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3.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512705

RESUMO

Early thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) recognition is critical as this disease is almost always lethal if not treated promptly with therapeutic plasma exchanges. Currently, as ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) activity is not widely available in emergency, scores have been developed to help differentiating TTP from other thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs). The aim of this work was to study the accuracy of these diagnostic scores in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Performance of both Coppo and PLASMIC scores was studied in a cohort of adult TMA patients requiring admission to one university hospital ICU from 2006 to 2017. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were established, and confidence intervals of the area under the curve (AUC) were determined. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify parameters specifically associated with TTP, to compare diagnostic scores and to elaborate more accurate diagnostic models. During the study period, 154 TMA patients required ICU admission, including 99 (64.2%) TTP and 55 (35.7%) non-TTP patients. AUC under the ROC curve in predicting TTP was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.92) for the Coppo score, 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58-0.76) for the PLASMIC score, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.81-0.92) for platelet count alone. Platelet count ≤20 G/L, determined as the best cut-off rate for thrombocytopenia, performed similarly to the Coppo score and better than the PLASMIC score to differentiate TTP from non-TTP patients, both using AUC ROC curve and logistic regression. In a monocentric cohort of TMA patients requiring ICU admission, the PLASMIC score had limited performance for the diagnosis of TTP. The performance of the Coppo score was good but similar to a single highly discriminant item: platelet count ≤20 G/L at admission.

5.
Blood ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150928

RESUMO

The anti-von Willebrand factor nanobody caplacizumab was licensed for adults with immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) based on prospective controlled trials. However, few data are available on post-marketing surveillance. We treated 90 iTTP patients with a compassionate frontline "triplet regimen" associating therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), immunosuppression with corticosteroids and rituximab, and caplacizumab. Outcomes were compared to 180 historical patients treated with the standard frontline treatment (TPE and corticosteroids, with rituximab as salvage therapy). The primary outcome was a composite of refractoriness and death within 30 days since diagnosis. Key secondary outcomes were exacerbations, time to platelet count recovery, the number of TPE and the volume of plasma required to achieve durable remission. The percentage of patients in the triplet regimen with the composite primary outcome was 2.2% vs. 12.2% in historical patients (p=0.01). One elderly patient in the triplet regimen died of pulmonary embolism. Patients from this cohort experienced less exacerbations (3.4% vs. 44%, p<0.01); they recovered durable platelet count 1.8 times faster than historical patients (95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.36, p<0.01), with fewer TPE sessions and lower plasma volumes (p<0.01 both). The number of days in hospital was 41% lower in the triplet regimen than in the historical cohort (13 days vs. 22 days, p <0.01). Caplacizumab-related adverse events occurred in 46 patients (51%), including 13 major or clinically relevant non-major hemorrhagic events. Associating caplacizumab to TPE and immunosuppression, by addressing the three processes of iTTP pathophysiology, prevents unfavorable outcomes and alleviates the burden of care.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from defects in immune system. They lead to increased susceptibility to infections and immune dysregulation. The resulting chronic inflammation can induce long-term complications, including AA amyloidosis (AAA). OBJECTIVES: To present the French cases of PID-related AAA and perform a systematic literature review to determine its main features and predisposing factors. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed by searching MEDLINE up until 2019. New French cases were identified with the help of the Reference Center for Auto-Inflammatory Diseases and AA Amyloidosis and the Reference Center for Hereditary Immune Deficiencies. RESULTS: Forty patients were identified including 2 new French cases. PIDs were varied: immunoglobulin deficits (n = 30), chronic granulomatous disease (n = 3), hyper-IgM syndrome (n = 3), hereditary complete C4 deficiency (n = 1), leucocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (n = 1), hyper-IgE syndrome (n = 1), and Chediak-Higashi syndrome (n = 1). The mean age at PID diagnosis was 22.2 ± 16.02 years. Renal involvement was the most common manifestation of AAA (80%). Infections were extremely heterogeneous; bacterial infection with pulmonary involvement was the most frequent. Bronchiectasis was particularly common (52.5%). The delay between the first symptoms of PID and AAA diagnosis was 16.18 ± 7 years. Thirteen concomitant diagnoses were made. Twenty patients died during follow-up. CONCLUSION: AAA is a rare life-threatening complication of PID, especially in cases of long diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Bronchiectasis should be considered as a warning sign of chronic inflammation and increased risk of AAA.

7.
Hematol Oncol ; 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099794

RESUMO

Reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (rHLH) management requires early recognition, trigger identification, and adequate treatment in order to reduce mortality. We assessed the diagnostic yield of tissue biopsies to identify trigger in severe rHLH. We included all consecutive patients presenting an rHLH diagnosis (HLH-2004 criteria) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital. This retrospective diagnostic accuracy study was conducted according to the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Statement. Among the 134 included patients (median age 47 years [IQR 47-56]), an underlying immunodeficiency was previously known in 61.2%. rHLH trigger was identified in 127 patients (94.8%) (hematological disorder 75%, infection 16%, systemic disease 4%). Diagnostic yield of tissue biopsies was as follows: lymph node 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61-85), skin 50% (95% CI, 27-73), bone marrow 44% (95% CI, 34-55), liver 30% (95% CI, 15-49). Splenectomy (yield 77%; 95% CI, 46-95) was reserved to cases of diagnostic deadlock. Procedural severe adverse events included two cases of reversible hemorrhagic shock. Seventy-eight percent of patients received etoposide regarding to the rHLH severity, and 68% could receive trigger-specific treatment in the ICU. A comprehensive diagnostic workup led to an rHLH trigger identification in 95% of patients, allowing prompt initiation of appropriate therapy. Prospective studies to validate a standardized diagnostic approach are warranted.

9.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 223, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) levels can be measured in both serum and whole blood. No cut-off point for non-adherence has been established in serum nor have these methods ever been compared. The aims of this study were to compare these two approaches and determine if serum HCQ cut-off points can be established to identify non-adherent patients. METHODS: HCQ levels were measured in serum and whole blood from 573 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The risk factors for active SLE (SLEDAI score > 4) were identified by multiple logistic regression. Serum HCQ levels were measured in 68 additional patients known to be non-adherent, i.e. with whole-blood HCQ < 200 ng/mL. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) HCQ levels were 469 ± 223 ng/mL in serum and 916 ± 449 ng/mL in whole blood. The mean ratio of serum/whole-blood HCQ levels was 0.53 ± 0.15. In the multivariate analysis, low whole-blood HCQ levels (P = 0.023), but not serum HCQ levels, were independently associated with active SLE. From the mean serum/whole-blood level ratio, a serum HCQ level of 106 ng/mL was extrapolated as the corresponding cut-off to identify non-adherent patients with a sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.76-0.94) and specificity of 0.89 (95% CI 0.72-0.98). All serum HCQ levels of patients with whole-blood HCQ below the detectable level (< 20 ng/mL) were also undetectable (< 20 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that whole blood is better than serum for assessing the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relation of HCQ. Our results support the use of serum HCQ levels to assess non-adherence when whole blood is unavailable.

10.
Hemasphere ; 4(4): e462, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885148

RESUMO

Following an acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) episode, patients are at risk for relapse, and a careful long-term follow-up is needed. Adherence to the follow-up by patients implies a good understanding of the disease. However, TTP literacy in patients is currently unknown. To explore the TTP literacy in patients and identify factors associated with poor disease understanding, a questionnaire was developed focusing on patient's characteristics, knowledge about TTP and patients' actions in an emergency. The questionnaire was presented to 120 TTP patients in remission from the French National Registry for Thrombotic Microangiopathies. TTP literacy was low in 24%, intermediate in 43% and high in 33% of the patients. Low TTP literacy was associated with older age and low education level. Among the knowledge gaps identified, few patients knew that plasma exchange in acute phase is mandatory and has to be done daily (39%), 47% of participants did not consider themselves at risk for relapse, and 30% of women did not know that pregnancy exposes them to a greater risk of relapse. Importantly, few patients responded about life-saving actions in an emergency. Hence, the design of educational material should pay special attention to the age and education level of the target population focusing on the events leading to TTP, the importance of the emergency treatment, controllable predisposing factors for TTP development and patient attitude in an emergency.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identification of biological markers able to better stratify cardiovascular risks in SLE patients is needed. We aimed to determine whether serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels measured with a highly sensitive assay [high sensitivity cTnT (HS-cTnT)] may predict cardiovascular events (CVEs) in SLE. METHOD: All SLE patients included between 2007 and 2010 in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre PLUS trial were screened. Patients with no past history of CVE at inclusion and a follow-up period of >20 months were analysed. HS-cTnT concentration was measured using the electrochemiluminescence method on serum collected at PLUS inclusion. The primary outcome was the incident CVE. Factors associated with the primary outcome were identified and multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 442 SLE patients (of the 573 included in the PLUS study) were analysed for the primary outcome with a median follow up of 110 (interquartile range: 99-120) months. Among them, 29 (6.6%) experienced at least one CVE that occurred at a median of 67 (interquartile range: 31-91) months after inclusion. Six out of 29 patients had more than one CVE. In the multivariate analysis, dyslipidaemia, age and HS-cTnT were associated with the occurrence of CVE. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a concentration of HS-cTnT > 4.27 ng/l at inclusion increased by 2.7 [hazard ratio 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3, 5.6), P =0.0083] the risk of CVE in SLE. CONCLUSION: HS-cTnT measured in serum is the first identified biomarker independently associated with incident CVE in SLE patients.

12.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812031

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) preferentially infects epithelial cells and B lymphocytes and sometimes T and NK lymphocytes. Persistence of EBV-infected cells results in severe lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Diagnosis of EBV-driven T or NK cell LPD and chronic active EBV diseases (CAEBV) is difficult, often requiring biopsies. Herein, we report a flow-FISH cytometry assay that detects cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), allowing rapid identification of EBV-infected cells among PBMCs. EBV-infected B, T, and/or NK cells were detectable in various LPD conditions. Diagnosis of CAEBV in 22 patients of Caucasian and African origins was established. All exhibited circulating EBV-infected T and/or NK cells, highlighting that CAEBV is not restricted to native American and Asian populations. Proportions of EBV-infected cells correlated with blood EBV loads. We showed that EBV-infected T cells had an effector memory activated phenotype, whereas EBV-infected B cells expressed plasma cell differentiation markers. Thus, this method achieves accurate and unambiguous diagnoses of different forms of EBV-driven LPD and represents a powerful tool to study their pathophysiological mechanisms.

13.
Am J Hematol ; 95(11): 1314-1323, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720700

RESUMO

FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia (F/P+ MN-eo) is a rare disease: robust epidemiological data are lacking and reported issues are scarce, of low sample-size and limited follow-up. Imatinib mesylate (IM) is highly efficient but no predictive factor of relapse after discontinuation has yet been identified. One hundred and fifty-one patients with F/P+ MN-eo (143 males; mean age at diagnosis 49 years; mean annual incidence: 0.18 case per million population) were included in this retrospective nationwide study involving all French laboratories who perform the search of F/P fusion gene (study period: 2003-2019). The main organs involved included the spleen (44%), skin (32%), lungs (30%), heart (19%) and central nervous system (9%). Serum vitamin B12 and tryptase levels were elevated in 74/79 (94%) and 45/57 (79%) patients, respectively, and none of the 31 patients initially treated with corticosteroids achieved complete hematologic remission. All 148 (98%) IM-treated patients achieved complete hematologic and molecular (when tested, n = 84) responses. Forty-six patients eventually discontinued IM, among whom 20 (57%) relapsed. In multivariate analysis, time to IM initiation (continuous HR: 1,01 [0.99-1,03]; P = .05) and duration of IM treatment (continuous HR: 0,97 [0,95-0,99]; P = .004) were independent factors of relapse after discontinuation of IM. After a mean follow-up of 80 (56) months, the 1, 5- and 10-year overall survival rates in IM-treated patients were 99%, 95% and 84% respectively. In F/P+ MN-eo, prompt initiation of IM and longer treatment durations may prevent relapses after discontinuation of IM.

17.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(2): 329-342, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016535

RESUMO

The widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) has converted the prognosis of HIV infection from a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal disease to a chronic condition with limited impact on life expectancy. Yet, HIV-infected patients remain at high risk for critical illness due to the occurrence of severe opportunistic infections in those with advanced immunosuppression (i.e., inaugural admissions or limited access to cART), a pronounced susceptibility to bacterial sepsis and tuberculosis at every stage of HIV infection, and a rising prevalence of underlying comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, atherosclerosis or non-AIDS-defining neoplasms in cART-treated patients aging with controlled viral replication. Several patterns of intensive care have markedly evolved in this patient population over the late cART era, including a steady decline in AIDS-related admissions, an opposite trend in admissions for exacerbated comorbidities, the emergence of additional drivers of immunosuppression (e.g., anti-neoplastic chemotherapy or solid organ transplantation), the management of cART in the acute phase of critical illness, and a dramatic progress in short-term survival that mainly results from general advances in intensive care practices. Besides, there is a lack of data regarding other features of ICU and post-ICU care in these patients, especially on the impact of sociological factors on clinical presentation and prognosis, the optimal timing of cART introduction in AIDS-related admissions, determinants of end-of-life decisions, long-term survival, and functional outcomes. In this narrative review, we sought to depict the current evidence regarding the management of HIV-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/fisiopatologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/etiologia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Clin Case Rep ; 8(1): 51-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998485

RESUMO

We describe a unique case of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis-like lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus. This suggests that some lupus patients may have immunological abnormalities resembling to those described in chronic HTLV-1 infection.

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