of a peristaltic pump connected to 4 parallel silicone tubes in which different stents were deployed. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers and the amount of stent surfaced-induced thrombus deposition was determined using 125I-fibrinogen. RESULTS: Compared to Resolute, Biomatrix and Vision, Xience was associated with the lowest amount of stent surface-induced thrombus formation, with a significant difference compared to Vision (125I-fibrinogen median value deposition [IQ range]: 50 ng [25-98] versus 560 ng [320-1520], respectively, p < 0.05), but not to other DES. In the second set of experiments Fluoropolymer-coated BMS not eluting drug was associated with a significant 3-fold reduction in 125I-fibrinogen deposition (245 ng [80-300]) compared to Vision (625 ng [320-760], p < 0.05), but a 7-fold increase compared to Xience (35 ng [20-60], p < 0.05). Finally Xience was associated with a significantly greater absorption of albumin compared to BMS. CONCLUSIONS: In an in vitro system of stent perfusion, Xience was associated with the lowest amount of stent surface-induced thrombus formation compared with Resolute, Biomatrix and Vision, with a noted synergistic effect between the fluoropolymer and the drug.

10.
Chest ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has evolved substantially over the past two decades and varies according to etiology, functional class (FC), hemodynamic parameters, and other clinical factors. Current guidelines do not provide definitive recommendations regarding the use of oral prostacyclin pathway agents (PPAs) in PAH. To provide guidance on the use of these agents, an expert panel was convened to develop consensus statements for the initiation of oral PPAs in adults with PAH. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE. The established RAND/University of California Los Angeles appropriateness method, which incorporates the Delphi method and the nominal group technique, was used to create consensus statements. Idiopathic, heritable, repaired congenital heart defect, and drug- or toxin-induced PAH (IPAH+) was considered as one etiologic grouping. The process was focused on the use of oral treprostinil or selexipag in patients with IPAH+ or connective tissue disease-associated PAH and FC II or III symptoms receiving background dual endothelin receptor antagonist/phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy. RESULTS: The panel developed 14 consensus statements regarding the appropriate use of oral PPAs in the target population. The panel identified 13 clinical scenarios in which selexipag may be considered as a treatment option. CONCLUSIONS: The paucity of clinical evidence overall, and particularly from randomized trials in this setting, creates a gap in knowledge. These consensus statements are intended to aid physicians in navigating treatment options and using oral PPAs in the most appropriate manner in patients with PAH.

11.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(12): 1286-1295, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension enrolled in the AMBITION trial with (excluded from the primary analysis set [ex-primary analysis set]) and without (primary analysis set) multiple risk factors for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. METHODS: Treatment-naive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were randomized to once-daily ambrisentan and tadalafil combination therapy, ambrisentan monotherapy, or tadalafil monotherapy. The primary end point was time from randomization to first adjudicated clinical failure event. RESULTS: Primary analysis set patients (n = 500), compared with ex-primary analysis set patients (n = 105), were younger (mean, 54.4 vs 62.1 years) with greater baseline 6-minute walk distance (median, 363.7 vs 330.5 meters) and fewer comorbidities (e.g., hypertension and diabetes). Treatment effects of initial combination therapy vs pooled monotherapy were directionally the same for both populations, albeit of a lower magnitude for ex-primary analysis set patients. Initial combination therapy reduced the risk of clinical failure compared with pooled monotherapy in primary analysis set patients (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.72), whereas the effect was less clear in ex-primary analysis set patients (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-1.37). Overall, primary analysis set patients had fewer clinical failure events (25% vs 33%), higher rates of satisfactory clinical response (34% vs 24%), and lower rates of permanent study drug withdrawal due to adverse events (16% vs 31%) than ex-primary analysis set patients. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy of initial combination therapy vs pooled monotherapy was directionally similar for primary analysis set and ex-primary analysis set patients. However, ex-primary analysis set patients (with multiple risk factors for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction) experienced higher rates of clinical failure events and the response to combination therapy vs monotherapy was attenuated. Tolerability was better in primary analysis set than ex-primary analysis set patients.

12.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 20(10): 631-639, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436678

RESUMO

: Regular physical activity is a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to its positive effects in reducing several cardiovascular risk factors. Current guidelines on CVD suggest for healthy adults to perform at least 150 min/week of moderate intensity or 75 min/week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity. The current review explores the effects of physical activity on some risk factors, specifically: diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Physical activity induces an improvement in insulin sensitivity and in glucose control independently of weight loss, which may further contribute to ameliorate both diabetes-associated defects. The benefits of adherence to physical activity have recently proven to extend beyond surrogate markers of metabolic syndrome and diabetes by reducing hard endpoints such as mortality. In recent years, obesity has greatly increased in all countries. Weight losses in these patients have been associated with improvements in many cardiometabolic risk factors. Strategies against obesity included caloric restriction, however greater results have been obtained with association of diet and physical activity. Similarly, the beneficial effect of training on blood pressure via its action on sympathetic activity and on other factors such as improvement of endothelial function and reduction of oxidative stress can have played a role in preventing hypertension development in active subjects. The main international guidelines on prevention of CVD suggest to encourage and to increase physical activity to improve lipid pattern, hypertension and others cardiovascular risk factor. An active action is required to the National Society of Cardiology together with the Italian Society of Sports Cardiology to improve the prescription of organized physical activity in patients with CVD and/or cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Consenso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Circulation ; 139(21): 2440-2450, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide) levels are included in the multiparametric risk assessment approach for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) outlined in PAH guidelines. However, data supporting the use of NT-proBNP risk thresholds in assessing prognosis in PAH are limited. The GRIPHON trial (Prostacyclin [PGI2] Receptor Agonist In Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension) provides an opportunity to assess the prognostic value of NT-proBNP thresholds in a controlled clinical trial and to evaluate the response to selexipag according to these thresholds. METHODS: The event-driven GRIPHON trial randomly assigned patients to selexipag or placebo. NT-proBNP was measured at regular intervals in GRIPHON. Here, patients were categorized post hoc into low, medium, and high NT-proBNP subgroups according to 2 independent sets of thresholds: (1) baseline tertiles: <271 ng/L; 271 to 1165 ng/L; >1165 ng/L; and (2) 2015 European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines cutoffs: <300 ng/L; 300 to 1400 ng/L; >1400 ng/L. Hazard ratios (selexipag versus placebo) with 95% CIs were calculated for the primary end point (composite morbidity/mortality events) by NT-proBNP category at baseline using Cox proportional-hazards models, and at any time during the exposure period using a time-dependent Cox model. RESULTS: With both thresholds, baseline and follow-up NT-proBNP categories were highly prognostic for future morbidity/mortality events during the study ( P<0.0001). In the time-dependent analysis, the risk of experiencing a morbidity/mortality event was 92% and 83% lower in selexipag-treated patients with a low and medium NT-proBNP level, and 90% and 56% lower in placebo-treated patients with a low and medium NT-proBNP level, in comparison with patients with a high NT-proBNP level. Selexipag reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality events across all 3 NT-proBNP categories in both the baseline and time-dependent analyses, with a more pronounced treatment benefit of selexipag seen in the medium and low NT-proBNP subgroups (interaction P values 0.20 and 0.007 in the baseline and time-dependent analyses). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses further establish the prognostic relevance of NT-proBNP levels in PAH and provide first evidence for the association of NT-proBNP level and treatment response. Using 2 similar sets of thresholds, these analyses support the relevance of the low, medium, and high NT-proBNP categories as part of the multiparametric risk assessment approach outlined in the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of PAH patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01106014.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 753, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679663

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of idiopathic and heritable forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension is still not completely understood, even though several causative genes have been proposed, so that a third of patients remains genetically unresolved. Here we applied a multistep approach to extend identification of the genetic bases of such a disease by searching for novel candidate genes/pathways. Twenty-eight patients belonging to 18 families were screened for BMPR2 mutations and BMPR2-negative samples were tested for 12 additional candidate genes by means of a specific massive parallel sequencing-based assay. Finally, whole exome sequencing was performed on four patients showing no mutations at known disease genes, as well as on their unaffected parents. In addition to EIF2AK4, which has been already suggested to be associated with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, we identified the novel candidate genes ATP13A3, CD248, EFCAB4B, involved in lung vascular remodeling that represent reliable drivers contributing to the disease according to their biological functions/inheritance patterns. Therefore, our results suggest that combining gene panel and whole exome sequencing provides new insights useful for the genetic diagnosis of familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as for the identification of biological pathways that will be potentially targeted by new therapeutic strategies.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 352-359, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632656

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (CHD-PAH) after defect correction have a poor prognosis compared with other CHD-PAH patients. Therefore, it is important that these patients are treated as early and effectively as possible. Evidence supporting the use of PAH therapies in patients with corrected CHD-PAH from randomised controlled trials is limited. The purpose of these analyses was to characterise the corrected CHD-PAH patients from the GRIPHON study and examine the response to selexipag. METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of the 110 patients diagnosed with corrected CHD-PAH, 55 had atrial septal defects, 38 had ventricular septal defects, 14 had persistent ducti arteriosus, and 3 had defects not further specified. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the primary composite endpoint were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. Compared with the non-CHD patients from GRIPHON, patients with corrected CHD-PAH were slightly younger, with a greater proportion being treatment-naive and in World Health Organization functional class I/II. The rate of the primary composite endpoint of morbidity/mortality was lower in patients with corrected CHD-PAH who were treated with selexipag compared with those treated with placebo (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.25, 1.37). The most common adverse events were those known to be related to selexipag. CONCLUSIONS: These post-hoc analyses of GRIPHON provide valuable information about a large population of patients with corrected CHD-PAH, and suggest that selexipag may delay disease progression and was well-tolerated in patients with corrected CHD-PAH.


Assuntos
Acetamidas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Pirazinas , Acetamidas/administração & dosagem , Acetamidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(2): 194-202, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the randomized, double-blind, event-driven AMBITION study, initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil was associated with a 50% reduction in risk of clinical failure (first occurrence of all-cause death, hospitalization for worsening pulmonary arterial hypertension [PAH], disease progression, or unsatisfactory long-term clinical response) vs pooled monotherapy. These results were primarily driven by a reduction in PAH-related hospitalization in the combination therapy group, although a significant effect was not observed in a post-hoc analysis of all-cause hospitalization. METHODS: The effect of initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil in AMBITION was further explored to study PAH-related hospitalization, which was not reported in the primary publication. RESULTS: Initial combination therapy was associated with a 63% reduction in risk of PAH-related hospitalization when compared with pooled monotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.372, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.217 to 0.639, p = 0.0002). For every 9 patients treated with combination therapy vs monotherapy, 1 PAH-related hospitalization could be prevented over a 1-year period. Serious adverse events leading to hospitalization, not necessarily PAH-related, occurred in 87 of 253 (34%) and 89 of 247 (36%) of patients on combination therapy and pooled monotherapy, respectively (post-hoc summary). CONCLUSIONS: Initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil was found to reduce the risk of PAH-related hospitalization by 63% compared with pooled monotherapy.

19.
Eur Respir J ; 53(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545971

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a severe clinical condition despite the availability over the past 15 years of multiple drugs interfering with the endothelin, nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways. The recent progress observed in medical therapy of PAH is not, therefore, related to the discovery of new pathways, but to the development of new strategies for combination therapy and on escalation of treatments based on systematic assessment of clinical response. The current treatment strategy is based on the severity of the newly diagnosed PAH patient as assessed by a multiparametric risk stratification approach. Clinical, exercise, right ventricular function and haemodynamic parameters are combined to define a low-, intermediate- or high-risk status according to the expected 1-year mortality. The current treatment algorithm provides the most appropriate initial strategy, including monotherapy, or double or triple combination therapy. Further treatment escalation is required in case low-risk status is not achieved in planned follow-up assessments. Lung transplantation may be required in most advanced cases on maximal medical therapy.

20.
Circulation ; 139(1): 51-63, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eisenmenger syndrome describes congenital heart disease-associated severe pulmonary hypertension accompanied by right-to-left shunting. The multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 16-week, phase III MAESTRO study (Macitentan in Eisenmenger Syndrome to Restore Exercise Capacity) evaluated the efficacy and safety of the endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome. METHODS: Patients with Eisenmenger syndrome aged ≥12 years and in World Health Organization functional class II-III were randomized 1:1 to placebo or macitentan 10 mg once daily for 16 weeks. Patients with complex cardiac defects, Down syndrome and background PAH therapy were eligible. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 16 in 6-minute walk distance. Secondary end points included change from baseline to week 16 in World Health Organization functional class. Exploratory end points included NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) at end of treatment expressed as a percentage of baseline. In a hemodynamic substudy, exploratory end points included pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) at week 16 as a percentage of baseline. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty six patients (macitentan n=114; placebo n=112) were randomized. At baseline, 60% of patients were in World Health Organization functional class II and 27% were receiving phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors. At week 16, the mean change from baseline in 6-minute walk distance was 18.3 m and 19.7 m in the macitentan and placebo groups (least-squares mean difference, -4.7 m; 95% confidence limit (CL), -22.8, 13.5; P=0.612). World Health Organization functional class improved from baseline to week 16 in 8.8% and 14.3% of patients in the macitentan and placebo groups (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CL, 0.23, 1.24). NT-proBNP levels decreased with macitentan versus placebo (ratio of geometric means, 0.80; 95% CL, 0.68, 0.94). In the hemodynamic substudy (n=39 patients), macitentan decreased PVRi compared with placebo (ratio of geometric means, 0.87; 95% CL, 0.73, 1.03). The most common adverse events with macitentan versus placebo were headache (11.4 versus 4.5%) and upper respiratory tract infection (9.6 versus 6.3%); a hemoglobin decrease from baseline of ≥2 g/dL occurred in 36.0% versus 8.9% of patients. Five patients (3 macitentan; 2 placebo) prematurely discontinued treatment and 1 patient died (macitentan group). CONCLUSIONS: Macitentan did not show superiority over placebo on the primary end point of change from baseline to week 16 in exercise capacity in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01743001.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Complexo de Eisenmenger/complicações , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/uso terapêutico , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Complexo de Eisenmenger/diagnóstico por imagem , Complexo de Eisenmenger/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
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