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1.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 32(supl.1): 86-91, oct. 2018. ilus, tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174237

RESUMO

La vinculación de la universidad con la comunidad a la que pertenece es uno de los principios básicos en los que esta institución se sustenta. Una comunidad será saludable en la medida en que existan múltiples conexiones entre los individuos y las subagrupaciones que la integran. Al trabajar en promoción de la salud, hablar de participación y de modelos participativos implica asumir que personas y comunidades tienen el derecho de autogestionarse. Viabilizar la participación implicará abrir posibilidades para la cogestión, la autonomía, la comprensión de realidades dinámicas, la formalización de alianzas y la transformación de contextos y formas de relación. Implicará entender la salud como un derecho. El trabajo en red es fundamental en un mundo interconectado y global. El Proyecto de Universidades Promotoras de Salud se construye desde sus inicios con la participación de la comunidad universitaria con el objetivo de mejorar las condiciones para la salud, la calidad de vida y el bienestar de todos los miembros de la comunidad. Las universidades son escenarios idóneos para implementar estrategias de mejora de los estilos de vida de sus miembros, que además trasciendan a los espacios universitarios y afecten positivamente a la vida de las personas dentro y fuera de los campus. Las redes de Universidades Promotoras de la Salud en América Latina se institucionalizaron en el año 2003, y tomaron forma de Red Iberoamericana de Universidades Promotoras de la Salud en 2007, en el marco del III Congreso de Universidades Promotoras de la Salud desarrollado en Ciudad Juárez, México. En España se creó en 2008 la Red Española de Universidades Saludables con el objetivo de reforzar el papel de las universidades como entornos promotores de la salud y el bienestar tanto de sus estudiantes como de su personal y de la sociedad, liderando y apoyando procesos de cambio social


The connection of the University with the community to which it belongs is one of the basic principles on which the former is based. A community will be healthy as long as there are many connections between the individuals and sub-groups that form it. Working on health promotion, talking about participation and participatory models implies the assumption that people and communities have the right to self-manage. Implementing participation will involve opening up possibilities for co-management, autonomy, understanding of dynamic realities, the formalization of alliances, the transformation of contexts, and forms of relationship. It will involve understanding health as a right. Networking is fundamental in an interconnected and global world. Since its inception, the Project of Health Promoting Universities has been built with the participation of the university community towards improving the conditions for health, quality of life and well-being of all members of the community. Universities are ideal scenarios to implement strategies to improve the lifestyles of their members that also transcend to the university spaces and positively affect the lives of people on and off campus. The networks of Health Promoting Universities in Latin America were institutionalized in 2003, and took the form of the Ibero-American Network of Health Promoting Universities in 2007 within the framework of the third Conference on Health Promoting Universities held in the city of Juarez, Mexico. In 2008, the Spanish Network of Healthy Universities was created in Spain, in order to enhance the role of universities as environments that promote the health and well-being of their students, their staff and society, leading and supporting processes of social change


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Saúde/tendências , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/educação , Medicina Comunitária/educação , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Participação da Comunidade/tendências , Universidades/tendências , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Programas Gente Saudável/organização & administração
2.
Gac Sanit ; 32 Suppl 1: 86-91, 2018 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266473

RESUMO

The connection of the University with the community to which it belongs is one of the basic principles on which the former is based. A community will be healthy as long as there are many connections between the individuals and sub-groups that form it. Working on health promotion, talking about participation and participatory models implies the assumption that people and communities have the right to self-manage. Implementing participation will involve opening up possibilities for co-management, autonomy, understanding of dynamic realities, the formalization of alliances, the transformation of contexts, and forms of relationship. It will involve understanding health as a right. Networking is fundamental in an interconnected and global world. Since its inception, the Project of Health Promoting Universities has been built with the participation of the university community towards improving the conditions for health, quality of life and well-being of all members of the community. Universities are ideal scenarios to implement strategies to improve the lifestyles of their members that also transcend to the university spaces and positively affect the lives of people on and off campus. The networks of Health Promoting Universities in Latin America were institutionalized in 2003, and took the form of the Ibero-American Network of Health Promoting Universities in 2007 within the framework of the third Conference on Health Promoting Universities held in the city of Juarez, Mexico. In 2008, the Spanish Network of Healthy Universities was created in Spain, in order to enhance the role of universities as environments that promote the health and well-being of their students, their staff and society, leading and supporting processes of social change.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Participação da Comunidade , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Universidades , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
3.
An. psicol ; 34(2): 349-359, mayo 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172807

RESUMO

La violencia de pareja hacia la mujer representa uno de los problemas de salud pública más relevantes. Causa graves consecuencias en la salud. Este estudio plantea detectar el nivel de conocimientos y las opiniones de los profesionales de atención especializada, conocer sus dificultades en la intervención y plantear propuestas de mejora. Para ello se realizó un estudio transversal, llevado a cabo en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, a través de una encuesta voluntaria y anónima. La recogida de datos se realizó en un Excel asociado a la plataforma utilizada. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizaron el SPSS 17 y el STATA 12. La tasa de respuesta total fue del 15%. El 31.5% de los profesionales conocían casos en su entorno; el 24.7% los detectaron en su trabajo. El 25.9% no hicieron nada, consideraron que no tenían la formación necesaria. El 82.5% pensaban que es un problema muy importante. El 50.9% creían que no hay consenso en la actuación; el 19% no sabían que existe un protocolo de actuación. Los profesionales encuestados necesitan formación para poder realizar sus competencias. Cada vez están más concienciados, tienen menos estereotipos y más herramientas de intervención, pero es necesario difundir los protocolos de actuación


Nowadays, partner violence against women is one of the main public health issues. Therefore, it has a severe impact in our health. Objectives: finding the degree of knowledge and thoughts of the specialised health care professionals, knowing the challenges they face when they have to take action as well as suggesting improvements. A transversal study was carried out at the Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, using a voluntary and anonymous survey. The data was collected in an excel file linked to the platform used to take the survey, and the statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17 and STATA 12. The total response rate was 15%. Out of the 31.5% health care professionals that took the survey and knew about partner violence against women cases in their working environment, 24.7% said they detected them whilst working; on the other hand, 25.9% of them did not take any action as they considered they were not properly trained to act. Moreover, 82.5% of those who took the survey considered this to be a serious issue, whilst 50.9% said there was no consensus on action and 19% did not know about the action protocol. Health care professionals need training to conduct their skills in the field; they are increasingly becoming aware of this issue, they are less affected by the preconceptions that may condition their work and have more intervention tools; nevertheless, there is a need to spread action protocols


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência contra a Mulher , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Competência Profissional , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/organização & administração , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 32: 122-34, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302920

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Consenso , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta , Peixes , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Espanha
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 94(21): e831, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020386

RESUMO

This epidemiological survey in Spain estimates the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children up to 5 year of age during a 15-year period (1997-2011). Observational retrospective survey was conducted by reviewing data of the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data, including >98% of Spanish hospitals. All hospitalizations related to RSV infection for children up to 5 years, reported during 1997-2011 period, were analyzed. Codes were selected by using the International Classification of Diseases 9th Clinical Modification 466.0-466.19, 480.1, and 079.6. A total of 326,175 and 286,007 hospital discharges for children up to 5 and 2 years of age were reported during the study period. The annual incidence was 1072 and 2413 patients per 100,000, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 (standard deviation 8.2) days. Four hundred forty-six deaths were reported; of those, 403 occurred in children <2 years and 355 (80%) occurred in children <12 months of age. Hospitalization and mortality rates were significantly higher in boys and decrease significantly with age. The higher rate of hospitalization and mortality rates were found in the first year of life. Annual average cost for National Health Care System was € 47 M with a mean hospitalization cost of €2162. The average length of hospitalization and costs were significantly higher in high-risk children. RSV infections in children up to 5 year of age still pose a significant health threat in Spain, especially in the infants. The development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic guidelines focused in children with comorbidities may help reduce the hospital and economic burden of the disease.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/microbiologia , Bronquiolite/mortalidade , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/economia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, ene. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132578

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado son bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, existe preocupación a nivel mundial sobre los niveles de metilmercurio en el pescado, por lo que muchos países como Estados Unidos, Australia, Nueza Zelanda, Canadá y muchos países europeos han realizado recomendaciones de consumo de pescado a la población , especialmente a los grupos vulnerables con el fin de reducir la ingesta de metilmercurio. La sangre y el pelo son las mejores muestras biológicas para medir el metilmercurio. El método de análisis más empleado ha sido la espectroscopia de absorción atómica con la técnica del vapor frío, aunque existen también métodos directos que se basan en la descomposición térmica de la muestra. En los últimos años han aumentado los laboratorios que miden el mercurio por espectrometría de masas con plasma acoplado por inducción. Además, se puede diferenciar las distintas especies de mercurio acoplando métodos de separación cromatográficos. Es necesario que los laboratorios que analizan mercurio en muestras biológicas participen en programas de garantía externa de la calidad. Aunque se logre reducir las emisiones de mercurio, el mercurio del medio ambiente altodavía puede permanecer muchos años, por lo que es fundamental el consejo dietético para disminuir la exposición. No es aconsejable el uso de terapia quelante con fines diagnósticos o en pacientes asintomáticos. Es preciso proponer medidas de salud pública encaminadas a la disminución de la exposición al mercurio y que se evalúe también los beneficios de las mismas desde el punto de vista económico y social (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well-known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse ethylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Peixes , Análise Custo-Benefício
9.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, ene. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132579

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, la ingesta de metilmercurio principalmente a través del pescado y marisco contaminado puede producir efectos adversos en la salud. El grupo de estudio para la prevención de la exposición al metilmercurio (GEPREM-Hg), constituido por representantes de diferentessociedades científicas españolas, ha elaborado un documento de consenso donde se recogen en forma de preguntas y respuestas las principales conclusiones, recomendaciones y propuestas planteadas en el grupo. El objetivo del documento es profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores asociados a la exposición al metilmercurio, los posibles efectos sobre la salud en la población española, los métodos de análisis, la interpretación de los resultados, el coste económico y establecer finalmente recomendaciones de consumo de pescados y mariscos. El grupo considera acertadas todas las iniciativas encaminadas a reducir o prohibir el uso del mercurio y la necesidad de conocer los resultados de los análisis de contaminantes que se realizan en los pescados y mariscos que se comercializan en España. Además, opina que se deberían establecer sistemas de biomonitorización para conocer la evolución de la exposición al metilmercurio en niños y adultos y realizar estudios diseñados para conocer los posibles efectos sobre la salud de las concentraciones halladas en la población española, teniendo en cuenta el estilo de vida, los patrones de consumo alimentarios y la dieta mediterránea (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group’s main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta combusking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea
11.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 34(3): 105-123, sept.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131757

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, la ingesta de metilmercurio principalmente a través del pescado y marisco contaminado puede producir efectos adversos en la salud. El grupo de estudio para la prevención de la exposición al metilmercurio (GEPREM-Hg), constituido por representantes de diferentes sociedades científicas españolas, ha elaborado un documento de consenso donde se recogen en forma de preguntas y respuestas las principales conclusiones, recomendaciones y propuestas planteadas en el grupo. El objetivo del documento es profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores asociados a la exposición almetilmercurio, los posibles efectos sobre la salud en la población española, los métodos de análisis, la interpretación de los resultados, el coste económico y establecer finalmente recomendaciones de consumo de pescados y mariscos. El grupo considera acertadas todas las iniciativas encaminadas a reducir o prohibir el uso del mercurio y la necesidad de conocer los resultados de los análisis de contaminantes que se realizan en los pescados y mariscos que se comercializan en España. Además, opina que se deberían establecer sistemas de biomonitorización para conocer la evolución de la exposicional metilmercurio en niños y adultos y realizar estudios diseñados para conocer los posibles efectos sobre la salud de las concentraciones halladas en la población española, teniendo en cuenta el estilo de vida, los patrones de consumo alimentarios y la dieta mediterránea (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methyl mercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methyl mercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methyl mercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methyl mercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fatores de Risco , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Produtos Pesqueiros/efeitos adversos
12.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 969-88, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365001

RESUMO

Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Mercúrio/genética , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/patologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacocinética , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Estado Nutricional , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Alimentos Marinhos , Caracteres Sexuais , Toxicocinética
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365002

RESUMO

The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/epidemiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Gravidez , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 969-988, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132303

RESUMO

El mercurio es un tóxico ambiental que causa numerosos efectos adversos en la salud humana y en los ecosistemas naturales. Los factores que determinan la aparición de efectos adversos y su severidad son entre otros: la forma química del mercurio (elemental, inorgánico, orgánico), la dosis, la edad, la duración de la exposición, la vía de exposición y los factores ambientales, nutricionales y genéticos. En el ciclo acuático del mercurio, una vez que se ha depositado, se transforma en metilmercurio por la acción de determinadas bacterias sulfato reductoras y se bioacumula en los organismos acuáticos incorporándose a la cadena trófica de alimentos. El contenido de metilmercurio es mayor en las especies depredadoras de mayor tamaño y que viven más años como el emperador, pez espada, tiburón, atún o marlín. El metilmercurio se halla unido a las proteínas del pescado por lo que no se elimina mediante la limpieza ni el cocinado del mismo. El feto en desarrollo y los niños pequeños son los más vulnerables a los efectos neurotóxicos del metilmercurio procedente de la ingesta de pescado contaminado. El metilmercurio se absorbe en el tracto gastrointestinal y atraviesa la barrera hematoencefálica y la placenta. Algunos componentes de la dieta como los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, el selenio, la fibra, los compuestos tiol, algunos fitoquímicos y otros nutrientes pueden modificar la bioaccesibilidad del mercurio y su toxicidad. Además de los factores ambientales, los factores genéticos pueden influir en la toxicidad del mercurio y explicar parte de la vulnerabilidad individual (AU)


Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/síntese química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/uso terapêutico , Farmacocinética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacologia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/instrumentação , Selênio , Selênio
15.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132304

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, se ha referido que la ingesta excesiva de metilmercurio procedente del pescado contaminado produce toxicidad neurológica en los niños afectando a la función cognitiva, la memoria, la función visual-motora y al lenguaje. Después de las intoxicaciones de Minamata e Iraq, se realizaron grandes estudios epidemiológicos en Nueva Zelanda, las islas Féroe y las islas Seychelles y se establecieron recomendaciones internacionales sobre el consumo de pescado y marisco en las mujeres embarazadas y niños pequeños. En España, el proyecto Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) ha estudiado los efectos del medio ambiente y de la dieta sobre el desarrollo fetal e infantil en diversas zonas geográficas de España. Los estudios realizados nacionales e internacionales muestran que la concentración de mercurio depende principalmente del consumo de pescado, aunque existe una variabilidad entre los países que podría explicarse no solo por la cantidad de pescado consumida, sino también por el tipo o especies de pescados que se consumen, así como por otro tipo de factores. Aunque los efectos perjudiciales del metilmercurio mejor documentados son los que se producen sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso en el feto y en el recién nacido, cada vez hay más estudios que indican que también puede afectar a la función cognitiva, reproducción y especialmente al riesgo cardiovascular en la población adulta. Sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios para confirmarlo y establecer la existencia de una relación causal (AU)


The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles andinternational recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Animais , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio , Alimentos Marinhos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alimentação
16.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e110530, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25343495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Information on temporal trends can identify groups of people at risk for any particular condition; however information on temporal trends on migraine headache at population levels is scarce. Our aim was to estimate the time trends in the prevalence of migraine from 2003 to 2012 in Spain. METHODS: A population-based national study was conducted. We analyzed data using individualized information taken from national surveys conducted in 2003/4, 2006/7, 2009/10 and 2011/12. A total of 94,158 Spanish adults participated. We considered the presence of self-rated and diagnosed migraine, and we analyzed socio-demographic features, lifestyle habits, self-rated health status, and comorbid diseases using logistic regressions. RESULTS: The prevalence of migraine increased from 6.54% in 2003 to 9.69% in 2012 with significant time trends (adj. OR 1.65; 95%CI 1.50-1.81). The probability of women of suffering migraine was 3 times higher than for men (adj.OR 3.08; 2.82-3.37). There was a declining trend in migraine prevalence as age increased (adj.OR 0.42; 0.35-0.51). Demographic variables associated with migraine were lower educational level (adj.OR 1.32; 1.13-1.54) and not being an immigrant (adj.OR 1.37; 1.15-1.64). A worse self-reported health status was related to higher prevalence of migraine (adj.OR 2.83; 2.59-3.09). The prevalence of migraine also increased as the number of comorbid conditions increased (adj.OR 2.42; 2.05-2.86). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of migraine has increased in the first decade of the 21st century in Spain. Migraine was associated with being female, mid-age, low educational level, not being an immigrant, worse self-rated health status and presence of comorbid conditions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e85697, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24454920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe trends in the rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and use of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain, 2001-2010. METHODS: We selected all patients with a discharge of AMI using national hospital discharge data. Discharges were grouped by diabetes status: type 2 diabetes and no diabetes. In both groups PCIs were identified. The cumulative incidence of discharges attributed to AMI were calculated overall and stratified by diabetes status and year. We calculated length of stay and in-hospital mortality (IHM). Use of PCI was calculated stratified by diabetes status. Multivariate analysis was adjusted by age, sex, year and comorbidity. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2010, 513,517 discharges with AMI were identified (30.3% with type 2 diabetes). The cumulative incidence of discharges due to AMI in diabetics patients increased (56.3 in 2001 to 71 cases per 100,000 in 2004), then decreased to 61.9 in 2010. Diabetic patients had significantly higher IHM (OR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.05-1.17). The proportion of diabetic patients that underwent PCI increased from 11.9% in 2001 to 41.6% in 2010. Adjusted incidence of discharge in patients with diabetes who underwent PCI increased significantly (IRR, 3.49; 95%CI, 3.30-3.69). The IHM among diabetics patients who underwent a PCI did not change significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: AMI hospitalization rates increased initially but declining slowly. From 2001 to 2010 the proportion of diabetic patients who undergo a PCI increased almost four-fold. Older age and more comorbidity may explain why IHM did not improve after a PCI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Public Health ; 24(2): 264-70, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23813710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to describe levels of awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests and to analyze the association to socio-demographic and health-related variables. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted using a home-based personal interview survey on a nationwide representative sample (n = 7938) of population aged ≥18 years (Oncobarometro Survey). Awareness was assessed by asking participants: Now I am going to mention several medical tests for cancer detection, please tell me if you already know about them or if this is the first time you have heard of them? The tests mentioned were faecal occult blood test (FOBT), mammography, Pap smear and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Cancer screening uptake was assessed by asking participants whether they had received tests within the previous 2 years. RESULTS: Awareness rates of 38.55% for FOBT, 95.03% for mammography, 70.84% for Pap smears and 54.72% for PSA were found. Uptake mammography was 74.46%, Pap smears 65.57%, PSA 35.19% and FOBT 9.40%. Factors such as immigration status, lower educational level or income and not suffering from chronic conditions are negative predictors for uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness and uptake results showed acceptable figures for mammography, moderate for Pap smears and unacceptably low for FOBT. Inequalities exist in uptake of cancer screening. It is necessary to develop public health educational programmes, especially for the vulnerable populations, aiming to inform and motivate them to use screening services on a regular basis. Our data suggest that although PSA is not recommended, this opportunistic screening is frequently used in Spain.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561094

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well- known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse methylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia
20.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, 2014 Nov 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561095

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
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