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1.
Oncogene ; 40(44): 6235-6247, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556814

RESUMO

ISG15 is an ubiquitin-like modifier that is associated with reduced survival rates in breast cancer patients. The mechanism by which ISG15 achieves this however remains elusive. We demonstrate that modification of Rab GDP-Dissociation Inhibitor Beta (GDI2) by ISG15 (ISGylation) alters endocytic recycling of the EGF receptor (EGFR) in non-interferon stimulated cells using CRISPR-knock out models for ISGylation. By regulating EGFR trafficking, ISGylation enhances EGFR recycling and sustains Akt-signalling. We further show that Akt signalling positively correlates with levels of ISG15 and its E2-ligase in basal breast cancer cohorts, confirming the link between ISGylation and Akt signalling in human tumours. Persistent and enhanced Akt activation explains the more aggressive tumour behaviour observed in human breast cancers. We show that ISGylation can act as a driver of tumour progression rather than merely being a bystander.

2.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379360

RESUMO

The outlook for patients with pancreatic cancer remains dismal. Treatment options are limited and chemotherapy remains standard of care, leading to only modest survival benefits. Hence, there is a great need to further explore the mechanistic basis for the intrinsic therapeutic resistance of this disease, and to identify novel predictive biomarkers. RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has emerged as a promising biomarker of disease severity and chemotherapy response in several types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to unearth RBM3-regulated genes and proteins in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, and to examine their expression and prognostic significance in human tumours. Next-generation RNA sequencing was applied to compare transcriptomes of MIAPaCa-2 cells with and without RBM3 knockdown. The prognostic value of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was examined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Top deregulated genes were selected for further studies in vitro and for immunohistochemical analysis of corresponding protein expression in tumours from a clinically well-annotated consecutive cohort of 46 patients with resected pancreatic cancer. In total, 19 DEGs (p < 0.01) were revealed, among which some with functions in cell cycle and cell division stood out; PDS5A (PDS cohesin associated factor A) as the top downregulated gene, CCND3 (cyclin D3) as the top upregulated gene, and PRR11 (proline rich 11) as being highly prognostic in TCGA. Silencing of RBM3 in MiaPaCa-2 cells led to congruent alterations of PDS5A, cyclin D3, and PRR11 levels. High protein expression of PRR11 was associated with adverse clinicopathological features and shorter overall survival. Neither PDS5A nor cyclin D3 protein expression was prognostic. This study unveils several RBM3-regulated genes with potential clinical relevance in pancreatic cancer, among which PRR11 shows the most consistent association with disease severity, at both transcriptome and protein levels.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 168, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease progression and therapeutic resistance are hallmarks of advanced stage prostate cancer (PCa), which remains a major cause of cancer-related mortality around the world. Longitudinal studies, coupled with the use of liquid biopsies, offer a potentially new and minimally invasive platform to study the dynamics of tumour progression. Our aim was to investigate the dynamics of personal DNA methylomic profiles of metastatic PCa (mPCa) patients, during disease progression and therapy administration. RESULTS: Forty-eight plasma samples from 9 mPCa patients were collected, longitudinally, over 13-21 months. After circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) isolation, DNA methylation was profiled using the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip. The top 5% most variable probes across time, within each individual, were utilised to study dynamic methylation patterns during disease progression and therapeutic response. Statistical testing was carried out to identify differentially methylated genes (DMGs) in cfDNA, which were subsequently validated in two independent mPCa (cfDNA and FFPE tissue) cohorts. Individual cfDNA global methylation patterns were temporally stable throughout the disease course. However, a proportion of CpG sites presented a dynamic temporal pattern that was consistent with clinical events, including different therapies, and were prominently associated with genes linked to immune response pathways. Additionally, study of the tumour fraction of cfDNA identified > 2000 DMGs with dynamic methylation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal assessment of cfDNA methylation in mPCa patients unveiled dynamic patterns associated with disease progression and therapy administration, thus highlighting the potential of using liquid biopsies to study PCa evolution at a methylomic level.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(21): 5931-5938, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380638

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To validate the clinical performance of the OncoMasTR Risk Score in the biomarker cohort of Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) Trial 8. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated the OncoMasTR test in 1,200 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical specimens from postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative primary breast cancer with 0 to 3 involved lymph nodes in the prospective, randomized ABCSG Trial 8. Time to distant recurrence (DR) was analyzed by Cox models. RESULTS: The OncoMasTR Risk Score categorized 850 of 1,087 (78.2%) evaluable patients as "low risk". At 10 years, the DR rate for patients in the low-risk group was 5.8% versus 21.1% for patients in the high-risk group (P < 0.0001, absolute risk reduction 15.3%). The OncoMasTR Risk Score was highly prognostic for prediction of DR in years 0 to 10 in all patients [HR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.26, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.73], in patients that were node negative (HR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.43-2.24, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.72), and in patients with 1 to 3 involved lymph nodes (HR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.44-2.58, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.71). The OncoMasTR Risk Score provided significant additional prognostic information beyond clinical parameters, Ki67, Nottingham Prognostic Index, and Clinical Treatment Score. CONCLUSIONS: OncoMasTR Risk Score is highly prognostic for DR in postmenopausal women with ER-positive, HER2-negative primary breast cancer with 0 to 3 involved lymph nodes. In combination with prior validation studies, this fully independent validation in ABCSG Trial 8 provides level 1B evidence for the prognostic capability of the OncoMasTR Risk Score.

5.
Analyst ; 146(13): 4195-4211, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060548

RESUMO

The diagnosis of prostate cancer is challenging due to the heterogeneity of its presentations, leading to the over diagnosis and treatment of non-clinically important disease. Accurate diagnosis can directly benefit a patient's quality of life and prognosis. Towards addressing this issue, we present a learning model for the automatic identification of prostate cancer. While many prostate cancer studies have adopted Raman spectroscopy approaches, none have utilised the combination of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) and other imaging modalities. This study uses multimodal images formed from stained Digital Histopathology (DP) and unstained RCI. The approach was developed and tested on a set of 178 clinical samples from 32 patients, containing a range of non-cancerous, Gleason grade 3 (G3) and grade 4 (G4) tissue microarray samples. For each histological sample, there is a pathologist labelled DP-RCI image pair. The hypothesis tested was whether multimodal image models can outperform single modality baseline models in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Binary non-cancer/cancer models and the more challenging G3/G4 differentiation were investigated. Regarding G3/G4 classification, the multimodal approach achieved a sensitivity of 73.8% and specificity of 88.1% while the baseline DP model showed a sensitivity and specificity of 54.1% and 84.7% respectively. The multimodal approach demonstrated a statistically significant 12.7% AUC advantage over the baseline with a value of 85.8% compared to 73.1%, also outperforming models based solely on RCI and mean and median Raman spectra. Feature fusion of DP and RCI does not improve the more trivial task of tumour identification but does deliver an observed advantage in G3/G4 discrimination. Building on these promising findings, future work could include the acquisition of larger datasets for enhanced model generalization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 152: 78-89, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090143

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic performance of a 6-gene molecular score (OncoMasTR Molecular Score [OMm]) and a composite risk score (OncoMasTR Risk Score [OM]) and to conduct a within-patient comparison against four routinely used molecular and clinicopathological risk assessment tools: Oncotype DX Recurrence Score, Ki67, Nottingham Prognostic Index and Clinical Risk Category, based on the modified Adjuvant! Online definition and three risk factors: patient age, tumour size and grade. METHODS: Biospecimens and clinicopathological information for 404 Irish women also previously enrolled in the Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment [Rx] were provided by 11 participating hospitals, as the primary objective of an independent translational study. Gene expression measured via RT-qPCR was used to calculate OMm and OM. The prognostic value for distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) and invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided ones. RESULTS: OMm and OM (both with likelihood ratio statistic [LRS] P < 0.001; C indexes = 0.84 and 0.85, respectively) were more prognostic for DRFS and provided significant additional prognostic information to all other assessment tools/factors assessed (all LRS P ≤ 0.002). In addition, the OM correctly classified more patients with distant recurrences (DRs) into the high-risk category than other risk classification tools. Similar results were observed for IDFS. DISCUSSION: Both OncoMasTR scores were significantly prognostic for DRFS and IDFS and provided additional prognostic information to the molecular and clinicopathological risk factors/tools assessed. OM was also the most accurate risk classification tool for identifying DR. A concise 6-gene signature with superior risk stratification was shown to increase prognosis reliability, which may help clinicians optimise treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Mama/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/análise , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 626349, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937029

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates that breakdown of the+ protective mucosal barrier of the gut plays a role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Inflammation and oxidative stress in the colonic epithelium are thought to be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis and the breakdown of the integrity of the colonic barrier may increase the exposure of colonocytes to toxins from the colonic milieu, enhancing inflammatory processes and release of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The aetiological importance of the gut microbiome and its composition - influenced by consumption of processed meats, red meats and alcoholic drinks, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity - in CRC development is also increasingly being recognized. The gut microbiome has diverse roles, such as in nutrient metabolism and immune modulation. However, microbial encroachment towards the colonic epithelium may promote inflammation and oxidative stress and even translocation of species across the colonic lumen. Recent research suggests that factors that modify the above mechanisms, e.g., obesity and Western diet, also alter gut microbiota, degrade the integrity of the gut protective barrier, and expose colonocytes to toxins. However, it remains unclear how obesity, lifestyle and metabolic factors contribute to gut-barrier integrity, leading to metabolic disturbance, colonocyte damage, and potentially to CRC development. This review will discuss the interactive roles of gut-barrier dysfunction, microbiome dysbiosis, and exposure to endogenous toxins as another mechanism in CRC development, and how biomarkers of colonic mucosal barrier function may provide avenues for disease, prevention and detection.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(3): 807-818, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one mechanism of action of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), like lapatinib, may have added therapeutic value in combination with mAbs through enhanced ADCC activity. Using clinical data, we examined the impact of lapatinib on HER2/EGFR expression levels and natural killer (NK) cell gene signatures. We investigated the ability of three TKIs (lapatinib, afatinib, and neratinib) to alter HER2/immune-related protein levels in preclinical models of HER2-positive (HER2+) and HER2-low breast cancer, and the subsequent effects on trastuzumab/pertuzumab-mediated ADCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Preclinical studies (proliferation assays, Western blotting, high content analysis, and flow cytometry) employed HER2+ (SKBR3 and HCC1954) and HER2-low (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, and CAL-51) breast cancer cell lines. NCT00524303 provided reverse phase protein array-determined protein levels of HER2/pHER2/EGFR/pEGFR. RNA-based NK cell gene signatures (CIBERSORT/MCP-counter) post-neoadjuvant anti-HER2 therapy were assessed (NCT00769470/NCT01485926). ADCC assays utilized flow cytometry-based protocols. RESULTS: Lapatinib significantly increased membrane HER2 levels, while afatinib and neratinib significantly decreased levels in all preclinical models. Single-agent lapatinib increased HER2 or EGFR levels in 10 of 11 (91%) tumor samples. NK cell signatures increased posttherapy (P = 0.03) and associated with trastuzumab response (P = 0.01). TKI treatment altered mAb-induced NK cell-mediated ADCC in vitro, but it did not consistently correlate with HER2 expression in HER2+ or HER2-low models. The ADCC response to trastuzumab and pertuzumab combined did not exceed either mAb alone. CONCLUSIONS: TKIs differentially alter tumor cell phenotype which can impact NK cell-mediated response to coadministered antibody therapies. mAb-induced ADCC response is relevant when rationalizing combinations for clinical investigation.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260953

RESUMO

Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is challenging to treat with the androgen receptor (AR), the main target and key focus of resistance. Understanding the mechanisms of AR interaction with co-regulators will identify new therapeutic targets to overcome AR resistance mechanisms. We previously identified the serum response factor (SRF) as a lead target in an in vitro model of CRPC and showed that SRF expression in tissues of CRPC patients was associated with shorter survival. Here, we tested SRF inhibition in vitro and in vivo to assess SRF as a potential target in CRPC. Inhibition of SRF with the small-molecule inhibitor CCG1423 resulted in enhanced response to enzalutamide in vitro and reduced tumour volume of LuCaP 35CR, a CRPC patient-derived xenograft model. Nuclear localisation of AR post-CCG1423 was significantly decreased and was associated with decreased α-tubulin acetylation in vitro and decreased prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in vivo. SRF immunoreactivity was tested in metastatic tissues from CRPC patients to investigate its role in enzalutamide response. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that high SRF expression was associated with shorter response to enzalutamide. Our study supports the use of SRF inhibitors to improve response to enzalutamide.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066609

RESUMO

Resistance to chemotherapy often results from dysfunctional apoptosis, however multiple proteins with overlapping functions regulate this pathway. We sought to determine whether an extensively validated, deterministic apoptosis systems model, 'DR_MOMP', could be used as a stratification tool for the apoptosis sensitiser and BCL-2 antagonist, ABT-199 in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of colorectal cancer (CRC). Through quantitative profiling of BCL-2 family proteins, we identified two PDX models which were predicted by DR_MOMP to be sufficiently sensitive to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy (CRC0344), or less responsive to chemotherapy but sensitised by ABT-199 (CRC0076). Treatment with ABT-199 significantly improved responses of CRC0076 PDXs to 5-FU-based chemotherapy, but showed no sensitisation in CRC0344 PDXs, as predicted from systems modelling. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) scans were performed to investigate possible early biomarkers of response. In CRC0076, a significant post-treatment decrease in mean standard uptake value was indeed evident only in the combination treatment group. Radiomic CT feature analysis of pre-treatment images in CRC0076 and CRC0344 PDXs identified features which could phenotypically discriminate between models, but were not predictive of treatment responses. Collectively our data indicate that systems modelling may identify metastatic (m)CRC patients benefitting from ABT-199, and that 18F-FDG-PET could independently support such predictions.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066024

RESUMO

Metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare, but often lethal, form of ocular cancer arising from melanocytes within the uveal tract. UM has a high propensity to spread hematogenously to the liver, with up to 50% of patients developing liver metastases. Unfortunately, once liver metastasis occurs, patient prognosis is extremely poor with as few as 8% of patients surviving beyond two years. There are no standard-of-care therapies available for the treatment of metastatic UM, hence it is a clinical area of urgent unmet need. Here, the clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLT1 and CysLT2) in UM was evaluated. High expression of CYSLTR1 or CYSLTR2 transcripts is significantly associated with poor disease-free survival and poor overall survival in UM patients. Digital pathology analysis identified that high expression of CysLT1 in primary UM is associated with reduced disease-specific survival (p = 0.012; HR 2.76; 95% CI 1.21-6.3) and overall survival (p = 0.011; HR 1.46; 95% CI 0.67-3.17). High CysLT1 expression shows a statistically significant (p = 0.041) correlation with ciliary body involvement, a poor prognostic indicator in UM. Small molecule drugs targeting CysLT1 were vastly superior at exerting anti-cancer phenotypes in UM cell lines and zebrafish xenografts than drugs targeting CysLT2. Quininib, a selective CysLT1 antagonist, significantly inhibits survival (p < 0.0001), long-term proliferation (p < 0.0001), and oxidative phosphorylation (p < 0.001), but not glycolysis, in primary and metastatic UM cell lines. Quininib exerts opposing effects on the secretion of inflammatory markers in primary versus metastatic UM cell lines. Quininib significantly downregulated IL-2 and IL-6 in Mel285 cells (p < 0.05) but significantly upregulated IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-2 (p < 0.0001), IL-13, IL-8 (p < 0.001), IL-12p70 and IL-6 (p < 0.05) in OMM2.5 cells. Finally, quininib significantly inhibits tumour growth in orthotopic zebrafish xenograft models of UM. These preclinical data suggest that antagonism of CysLT1, but not CysLT2, may be of therapeutic interest in the treatment of UM.

12.
Cancer Res ; 80(22): 5076-5088, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004351

RESUMO

Approximately 70% of breast cancers express estrogen receptor α (ERα) and depend on this key transcriptional regulator for proliferation and differentiation. While patients with this disease can be treated with targeted antiendocrine agents, drug resistance remains a significant issue, with almost half of patients ultimately relapsing. Elucidating the mechanisms that control ERα function may further our understanding of breast carcinogenesis and reveal new therapeutic opportunities. Here, we investigated the role of deubiquitinases (DUB) in regulating ERα in breast cancer. An RNAi loss-of-function screen in breast cancer cells targeting all DUBs identified USP11 as a regulator of ERα transcriptional activity, which was further validated by assessment of direct transcriptional targets of ERα. USP11 expression was induced by estradiol, an effect that was blocked by tamoxifen and not observed in ERα-negative cells. Mass spectrometry revealed a significant change to the proteome and ubiquitinome in USP11-knockdown (KD) cells in the presence of estradiol. RNA sequencing in LCC1 USP11-KD cells revealed significant suppression of cell-cycle-associated and ERα target genes, phenotypes that were not observed in LCC9 USP11-KD, antiendocrine-resistant cells. In a breast cancer patient cohort coupled with in silico analysis of publicly available cohorts, high expression of USP11 was significantly associated with poor survival in ERα-positive (ERα+) patients. Overall, this study highlights a novel role for USP11 in the regulation of ERα activity, where USP11 may represent a prognostic marker in ERα+ breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: A newly identified role for USP11 in ERα transcriptional activity represents a novel mechanism of ERα regulation and a pathway to be exploited for the management of ER-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/fisiologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Tioléster Hidrolases/fisiologia , Transativadores/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Genes cdc , Humanos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Proteoma , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Tioléster Hidrolases/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Life (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927694

RESUMO

We sought to validate the BDII/Han rat model as a model for diet-induced obesity in endometrial cancer (EC) and determine if transcriptomic changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) in an EC rat model can be used to identify novel biomarkers in human EC. Nineteen BDII/Han rats were included. Group A (n = 7) were given ad lib access to a normal calorie, normal chow diet (NCD) while Group B (n = 12) were given ad lib access to a calorie rich HFD for 15 months. RNAseq was performed on endometrial tumours from both groups. The top-ranking differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were examined in the human EC using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to assess if the BDII/Han rat model is an appropriate model for human obesity-induced carcinogenesis. Weight gain in HFD rats was double the weight gain of NCD rats (50 g vs. 25 g). The incidence of cancer was similar in both groups (4/7-57% vs. 4/12-33%; p = 0.37). All tumours were equivalent to a Stage 1A, Grade 2 human endometrioid carcinoma. A total of 368 DEGs were identified between the tumours in the HFD group compared to the NCD group. We identified two upstream regulators of the DEGs, mir-33 and Brd4, and a pathway analysis identified downstream enrichment of the colorectal cancer metastasis and ovarian cancer metastasis pathways. Top-ranking DEGs included Tex14, A2M, Hmgcs2, Adamts5, Pdk4, Crabp2, Capn12, Npw, Idi1 and Gpt. A2M expression was decreased in HFD tumours. Consistent with these findings, we found a significant negative correlation between A2M mRNA expression levels and BMI in the TCGA cohort (Spearman's Rho = -0.263, p < 0.001). A2M expression was associated with improved overall survival (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.9, p = 0.024). Crabp2 expression was increased in HFD tumours. In human EC, CRABP2 expression was associated with reduced overall survival (HR = 3.554, 95% CI 1.875-6.753, p < 0.001). Diet-induced obesity can alter EC transcriptomic profiles. The BDII/Han rat model is a suitable model of diet-induced obesity in endometrial cancer and can be used to identify clinically relevant biomarkers in human EC.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708702

RESUMO

Cancer clinical trials (CCTs) are critical to translation and development of better therapies to improve outcomes. CCTs require adequate patient involvement but accrual rates are low globally. Several known barriers impede participation and knowing how subpopulations differ in understanding of CCTs can foster targeted approaches to aid accrual and advance cancer treatments. We conducted the first nationwide survey of 1089 patients attending 14 Irish cancer centres, assessing understanding of fundamental concepts in CCT methodology and factors that influence participation, to help tailor patient support for accrual to CCTs. Two-thirds (66%) of patients reported never having been offered a CCT and only 5% of those not offered asked to participate. Misunderstanding of clinical equipoise was prevalent. There were differences in understanding of randomisation of treatment by age (p < 0.0001), ethnicity (p = 0.035) and marital status (p = 0.013), and 58% of patients and 61% previous CCT participants thought that their doctor would ensure better treatment in CCTs. Females were slightly more risk averse. Males indicated a greater willingness to participate in novel drug trials (p = 0.001, p = 0.003). The study identified disparities in several demographics; older, widowed, living in provincial small towns and fewer years-educated patients had generally poorer understanding of CCTs, highlighting requirements for targeted support in these groups.

15.
Cancer Res ; 80(14): 2983-2995, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503808

RESUMO

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors (TF) are well known for their ability to induce mesenchymal states associated with increased migratory and invasive properties. Unexpectedly, nuclear expression of the EMT-TF ZEB2 in human primary melanoma has been shown to correlate with reduced invasion. We report here that ZEB2 is required for outgrowth for primary melanomas and metastases at secondary sites. Ablation of Zeb2 hampered outgrowth of primary melanomas in vivo, whereas ectopic expression enhanced proliferation and growth at both primary and secondary sites. Gain of Zeb2 expression in pulmonary-residing melanoma cells promoted the development of macroscopic lesions. In vivo fate mapping made clear that melanoma cells undergo a conversion in state where ZEB2 expression is replaced by ZEB1 expression associated with gain of an invasive phenotype. These findings suggest that reversible switching of the ZEB2/ZEB1 ratio enhances melanoma metastatic dissemination. SIGNIFICANCE: ZEB2 function exerts opposing behaviors in melanoma by promoting proliferation and expansion and conversely inhibiting invasiveness, which could be of future clinical relevance. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/14/2983/F1.large.jpg.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Melanoma/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9778, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555399

RESUMO

Chemotherapy combined with the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab (BVZ) is approved as a first-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Limited clinical benefit underpins the need for improved understanding of resistance mechanisms and the elucidation of novel predictive biomarkers. We assessed germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 180 mCRC patients (Angiopredict [APD] cohort) treated with combined BVZ + chemotherapy and investigated previously reported predictive SNPs. We further employed a machine learning approach to identify novel associations. In the APD cohort IL8 rs4073 any A carriers, compared to TT carriers, were associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.51, 95% CI:1.03-2.22, p-value = 0.037) and TBK1 rs7486100 TT carriers, compared to any A carriers, were associated with worse PFS in KRAS wild-type (wt) patients (HR = 1.94, 95% CI:1.04-3.61, p-value = 0.037), replicating previous findings. Machine learning identified novel associations in genes encoding the inflammasome protein NLRP1 and the ER protein Sarcalumenin (SRL). A negative association between PFS and carriers of any A at NLRP1 rs12150220 and AA for SRL rs13334970 in APD KRAS wild-type patients (HR = 4.44, 95% CI:1.23-16.13, p-value = 0.005), which validated in two independent clinical cohorts involving BVZ, MAVERICC and TRIBE. Our findings highlight a key role for inflammation and ER signalling underpinning BVZ + chemotherapy responsiveness.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(10): 1027-1037, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tissue-based imaging has emerged as a critical tool in translational cancer research and is rapidly gaining traction within a clinical context. Significant progress has been made in the digital pathology arena, particularly in respect of brightfield and fluorescent imaging. Critically, the cellular context of molecular alterations occurring at DNA, RNA, or protein level within tumor tissue is now being more fully appreciated. Moreover, the emergence of novel multi-marker imaging approaches can now provide unprecedented insights into the tumor microenvironment, including the potential interplay between various cell types. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the recent developments within the field of tissue-based imaging, centering on the application of these approaches in oncology research and clinical practice. EXPERT OPINION: Significant advances have been made in digital pathology during the last 10 years. These include the use of quantitative image analysis algorithms, predictive artificial intelligence (AI) on large datasets of H&E images, and quantification of fluorescence multiplexed tissue imaging data. We believe that new methodologies that can integrate AI-derived histologic data with omic data, together with other forms of imaging data (such as radiologic image data), will enhance our ability to deliver better diagnostics and treatment decisions to the cancer patient.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/patologia , Inteligência Artificial , Gerenciamento Clínico , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Imunofluorescência/normas , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/normas , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Imagem Molecular/normas , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369904

RESUMO

Determining which patients with early-stage breast cancer should receive chemotherapy is an important clinical issue. Chemotherapy has several adverse side effects, impacting on quality of life, along with significant economic consequences. There are a number of multi-gene prognostic signatures for breast cancer recurrence but there is less evidence that these prognostic signatures are predictive of therapy benefit. Biomarkers that can predict patient response to chemotherapy can help avoid ineffective over-treatment. The aim of this work was to assess if the OncoMasTR prognostic signature can predict pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to compare its predictive value with other prognostic signatures: EndoPredict, Oncotype DX and Tumor Infiltrating Leukocytes. Gene expression datasets from ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer patients that had pre-treatment biopsies, received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and an assessment of pCR were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus repository. A total of 813 patients with 66 pCR events were included in the analysis. OncoMasTR, EndoPredict, Oncotype DX and Tumor Infiltrating Leukocytes numeric risk scores were approximated by applying the gene coefficients to the corresponding mean probe expression values. OncoMasTR, EndoPredict and Oncotype DX prognostic scores were moderately well correlated according to the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Association with pCR was estimated using logistic regression. The odds ratio for a 1 standard deviation increase in risk score, adjusted for cohort, were similar in magnitude for all four signatures. Additionally, the four signatures were significant predictors of pCR. OncoMasTR added significant predictive value to EndoPredict, Oncotype DX and Tumor Infiltrating Leukocytes signatures as determined by bivariable and trivariable analysis. In this in silico analysis, OncoMasTR, EndoPredict, Oncotype DX, and Tumor Infiltrating Leukocytes were significantly predictive of pCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer patients.

19.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316111

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of mammary malignancy currently without satisfactory systemic treatment options. Agents generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as ascorbate (Asc) and menadione (Men), especially applied in combination, have been proposed as an alternative anticancer modality. However, their effectiveness can be hampered by the cytoprotective effects of elevated antioxidant enzymes (e.g., peroxiredoxins, PRDX) in cancer. In this study, PRDX1 mRNA and protein expression were assessed in TNBC tissues by analysis of the online RNA-seq datasets and immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray, respectively. We demonstrated that PRDX1 mRNA expression was markedly elevated in primary TNBC tumors as compared to non-malignant controls, with PRDX1 protein staining intensity correlating with favorable survival parameters. Subsequently, PRDX1 functionality in TNBC cell lines or non-malignant mammary cells was targeted by genetic silencing or chemically by auranofin (AUR). The PRDX1-knockdown or AUR treatment resulted in inhibition of the growth of TNBC cells in vitro. These cytotoxic effects were further synergistically potentiated by the incubation with a combination of the prooxidant agents, Asc and Men. In conclusion, we report that the PRDX1-related antioxidant system is essential for maintaining redox homeostasis in TNBC cells and can be an attractive therapeutic target in combination with ROS-generating agents.

20.
Theranostics ; 10(7): 3064-3082, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194855

RESUMO

A successful matching of a PEG group size with the EPR effect for an off-to-on responsive NIR-fluorophore conjugate has been accomplished which allows two distinct in vivo tumor imaging periods, the first being the switch on during the initial tumor uptake via enhanced permeability into the ROI (as background is suppressed) and a second, later, due to enhanced retention within the tumor. Methods: Software simulation (https://mihaitodor.github.io/particle_simulation/index.html), synthetic chemistry, with in vitro and in vivo imaging have been synergistically employed to identify an optimal PEG conjugate of a bio-responsive NIR-AZA fluorophore for in vivo tumor imaging. Results: A bio-responsive NIR-AZA fluorophore conjugated to a 10 kDa PEG group has shown excellent in vivo imaging performance with sustained high tumor to background ratios and peak tumor emission within 24 h. Analysis of fluorescence profiles over 7 days has provided evidence for the EPR effect playing a positive role. Conclusion: Preclinical results show that exploiting the EPR effect by utilizing an optimized PEG substituent on a bio-responsive fluorophore may offer a means for intraoperative tumor margin delineation. The off-to-on responsive nature of the fluorophore makes tumor imaging achievable without waiting for clearance from normal tissue.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade Capilar , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacocinética , Fluorometria/métodos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacocinética , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Intravital , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Peso Molecular , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
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