Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 164
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218241261645, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839602

RESUMO

Perception of one's own body in time and space is a fundamental aspect of self-consciousness. It scaffolds our subjective experience of being present, in the here and now, a vital condition for our survival and well-being. Depersonalisation (DP) is characterized by a distressing feeling of being 'spaced out', detached from one's self, as well as atypical 'flat' time perception. Using an audio-tactile paradigm, we conducted a study looking at the effect of DP experiences on peripersonal space (PPS) - the space close to the body - and time perception. Strikingly, we found no difference in PPS perception in people with higher DP experiences (High DPe) versus low occurrences of DP experiences (Low DPe). To assess time perception, we used the Mental Time Travel (MTT) task measuring the individuals' capacity to take one's present as a reference point for situating personal versus general events in the past and the future. We found an overall poorer performance in locating events in time relative to their present reference point in High DPe. By contrast, Low DPe showed significant variation in performance when answering to relative past events, while High DPe did not. Our study sheds light on the close link between altered sense of self and egocentric spatiotemporal perception in individuals with DP experiences, the third most common psychological symptom in the general population.

2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12781, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834574

RESUMO

In this study we carried out a behavioral experiment comparing action language comprehension in L1 (Italian) and L2 (English). Participants were Italian native speakers who had acquired the second language late (after the age of 10). They performed semantic judgments on L1 and L2 literal, idiomatic and metaphorical action sentences after viewing a video of a hand performing an action that was related or unrelated to the verb used in the sentence. Results showed that responses to literal and metaphorical L1 sentences were faster when the action depicted was related to the verb used rather than when the action depicted was unrelated to the verb used. No differences were found for the idiomatic condition. In L2 we found that all responses to the three conditions were facilitated when the action depicted was related to the verb used. Moreover, we found that the difference between the unrelated and the related modalities was greater in L2 than in L1 for the literal and the idiomatic condition but not for the metaphorical condition. These findings are consistent with the embodied cognition hypothesis of language comprehension.


Assuntos
Cognição , Compreensão , Idioma , Humanos , Compreensão/fisiologia , Masculino , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Semântica , Adulto Jovem , Multilinguismo
3.
Schizophr Res ; 269: 152-162, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815468

RESUMO

Despite the historically consolidated psychopathological perspective, on the one hand, contemporary organicistic psychiatry often highlights abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems like dysregulation of dopamine transmission, neural circuitry, and genetic factors as key contributors to schizophrenia. Neuroscience, on the other, has so far almost entirely neglected the first-person experiential dimension of this syndrome, mainly focusing on high-order cognitive functions, such as executive function, working memory, theory of mind, and the like. An alternative view posits that schizophrenia is a self-disorder characterized by anomalous self-experience and awareness. This view may not only shed new light on the psychopathological features of psychosis but also inspire empirical research targeting the bodily and neurobiological changes underpinning this disorder. Cognitive neuroscience can today address classic topics of phenomenological psychopathology by adding a new level of description, finally enabling the correlation between the first-person experiential aspects of psychiatric diseases and their neurobiological roots. Recent empirical evidence on the neurobiological basis of a minimal notion of the self, the bodily self, is presented. The relationship between the body, its motor potentialities and the notion of minimal self is illustrated. Evidence on the neural mechanisms underpinning the bodily self, its plasticity, and the blurring of self-other distinction in schizophrenic patients is introduced and discussed. It is concluded that brain-body function anomalies of multisensory integration, differential processing of self- and other-related bodily information mediating self-experience, might be at the basis of the disruption of the self disorders characterizing schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Autoimagem , Ego , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Imagem Corporal , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
4.
Psychol Res ; 88(4): 1169-1181, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483573

RESUMO

Several studies demonstrated that explicit forms of negation processing (e.g., "I don't know") recruits motor inhibitory mechanisms. However, whether this is also true for implicit negation, in which the negative meaning is implicated but not explicitly lexicalized in the sentence (e.g., "I ignore"), has never been studied before. Two Go/No-Go studies, which differed only for the time-windows to respond to the Go stimulus, were carried out. In each, participants (N = 86 in experiment 1; N = 87 in experiment 2) respond to coloured circle while reading task-irrelevant affirmative, explicit negative and implicit negative sentences. We aimed to investigate whether: (i) the processing of implicit negations recruits inhibitory mechanisms; (ii) these inhibitory resources are differently modulated by implicit and explicit negations. Results show that implicit negative sentences recruit the inhibitory resources more strongly when compared to explicit ones, probably due to their inferential nature, likely requiring deeper processing of the negative meaning. Implicit and inferential meaning (i.e., pragmatic information) are grounded too in the same mechanisms that integrate action with perception. Such findings provide further evidence to the embodied account of language, showing that even abstract aspects, like implicit negation, are grounded in the sensory-motor system, by means of functional link between language and motor activity.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Leitura , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente
5.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 78(1): 3-18, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37755315

RESUMO

Sense of agency (SoA) indicates a person's ability to perceive her/his own motor acts as actually being her/his and, through them, to exert control over the course of external events. Disruptions in SoA may profoundly affect the individual's functioning, as observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. This is the first article to systematically review studies that investigated intentional binding (IB), a quantitative proxy for SoA measurement, in neurological and psychiatric patients. Eligible were studies of IB involving patients with neurological and/or psychiatric disorders. We included 15 studies involving 692 individuals. Risk of bias was low throughout studies. Abnormally increased action-outcome binding was found in schizophrenia and in patients with Parkinson's disease taking dopaminergic medications or reporting impulsive-compulsive behaviors. A decreased IB effect was observed in Tourette's disorder and functional movement disorders, whereas increased action-outcome binding was found in patients with the cortico-basal syndrome. The extent of IB deviation from healthy control values correlated with the severity of symptoms in several disorders. Inconsistent effects were found for autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, and borderline personality disorder. Findings pave the way for treatments specifically targeting SoA in neuropsychiatric disorders where IB is altered.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Percepção , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Síndrome de Tourette/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia
6.
Front Neurosci ; 17: 1222472, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37746143

RESUMO

Although many studies have investigated spectators' cinematic experience, only a few of them explored the neurophysiological correlates of the sense of presence evoked by the spatial characteristics of audio delivery devices. Nevertheless, nowadays both the industrial and the consumer markets have been saturated by some forms of spatial audio format that enrich the audio-visual cinematic experience, reducing the gap between the real and the digitally mediated world. The increase in the immersive capabilities corresponds to the instauration of both the sense of presence and the psychological sense of being in the virtual environment and also embodied simulation mechanisms. While it is well-known that these mechanisms can be activated in the real world, it is hypothesized that they may be elicited even in a virtual acoustic spatial environment and could be modulated by the acoustic spatialization cues reproduced by sound systems. Hence, the present study aims to investigate the neural basis of the sense of presence evoked by different forms of mediation by testing different acoustic space sound delivery (Presentation modes: Monophonic, Stereo, and Surround). To these aims, a behavioral investigation and a high-density electroencephalographic (HD-EEG) study have been developed. A large set of ecological and heterogeneous stimuli extracted from feature films were used. Furthermore, participants were selected following the generalized listener selection procedure. We found a significantly higher event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the Surround Presentation mode when compared to the Monophonic Presentation mode both in Alpha and Low-Beta centro-parietal clusters. We discuss this result as an index of embodied simulation mechanisms that could be considered as a possible neurophysiological correlation of the instauration of the sense of presence.

7.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1235087, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37637886
8.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 231: 173619, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37604318

RESUMO

The perception of social exclusion among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) could be affected by long-term opioid use. This study explores the emotional and cardiac autonomic responses to an experience of ostracism in a sample of participants with OUD on opioid agonist treatment (OAT). Twenty patients with OUD and twenty healthy controls (HC) performed a ball-tossing game (Cyberball) with two conditions: Inclusion and Ostracism. We measured self-reported ratings of perceived threat towards one's fundamental needs and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) immediately after the game and 10 min after Ostracism (Reflective stage). Following ostracism, participants with OUD self-reported blunted feelings of threat to the fundamental need to belong. RSA levels were significantly suppressed immediately after ostracism and during the Reflective stage in comparison with HC, indicating an autonomic alteration in response to threatening social situations. Finally, only among HC higher perceived threats towards fundamental needs predicted increases in RSA levels, suggesting an adaptive vagal regulation in response to a perceived threat. Conversely, among patients with OUD the subjective response to ostracism was not associated with the autonomic reaction. OAT may have a protective effect against negative feelings of ostracism. However patients with OUD on OAT present poor autonomic regulation in response to social threats, which could reflect their trait hypersensitivity to social rejection.

9.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1197319, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37519354

RESUMO

It is widely known that among others, a pervasive symptom characterizing anorexia nervosa (AN) concerns body image overestimation, which largely contributes to the onset and maintenance of eating disorders. In the present study, we investigated the nature of the body image distortion by recording accuracy and reaction times in both a group of healthy controls and AN patients during two validated tasks requiring an implicit or explicit recognition of self/other hand stimuli, in which the perceived size of the stimuli was manipulated. Our results showed that (1) the perceived size of hand stimuli modulated both the implicit and explicit processing of body parts in both groups; (2) the implicit self-advantage emerged in both groups, but the bodily self, at an explicit level (perceptual, psycho-affective, cognitive) together with the integration and the distinction between self and other, was altered only in restrictive anorexia patients. Although further investigations will be necessary, these findings shed new light on the relationship between the different layers of self-experience and bodily self-disorders.

10.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1152866, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37275688

RESUMO

This article aims to show that there is an alternative way to explain human action with respect to the bottlenecks of the psychology of decision making. The empirical study of human behaviour from mid-20th century to date has mainly developed by looking at a normative model of decision making. In particular Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) decision making, which stems from the subjective expected utility theory of Savage (1954) that itself extended the analysis by Von Neumann and Morgenstern (1944). On this view, the cognitive psychology of decision making precisely reflects the conceptual structure of formal decision theory. This article shows that there is an alternative way to understand decision making by recovering Newell and Simon's account of problem solving, developed in the framework of bounded rationality, and inserting it into the more recent research program of embodied cognition. Herbert Simon emphasized the importance of problem solving and differentiated it from decision making, which he considered a phase downstream of the former. Moreover according to Simon the centre of gravity of the rationality of the action lies in the ability to adapt. And the centre of gravity of adaptation is not so much in the internal environment of the actor as in the pragmatic external environment. The behaviour adapts to external purposes and reveals those characteristics of the system that limit its adaptation. According to Simon (1981), in fact, environmental feedback is the most effective factor in modelling human actions in solving a problem. In addition, his notion of problem space signifies the possible situations to be searched in order to find that situation which corresponds to the solution. Using the language of embodied cognition, the notion of problem space is about the possible solutions that are enacted in relation to environmental affordances. The correspondence between action and the solution of a problem conceptually bypasses the analytic phase of the decision and limits the role of symbolic representation. In solving any problem, the search for the solution corresponds to acting in ways that involve recursive feedback processes leading up to the final action. From this point of view, the new term enactive problem solving summarizes this fusion between bounded and embodied cognition. That problem solving involves bounded cognition means that it is through the problem solver's enactive interaction with environmental affordances, and especially social affordances that it is possible to construct the processes required for arriving at a solution. Lastly the concept of enactive problem solving is also able to explain the mechanisms underlying the adaptive heuristics of rational ecology. Its adaptive function is effective both in practical and motor tasks as well as in abstract and symbolic ones.

12.
Psychol Res ; 87(1): 339-352, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905001

RESUMO

In the last decades, the embodied approach to cognition and language gained momentum in the scientific debate, leading to evidence in different aspects of language processing. However, while the bodily grounding of concrete concepts seems to be relatively not controversial, abstract aspects, like the negation logical operator, are still today one of the main challenges for this research paradigm. In this framework, the present study has a twofold aim: (1) to assess whether mechanisms for motor inhibition underpin the processing of sentential negation, thus, providing evidence for a bodily grounding of this logic operator, (2) to determine whether the Stop-Signal Task, which has been used to investigate motor inhibition, could represent a good tool to explore this issue. Twenty-three participants were recruited in this experiment. Ten hand-action-related sentences, both in affirmative and negative polarity, were presented on a screen. Participants were instructed to respond as quickly and accurately as possible to the direction of the Go Stimulus (an arrow) and to withhold their response when they heard a sound following the arrow. This paradigm allows estimating the Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT), a covert reaction time underlying the inhibitory process. Our results show that the SSRT measured after reading negative sentences are longer than after reading affirmative ones, highlighting the recruitment of inhibitory mechanisms while processing negative sentences. Furthermore, our methodological considerations suggest that the Stop-Signal Task is a good paradigm to assess motor inhibition's role in the processing of sentence negation.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Humanos , Compreensão/fisiologia , Cognição , Inibição Psicológica , Leitura , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
13.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1035328, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405118

RESUMO

A classical theoretical frame to interpret motor reactions to emotional stimuli is that such stimuli, particularly those threat-related, are processed preferentially, i.e., they are capable of capturing and grabbing attention automatically. Research has recently challenged this view, showing that the task relevance of emotional stimuli is crucial to having a reliable behavioral effect. Such evidence indicated that emotional facial expressions do not automatically influence motor responses in healthy young adults, but they do so only when intrinsically pertinent to the ongoing subject's goals. Given the theoretical relevance of these findings, it is essential to assess their generalizability to different, socially relevant emotional stimuli such as emotional body postures. To address this issue, we compared the performance of 36 right-handed participants in two different versions of a Go/No-go task. In the Emotional Discrimination task, participants were required to withhold their responses at the display of emotional body postures (fearful or happy) and to move at the presentation of neutral postures. Differently, in the control task, the same images were shown, but participants had to respond according to the color of the actor/actress' t-shirt, disregarding the emotional content. Results showed that participants made more commission errors (instances in which they moved even though the No-go signal was presented) for happy than fearful body postures in the Emotional Discrimination task. However, this difference disappeared in the control task. Such evidence indicates that, like facial emotion, emotional body expressions do not influence motor control automatically, but only when they are task-relevant.

14.
Brain Sci ; 12(9)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138861

RESUMO

One of the most surprising features of our brain is the fact that it is extremely plastic. Among the various plastic processes supported by our brain, there is the neural representation of the space surrounding our body, the peripersonal space (PPS). The effects of real-world tool use on the PPS are well known in cognitive neuroscience, but little is still known whether similar mechanisms also govern virtual tool use. To this purpose, the present study investigated the plasticity of the PPS before and after a real (Experiment 1) or virtual motor training with a tool (Experiment 2). The results show the expansion of the PPS only following real-world tool use but not virtual use, highlighting how the two types of training potentially rely on different processes. This study enriches the current state of the art on the plasticity of PPS in real and virtual environments. We discuss our data with respect to the relevance for the development of effective immersive environment for trainings, learning and rehabilitation.

15.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 26(9): 767-781, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803832

RESUMO

Mirror neurons (MNs) were first described in a seminal paper in 1992 as a class of monkey premotor cells discharging during both action execution and observation. Despite their debated origin and function, recent studies in several species, from birds to humans, revealed that beyond MNs properly so called, a variety of cell types distributed among multiple motor, sensory, and emotional brain areas form a 'mirror mechanism' more complex and flexible than originally thought, which has an evolutionarily conserved role in social interaction. Here, we trace the current limits and envisage the future trends of this discovery, showing that it inspired translational research and the development of new neurorehabilitation approaches, and constitutes a point of no return in social and affective neuroscience.


Assuntos
Neurônios-Espelho , Córtex Motor , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Neurônios-Espelho/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
16.
Schizophr Bull ; 48(5): 1085-1093, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: A primary disruption of the bodily self is considered a core feature of schizophrenia (SCZ). The "disembodied" self might be underpinned by inefficient body-related multisensory integration processes, normally occurring in the peripersonal space (PPS), a plastic sector of space surrounding the body whose extent is altered in SCZ. Although PPS is a malleable interface marking the perceptual border between self and others, no study has addressed the potential alteration of its plasticity in SCZ. We investigated the plasticity of PPS in SCZ patients after a motor training with a tool in the far space. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-seven SCZ patients and 32 healthy controls (HC) underwent an audio-tactile task to estimate PPS boundary before (Session 1) and after (Session 3) the tool-use. Parameters of PPS, including the size and the slope of the psychometric function describing audio-tactile RTs as a function of the audio-tactile distances, were estimated. STUDY RESULTS: Results confirm a narrow PPS extent in SCZ. Surprisingly, we found PPS expansion in both groups, thus showing for the first time a preserved PPS plasticity in SCZ. Patients experienced a weaker differentiation from others, as indicated by a shallower PPS slope at Session 1 that correlated positively with negative symptoms. However, at Session 3, patients marked their bodily boundary in a steeper way, suggesting a sharper demarcation of PPS boundaries after the action with the tool. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of investigating the multisensory and motor roots of self-disorders, paving the way for future body-centred rehabilitation interventions that could improve patients' altered body boundary.


Assuntos
Espaço Pessoal , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Estimulação Acústica , Humanos , Estimulação Física , Percepção Espacial , Tato
17.
Brain Sci ; 12(4)2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448008

RESUMO

Trait empathy is an essential personality feature in the intricacy of typical social inclinations of individuals. Empathy is likely supported by multilevel neuronal network functioning, whereas local topological properties determine network integrity. In the present functional MRI study (N = 116), we aimed to trace empathic traits to the intrinsic brain network architecture. Empathy was conceived as composed of two dimensions within the concept of pre-reflective, intersubjective understanding. Vicarious experience consists of the tendency to resonate with the feelings of other individuals, whereas intuitive understanding refers to a natural awareness of others' emotional states. Analyses of graph theoretical measures of centrality showed a relationship between the fronto-parietal network and psychometric measures of vicarious experience, whereas intuitive understanding was associated with sensorimotor and subcortical networks. Salience network regions could constitute hubs for information processing underlying both dimensions. The network properties related to empathy dimensions mainly concern inter-network information flow. Moreover, interaction effects implied several sex differences in the relationship between functional network organization and trait empathy. These results reveal that distinct intrinsic topological network features explain individual differences in separate dimensions of intersubjective understanding. The findings could help understand the impact of brain damage or stimulation through alterations of empathy-related network integrity.

18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3888, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273200

RESUMO

Depersonalisation is a common dissociative experience characterised by distressing feelings of being detached or 'estranged' from one's self and body and/or the world. The COVID-19 pandemic forcing millions of people to socially distance themselves from others and to change their lifestyle habits. We have conducted an online study of 622 participants worldwide to investigate the relationship between digital media-based activities, distal social interactions and peoples' sense of self during the lockdown as contrasted with before the pandemic. We found that increased use of digital media-based activities and online social e-meetings correlated with higher feelings of depersonalisation. We also found that the participants reporting higher experiences of depersonalisation, also reported enhanced vividness of negative emotions (as opposed to positive emotions). Finally, participants who reported that lockdown influenced their life to a greater extent had higher occurrences of depersonalisation experiences. Our findings may help to address key questions regarding well-being during a lockdown, in the general population. Our study points to potential risks related to overly sedentary, and hyper-digitalised lifestyle habits that may induce feelings of living in one's 'head' (mind), disconnected from one's body, self and the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Despersonalização/etiologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Despersonalização/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Tela , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eat Weight Disord ; 27(1): 101-108, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anorexia nervosa-restrictive subtype (AN-R) is a life-threatening disorder relying on behavioural abnormalities, such as excessive food restriction or exercise. Such abnormalities may be secondary to an "objectified" attitude toward body image and self. This is the first study exploring the impact of anomalous self-experience (ASEs) on abnormal body image attitude and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology in individuals with AN-R at onset. METHODS: We recruited Italian female participants, 40 with AN-R (mean age 18.3 ± 2.3) and 45 age and educational level-matched healthy controls (HCs) (mean age 18.2 ± 2.6). ASEs, body image attitude, and ED symptom severity were assessed through the examination of anomalous self-experience (EASE), the body uneasiness test (BUT), and the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), respectively. We conducted multivariate analysis of variance to investigate distribution patterns of variables of interest, and mediation analysis to test the effect of ASEs and body image on ED symptomatology. RESULTS: Individuals with AN-R scored higher than HCs on the EASE (p < .0001). A direct effect of ASEs on ED severity (p = 0.009; bootstrapped LLCI = 0.067, ULCI = 0.240) was found in AN-R. After modelling the effect of abnormal body image attitude, the relationship between EASE total score and ED symptomatology was significantly mediated by BUT (p = 0.002; bootstrapped LLCI = 0.001, ULCI = 0.172). CONCLUSION: Although the exact pathways linking AN-R to self-disorder remain to be identified, a broader exploration of transdiagnostic features in AN, including explorations of different dimensions of self-experience and intersubjectivity, may shed further light on the clinical phenomenology of the disorder. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, case-control analytic study.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Atitude , Imagem Corporal , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA