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1.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 30(2): 264-271, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of NSAIDs has become a common practice to counteract the pro-inflammatory acute effects of exercise, in order to improve sports performance. The liver, due to its central role in energy metabolism, may be involved primarily in the process of ROS generation and consequently inflammation after exhaustive exercise. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of diclofenac on the liver TLR4 pathway and time to exhaustion in rats submitted to repeated exhaustive swimming. METHODS: An exhaustive test was performed in order to mimic athletes' routine, and inflammatory status and oxidative stress markers were evaluated in the liver. Animals were divided into sedentary and exhaustion groups, with this last performing three exhaustive swimming bouts. At the same time, diclofenac or saline was pre-administered once a day for nine days. RESULTS: Data showed significantly increased COX-2, TLR4, and MyD88 protein content in the liver after exhaustive swimming bouts. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines also increased after exhaustive exercise, while these effects were attenuated in the group treated with diclofenac plus exhaustive swimming bouts. The anti-inflammatory modulation provoked by diclofenac treatment was associated with an increased time to exhaustion in the exercise bouts. The exhaustive exercise increased TBARS formation, but diclofenac treatment blunted this elevation, while GSH/GSSG ratios in both exhaustion-saline and exhaustion-diclofenac-treated groups were lower than in the sedentary-saline group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diclofenac may improve exercise performance and represent an effective tool to ameliorate the pro-inflammatory status in liver when associated with exhaustive exercise, and the liver may be a possible therapeutic target.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835431

RESUMO

Despite sorafenib effectiveness against advanced hepatocarcinoma (HCC), long-term exposure to antiangiogenic drugs leads to hypoxic microenvironment, a key contributor to chemoresistance acquisition. We aimed to study the role of hypoxia in the development of sorafenib resistance in a human HCC in vitro model employing the HCC line HepG2 and two variants with acquired sorafenib resistance, HepG2S1 and HepG2S3, and CoCl2 as hypoximimetic. Resistant cells exhibited a faster proliferative rate and hypoxia adaptive mechanisms, linked to the increased protein levels and nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF-1α and HIF-2α overexpression was detected even under normoxia through a deregulation of its degradation mechanisms. Proapoptotic markers expression and subG1 population decreased significantly in HepG2S1 and HepG2S3, suggesting evasion of sorafenib-mediated cell death. HIF-1α and HIF-2α knockdown diminished resistant cells viability, relating HIFs overexpression with its prosurvival ability. Additionally, epigenetic silencing of Bcl-2 interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) was observed in sorafenib resistant cells under hypoxia. Demethylation of BNIP3 promoter, but not histone acetylation, restored BNIP3 expression, driving resistant cells' death. Altogether, our results highlight the involvement of HIFs overexpression and BNIP3 methylation-dependent knockdown in the development of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Targeting both prosurvival mechanisms could overcome chemoresistance and improve future therapeutic approaches.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5563, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804490

RESUMO

The prerequisite to prevent childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is to decipher its etiology. The current model suggests that infection triggers B-ALL development through induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID; also known as AICDA) in precursor B-cells. This evidence has been largely acquired through the use of ex vivo functional studies. However, whether this mechanism governs native non-transplant B-ALL development is unknown. Here we show that, surprisingly, AID genetic deletion does not affect B-ALL development in Pax5-haploinsufficient mice prone to B-ALL upon natural infection exposure. We next test the effect of premature AID expression from earliest pro-B-cell stages in B-cell transformation. The generation of AID off-target mutagenic activity in precursor B-cells does not promote B-ALL. Likewise, known drivers of human B-ALL are not preferentially targeted by AID. Overall these results suggest that infections promote B-ALL through AID-independent mechanisms, providing evidence for a new model of childhood B-ALL development.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775362

RESUMO

Quercetin is a flavonoid present in fruits, vegetables and plants with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Its beneficial activities have been demonstrated in different human pathologies, including hepatoprotective effects against liver disorders. High mortality and late diagnosis of the primary liver tumor hepatocarcinoma (HCC) makes this cancer an interesting target for the study of quercetin effects. Our aim was to systematically review antitumor activities of quercetin in HCC preclinical studies employing single, encapsulated, combined or derived quercetin forms. Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (WOS), and 39 studies were finally included. We found that 17 articles evaluated quercetin effects alone, six used encapsulated strategy, 10 combined this flavonoid, two decided to co-encapsulate it and only four studied effects of quercetin derivatives, highlighting that only nine included in vivo models. Results evidence the quercetin antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties against HCC either alone and with the mentioned strategies; nevertheless, few investigations assessed specific activities on different processes related with cancer progression. Overall, further studies including animal models are needed to deeper investigate the precise mechanisms of action of quercetin as antitumor agent, as well as the potential of novel strategies aimed to improve quercetin effects in HCC.

5.
Exp Mol Med ; 51(9): 109, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551425

RESUMO

Regorafenib is a sorafenib-derived chemotherapy drug belonging to the multikinase inhibitor family. This agent effectively targets a wide range of tyrosine kinases involved in cancer biology, such as those implicated in oncogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment control. The beneficial effects of regorafenib in clinical trials of patients who suffer from advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), colorectal cancer (CRC) or gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) refractory to standard treatments led to regorafenib monotherapy approval as a second-line treatment for advanced HCC and as a third-line treatment for advanced CRC and GISTs. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed over the last decade to reveal the molecular mechanisms of the favorable actions exerted by regorafenib in patients. Given the hypothetical loss of sensitivity to regorafenib in tumor cells, preclinical research is also searching for novel therapeutic approaches consisting of co-administration of this drug plus other agents as a strategy to improve regorafenib effectiveness. This review summarizes the anti-tumor effects of regorafenib in single or combined treatment in preclinical models of HCC, CRC and GISTs and discusses both the global and molecular effects that account for its anti-cancer properties in the clinical setting.

6.
Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc ; 26(2): 139-141, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476815

RESUMO

Persistant left superior vena cava is a rare systemic venous anomaly that can be associated with agenesis of the right superior vena cava. It is usually assymptomatic and discovered incidentally during surgery or other procedures. The authors present the case of a 72-year-old male submitted to an aortic valve replacement surgery. After sternotomy, persistant left superior vena cava and absence of the right superior vena cava were identified. The patient developed complete atrioventricular block after surgery, requiring the implantation of a definitive cardiac pacemaker through the brachiocephalic vein and coronary sinus. This case highlights and ilustrates the clinical implications of the described systemic venous anomalies, discussing the necessary management both in the perioperative and intraoperative periods.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Malformações Vasculares/complicações , Veia Cava Superior/anormalidades , Idoso , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Humanos , Masculino
7.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465088

RESUMO

Importance: Preclinical studies suggest that a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade may play a role in the preoperative treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma; however, how to combine anti-VEGF drugs with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and/or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains controversial. Objective: To study the effect of aflibercept plus modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) induction CT prior to standard CRT and total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery in patients with high-risk rectal adenocarcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the Grupo Español Multidisciplinar En Cancer Digestivo (GEMCAD) 1402 phase 2 randomized clinical trial, 180 patients aged 18 to 75 years, identified by centrally reviewed magnetic resonance imaging to have mrT3c-d/T4/N2 rectal adenocarcinoma, were enrolled from 20 treatment centers in Spain between January 2015 and March 2017. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 treatment to control arm ratio. The primary end point was evaluated at 2 interim and 1 final analyses. The study was designed to perform hypothesis testing at α = .2 and ß = .2. A 2-sided P value of <.1984 in the final analysis of the intention-to-treat population was the threshold for considering the experimental treatment to be more effective than the control. Interventions: Patients received neoadjuvant mFOLFOX6 with (arm A; n = 115) or without (arm B; n = 65) aflibercept, 4 mg/kg (every 2 weeks, 6 cycles, and 3 months) prior to standard CRT and TME surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a pathologic complete response (pCR) (ypT0N0). Secondary end points included toxic effects, surgical morbidity, R0 resections, compliance, and 3-year disease-free survival. Results: For the 115 patients who received treatment with mFOLFOX6 plus aflibercept, the median (range) age was 60 (32-75) years, 77 men (66.9%) and 38 women (33.0%). For the 65 patients who received induction CT treatment with only mFOLFOX6, the median (range) age was 65 (39-75) years, 39 men (60.0%) and 26 women (40.0%). The pCR rate in the intention-to-treat population was 22.6% (95% CI, 15.3%-31.3%) in arm A and 13.8% (95% CI, 6.5%-24.6%) in arm B (P = .15). The main differential toxic effect was grade 3/4 hypertension during the induction phase. Postoperative complications were similar in both arms (15.5% in arm A and 12.9% in arm B). A total of 106 patients (92.1%) in arm A and 63 (96.9%) in arm B received all treatment cycles. Conclusions and Relevance: The study met its primary end point. The findings suggest that adding aflibercept to an induction regimen using mFOLFOX6 plays a role in increasing the pCR rate in patients with high-risk rectal adenocarcinoma, without substantially increasing surgical complications. The GEMCAD 1402 trial provides a rationale for phase 3 trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02340949.

8.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(11): 1849-1859, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461750

RESUMO

Research into cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) entails managing dynamic data that pose an analytical challenge. Thus, methods that assume proportional hazards to investigate prognosis entail a risk of misinterpreting or overlooking key traits or time-varying effects. We examined the AGAMENON registry, which collects data from 2,129 patients with advanced gastric cancer. An accelerated failure time (AFT) multistate model and flexible competing risks regression were used to scrutinize the time-varying effect of CAT, as well as to estimate how covariates dynamically predict cumulative incidence. The AFT model revealed that thrombosis shortened progression-free survival and overall survival with adjusted time ratios of 0.72 and 0.56, respectively. Nevertheless, its prognostic effect was nonproportional and disappeared over time if the subject managed to survive long enough. CAT that occurred later had a more pronounced prognostic effect. In the flexible competing risks model, multiple covariates were seen to have significant time-varying effects on the cumulative incidence of CAT (Khorana score, secondary thromboprophylaxis, high tumor burden, and cisplatin-containing regimen), whereas other predictors exerted a constant effect (signet ring cells and primary thromboprophylaxis). The model that assumes proportional hazards was incapable of capturing the effect of these covariates and predicted the cumulative incidence in a biased way. This study evinces that flexible and multistate models are a useful and innovative method to describe the dynamic effect of variables associated with CAT and should be more widely used.

9.
Br J Cancer ; 121(5): 378-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted agents are standard treatment for RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer in the first- and second-line settings. This phase 2 study determined the benefit of targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with panitumumab plus irinotecan in irinotecan-refractory patients. METHODS: KRAS exon-2 wild-type patients failing prior irinotecan received panitumumab (6 mg/kg) and irinotecan (180 mg/m²) every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included safety, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). KRAS exon-2 status was evaluated centrally, along with NRAS, BRAF mutations, epiregulin, amphiregulin, PTEN and EGFR copy number status, and correlated with efficacy. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were treated. Among the 46 wild-type RAS patients, the ORR was 15.2% (seven partial responses), with median PFS of 3.8 months (95% CI 2.7-4.3) and median OS of 12.5 months (95% CI 6.7-15.9). Wild-type BRAF patients showed a 13.0% response rate. No significant correlations between response and baseline biomarker expression were identified. Common grade 3-4 adverse events were diarrhoea and rash (18.0% each), hypomagnesaemia and asthenia (8.2% each). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of panitumumab to irinotecan as salvage therapy is feasible but has limited activity in irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. No biomarkers predictive of response were identified.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(28): 2571-2580, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are recommended for the first-line treatment of most patients with well-differentiated, gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors; however, benefit from treatment is heterogeneous. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a progression-free survival (PFS) prediction model in SSA-treated patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We extracted data from the Spanish Group of Neuroendocrine and Endocrine Tumors Registry (R-GETNE). Patient eligibility criteria included GEP primary, Ki-67 of 20% or less, and first-line SSA monotherapy for advanced disease. An accelerated failure time model was developed to predict PFS, which was represented as a nomogram and an online calculator. The nomogram was externally validated in an independent series of consecutive eligible patients (The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom). RESULTS: We recruited 535 patients (R-GETNE, n = 438; Manchester, n = 97). Median PFS and overall survival in the derivation cohort were 28.7 (95% CI, 23.8 to 31.1) and 85.9 months (95% CI, 71.5 to 96.7 months), respectively. Nine covariates significantly associated with PFS were primary tumor location, Ki-67 percentage, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, alkaline phosphatase, extent of liver involvement, presence of bone and peritoneal metastases, documented progression status, and the presence of symptoms when initiating SSA. The GETNE-TRASGU (Treated With Analog of Somatostatin in Gastroenteropancreatic and Unknown Primary NETs) model demonstrated suitable calibration, as well as fair discrimination ability with a C-index value of 0.714 (95% CI, 0.680 to 0.747) and 0.732 (95% CI, 0.658 to 0.806) in the derivation and validation series, respectively. CONCLUSION: The GETNE-TRASGU evidence-based prognostic tool stratifies patients with GEP neuroendocrine tumors receiving SSA treatment according to their estimated PFS. This nomogram may be useful when stratifying patients with neuroendocrine tumors in future trials. Furthermore, it could be a valuable tool for making treatment decisions in daily clinical practice.

11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380372

RESUMO

Leukemogenesis is considered to be a process by which a normal cell acquires new but aberrant identity in order to disseminate a malignant clonal population. Under this setting, the phenotype of the leukemic cells is identical to the leukemia-initiating cell in which the genetic insult is taking place. Thus, with some exceptions, B-cell and T-cell childhood leukemias are supposed to arise from B- or T-committed cells. In contrast, several recent studies have revealed that genetic alterations may act in a "hit-and-run" way in the cell-of-origin by imposing the tumor cell identity giving rise to either B-cell or T-cell leukemias. This novel mechanism of cell transformation is mediated by an epigenetic priming mechanism that is established by the initial genetic lesion. This initial hit might be unnecessary for the subsequent tumor evolution and conservation, being the epigenetic priming the engine for the tumor evolution.

12.
Drugs R D ; 19(3): 267-275, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data from a trial of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI (folinic acid, infusional 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan) in metastatic colorectal cancer were retrospectively analysed to investigate the effects of primary tumour location and early tumour shrinkage on outcomes. METHODS: Patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer from a single-arm, open-label phase II study (NCT00508404) were included. Tumours located from the splenic flexure to rectum and in the caecum to transverse colon were defined as left- and right-sided, respectively. Baseline characteristics were summarised by primary tumour location and the effects of primary tumour location on outcomes-including objective response rate, resection rate, depth of response, duration of response and progression-free survival-were analysed. Progression-free survival and objective response rate were analysed by early tumour shrinkage status. RESULTS: Primary tumour location was determined in 52/69 (75%) patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; 45 (87%) had left-sided disease. Median progression-free survival was longer in patients with left-sided tumours (11.2 vs. 7.2 months for right-sided disease) and more of these patients experienced early tumour shrinkage ≥ 30% (53% vs. 29%). Early tumour shrinkage ≥ 30% was associated with improved progression-free survival irrespective of tumour location. More patients with early tumour shrinkage ≥ 30% achieved a partial or complete response. Objective response rate, duration of response, depth of response and resection rates were similar in patients with left- and right-sided tumours. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis has confirmed a prognostic effect of primary tumour location in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer receiving first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI. Early tumour shrinkage was associated with improved progression-free survival irrespective of tumour location. In right-sided disease, early tumour shrinkage may identify a subgroup of patients who might respond to panitumumab. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00508404.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(20): e1900487, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322321

RESUMO

SCOPE: Gut microbiota contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis by multiple mechanisms not yet completely understood. Novel differential features between germ-free mice (GFm) transplanted with protective or non-protective cecal microbiota against NAFLD are investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gut microbiota composition, plasma, and fecal bile acids (BAs) and liver mRNAs are quantified in GFm recipients from four donor mice differing in NAFLD severity (control diet, high-fat diet [HFD]-responder, HFD-non-responder, and quercetin-supplemented HFD). Transplanted GFm are on control or HFD for 16-weeks. Multivariate analysis shows that GFm colonized with microbiota from HFD-non-responder and quercetin supplemented-HFD donors (protected against NAFLD) clusters together, whereas GFm colonized with microbiota from control and HFD-responder mice (non-protected against NAFLD) establishes another cluster. Protected phenotype is associated with increased gut Desulfovibrio and Oscillospira, reduced gut Bacteroides and Oribacterium, lower primary and higher secondary BAs in plasma and feces, induction of hepatic BA transporters, and repression of hepatic lipogenic and BA synthesis genes. CONCLUSION: Protective gut microbiota associates with increased specific secondary BAs, which likely inhibit lipogenic pathways and enhance bile flow in the liver. This novel cross-talk between gut and liver, via plasma BAs, that promotes protection against NAFLD may have clinical and nutritional relevance.

15.
Oncologist ; 24(11): e1115-e1122, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RAS testing is used to select patients with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies sensitivity in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, other biomarkers such as BRAF, PIK3CA/PTEN, and p-IGF-1R+/MMP7+ (double positive [DP] phenotype) have not been prospectively assessed to predict anti-EGFR resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a multicenter prospective trial (NCT01276379) to evaluate whether the biomarkers BRAF mutation, PIK3CA mutation/PTEN loss, and DP phenotype can improve the prediction for 12-months progression-free survival (PFS) over the use of clinical variables exclusively in patients with RAS wild-type (WT) mCRC treated with standard chemotherapy plus biweekly cetuximab as first-line therapy. The planned sample size was 170 RAS WT patients to detect a 20% difference in 12-month PFS based on the analysis of clinical and selected biomarkers (α = .05, ß = .2). The discriminatory capacity of the biomarkers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: We included 181 RAS WT patients. The biomarker distribution was as follows: BRAF mutant, 20 patients (11%); PIK3CA mutated/PTEN loss, 98 patients (58%); DP, 23 patients (12.7%). The clinical variables in the clinical score were progression status >0, left-sided tumor, and resectable liver metastasis as the only metastatic site. The area under the curve (AUC) of the score containing the clinical variables was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.75). The AUC of the score with clinical variables and BRAF mutational status was 0.68 (0.61-0.75, p = .37). The AUC of the score with clinical variables and PI3KCA mutation/PTEN status was 0.69 (0.61-0.76, p = .32). The AUC of the score with clinical variables and DP phenotype was 0.66 (0.58-0.73, p = .09). CONCLUSION: The addition of BRAF, PIK3CA/PTEN, and DP to a clinical score does not improve the discrimination of 12-month PFS. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This prospective biomarker design study has important clinical implications because many prospective clinical trials are designed with the hypothesis that BRAF mutation per se and MEK and PIK3CA downstream pathways are critical for colorectal tumor survival. The results lead to the question of whether these pathways should be considered as passengers instead of drivers.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 290: 134-137, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia in western countries. The factors governing the progression of AF to a permanent chronic condition are still not well characterized. Among epigenetic factors, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as miRNAs and lncRNAs have been recently described as important players involved in the AF progression. We hypothesize about the existence of additional regulatory layers in AF involving an intricate cross-talk between different ncRNA species, namely miRNAs and circRNAs for the establishment of a chronic AF condition. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have performed an unbiased study analyzing the expression profile for miRNAs and circRNAs in left-atrial biopsies from patients with paroxysmal and permanent AF by RNA-seq. The transition from paroxysmal to permanent AF is characterized by a pattern of down-regulated miRNAs, concomitant to the appearance of specific circRNA species. The analysis of the sponging activities of the circRNAs exclusively expressed in permanent AF samples, allowed us to determine that they could be responsible for the downregulation of specific miRNAs in establishment of a permanent AF condition. CONCLUSION: Sponging activity of circRNAs sequestering specific miRNAs is an important factor to be considered for the determination of the molecular mechanisms involved in AF progression.

17.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 19(9): 1184-1194, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957699

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyse whether increasing the eccentric overload (EO) during resistance training, in terms of range of motion and/or velocity using an electric-motor device, would induce different muscle adaptations than conventional flywheel-EO resistance training. Forty physically active university students (21.7 ± 3.4 years) were randomly placed into one of the three training groups (EX1, EX2, FW) and a control group without training (n = 10 per group). Participants in the training groups completed 12 sessions (4 sets of 7 repetitions) of iso-inertial single-leg squat training over 6 weeks for the dominant leg. Resistance was generated either by an electric-motor device at two different velocities for the eccentric phase; 100% (EX1) or 150% (EX2) of concentric speed, or by a conventional flywheel device (FW). Thigh lean tissue mass, unilateral leg press one-repetition maximum (1-RM), unilateral muscle power at different percentages of the 1-RM and bilateral/unilateral vertical jump were assessed before and after the 6-week training. There were significant (p < 0.05-0.001) main effects of time in the 3 training groups, indicating increased thigh lean tissue mass (2.5-5.8%), 1-RM load (22.4-30.2%), vertical jump performance (9.1-32.9%) and muscle power (8.8-21.7%), without differences across experimental groups. Participants in the control group did not improve any of the variables measured. In addition, EX2 showed greater gains in eccentric average peak power during training than EX1 and FW (p < 0.001). Despite the different EO offered, 6 weeks of resistance training using flywheel or electric-motor devices induced similar significant gains in muscle mass, strength, muscle power and vertical jump.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Força Muscular , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dis Model Mech ; 12(5)2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971408

RESUMO

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels, representing one of the most serious public health concerns associated with metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited clinical experience concerning pediatric NAFLD patients, and thus the therapeutic options are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of exercise on gut microbiota composition and functionality balance, and consequent effects on early obesity and NAFLD onset in an in vivo model. Juvenile (21-day-old) male Wistar rats fed a control diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) were subjected to a combined aerobic and resistance training protocol. Fecal microbiota was sequenced by an Illumina MiSeq system, and parameters related to metabolic syndrome, fecal metabolome, intestinal barrier integrity, bile acid metabolism and transport, and alteration of the gut-liver axis were measured. Exercise decreased HFD-induced body weight gain, metabolic syndrome and hepatic steatosis, as a result of its lipid metabolism modulatory capacity. Gut microbiota composition and functionality were substantially modified as a consequence of diet, age and exercise intervention. In addition, the training protocol increased Parabacteroides, Bacteroides and Flavobacterium genera, correlating with a beneficial metabolomic profile, whereas Blautia, Dysgonomonas and Porphyromonas showed an opposite pattern. Exercise effectively counteracted HFD-induced microbial imbalance, leading to intestinal barrier preservation, which, in turn, prevented deregulation of the gut-liver axis and improved bile acid homeostasis, determining the clinical outcomes of NAFLD. In conclusion, we provide scientific evidence highlighting the benefits of gut microbiota composition and functionality modulation by physical exercise protocols in the management of early obesity and NAFLD development.

19.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 111(4): 275-282, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4770

RESUMO

Introduction: increasing evidence suggests a role of intestinal dysbiosis in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The advances in recent years with regard to the role of the gut microbiota raise the potential utility of new therapeutic approaches based on the modification of the microbiome. Objective: the aim of this study was to compare the bacterial communities in obese patients with or without NAFLD to those of healthy controls. Patients and methods: the fecal microbiota composition of 20 healthy adults, 36 obese patients with NAFLD and 17 obese patients without NAFLD was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq system. Results: the results highlighted significant differences in the phylum Firmicutes between patients with and without NAFLD, which was a determining factor of the disease and supported its possible role as a marker of NAFLD. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Blautia, Alkaliphilus, Flavobacterium and Akkermansia was reduced in obese patients, both with or without NAFLD, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the number of sequences from the genus Streptococcus was significantly higher in patients with NAFLD in comparison with individuals without the disease, constituting another possible marker. Comparison of bacterial communities at the genus level by a principal coordinate analysis indicated that the bacterial communities of patients with NAFLD were dispersed and did not form a group. Conclusion: in conclusion, these results indicate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the development of NAFLD associated with obesity. There was a differential microbiota profile between obese patients, with and without NAFLD. Thus, supporting gut microbiota modulation as a therapeutic alternative for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD


No disponible

20.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 111(4): 275-282, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: increasing evidence suggests a role of intestinal dysbiosis in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The advances in recent years with regard to the role of the gut microbiota raise the potential utility of new therapeutic approaches based on the modification of the microbiome. OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to compare the bacterial communities in obese patients with or without NAFLD to those of healthy controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: the fecal microbiota composition of 20 healthy adults, 36 obese patients with NAFLD and 17 obese patients without NAFLD was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq system. RESULTS: the results highlighted significant differences in the phylum Firmicutes between patients with and without NAFLD, which was a determining factor of the disease and supported its possible role as a marker of NAFLD. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Blautia, Alkaliphilus, Flavobacterium and Akkermansia was reduced in obese patients, both with or without NAFLD, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the number of sequences from the genus Streptococcus was significantly higher in patients with NAFLD in comparison with individuals without the disease, constituting another possible marker. Comparison of bacterial communities at the genus level by a principal coordinate analysis indicated that the bacterial communities of patients with NAFLD were dispersed and did not form a group. CONCLUSION: in conclusion, these results indicate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the development of NAFLD associated with obesity. There was a differential microbiota profile between obese patients, with and without NAFLD. Thus, supporting gut microbiota modulation as a therapeutic alternative for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

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