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1.
Tumori ; : 3008916221079662, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the availability of multiple treatment options for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), new real-world data on disease management and drugs' performance are needed. METHODS: We described characteristics, management and clinical outcomes of patients receiving first-line mCRPC treatment within the Italian cohort of the real-world, prospective, international Prostate Cancer Registry. Patients were enrolled consecutively (2013-2016) in 32 Italian sites and followed for 3 years. RESULTS: 238 patients were included: 157 received first-line abiraterone acetate plus prednisone ("abiraterone" thereafter) and 70 first-line docetaxel; 11 patients receiving other treatments were not considered. Compared with docetaxel-treated patients, those receiving abiraterone were significantly older (age ⩾75: 63.7% vs 38.6%), less frequently had a Gleason score >8 (48.2% vs 67.6%, p<0.005) at initial diagnosis, and more frequently an ECOG score ⩾1 (52.7% vs 36.2%, p<0.05) and comorbidities (76.4% vs 57.1%, p<0.05) at baseline; they reported a lower analgesic use (15.3% vs 30%, p<0.005). In the abiraterone group (median follow-up 22.1 months), median time to progression (TTP) and progression-free survival (PFS) were, respectively, 14.4 months (95% confidence interval, CI, 10.6-18.0) and 13.0 months (95% CI, 9.1-16.8); median overall survival (OS) was not reached, and 3-year OS was 59.1%. In the docetaxel treatment group (median follow-up 25.3 months), median TTP, PFS and OS were, respectively, 8.2 months (95% CI, 6.1-10.3), 8.2 months (95% CI, 5.8-10.3) and 33.2 months (95% CI, 19.2-not estimable). CONCLUSION: This investigation provided valuable information on the overall mCRPC treatment pattern and the effectiveness of first-line abiraterone and docetaxel in a population representative of everyday practice.

2.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab and cabozantinib are currently approved agents in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) but there are no data available for patients progressing to both treatments. The aim of this study was to compare active therapeutic options and best supportive care (BSC) after progression to nivolumab and cabozantinib in mRCC. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we selected 50 patients from eight Italian centers. The primary endpoint of the study was the overall survival (OS) of patients on active treatment versus BSC. Secondary endpoints were the progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR). The efficacy of active therapy was also investigated. RESULTS: After progression to both nivolumab and cabozantinib, 57.1% of patients were given active treatment (mainly everolimus and sorafenib) while 42.9% received BSC. The median OS was 13 months (95% CI: 4-NR) in actively treated patients and 3 months (95% CI: 2-4) in BSC patients (p = 0.001). Patients treated with sorafenib had better disease control than those treated with everolimus (stable disease: 71.4% vs. 16.7%, progression disease: 14.3% vs. 58.3%; p = 0.03), with no significant differences in PFS (5 and 3 months, 95% CI: 1-6 vs. 2-5; p = 0.6) and OS (12 and 4 months, 95% CI: 3-NR vs. 2-NR; p = 0.2). CONCLUSION: After treatment with both nivolumab and cabozantinib, the choice of a safe active systemic therapy offered better outcomes than BSC.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 787835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone impairment, represented as an alteration in levels of thyroid hormones and a lower fT3/fT4 ratio, has been correlated with a worse prognosis for both cancer and non-cancer patients. The role of baseline thyroid function in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) however, has not been studied yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded clinical data, baseline biochemical results, and oncological outcomes from 10 Oncology Units in Italy. We stratified patients into three groups according to the fT3/fT4 ratio value and subsequently analyzed differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the three groups. We also performed univariate and multivariate analyses to find prognostic factors for PFS and OS. RESULTS: We analyzed 134 patients treated with systemic treatment for mRCC. Median PFS in the low, intermediate, and high fT3/fT4 ratio group were 7.5, 12.1, and 21.7 months respectively (p<0.001); median OS in the three groups were 36.5, 48.6, and 70.5 months respectively (p =0.006). The low fT3/fT4 ratio maintained its prognostic role at the multivariate analysis independently from IMDC and other well-established prognostic factors. The development of iatrogenic hypothyroidism was not associated with a better outcome. CONCLUSION: We found that baseline thyroid hormone impairment, represented by a low fT3/fT4 ratio, is a strong prognostic factor in patients treated for mRCC in first line setting and is independent of other parameters currently used in clinical practice.

4.
World J Clin Oncol ; 12(11): 1037-1046, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-clear cell (ncc) metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) has dismal results with standard systemic therapies and a generally worse prognosis when compared to its clear-cell counterpart. New systemic combination therapies have emerged for metastatic RCC (mRCC), but the pivotal phase III trials excluded patients with nccRCC, which constitute about 30% of metastatic RCC cases. AIM: To provide a piece of real-life evidence on the use of pazopanib in this patient subgroup. METHODS: The present study is a multicenter retrospective observational analysis aiming to assess the activity, efficacy, and safety of pazopanib as first-line therapy for advanced nccRCC patients treated in a real-life setting. RESULTS: Overall, 48 patients were included. At the median follow-up of 40.6 mo, the objective response rate was 27.1%, the disease control rate was 83.3%, and the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 12.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6-20.9) and 27.7 (95%CI: 18.2-37.1) mo, respectively. Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 20% of patients, and no grade 4 or 5 toxicities were found. CONCLUSION: Pazopanib should be considered as a good first-line option for metastatic RCC with variant histology.

5.
EJNMMI Res ; 11(1): 119, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of image-derived biomarkers in recurrent oligometastatic Prostate Cancer (PCa) is unexplored. This paper aimed to evaluate [18F]FMCH PET/CT radiomic analysis in patients with recurrent PCa after primary radical therapy. Specifically, we tested intra-patient lesions similarity in oligometastatic and plurimetastatic PCa, comparing the two most used definitions of oligometastatic disease. METHODS: PCa patients eligible for [18F]FMCH PET/CT presenting biochemical failure after first-line curative treatments were invited to participate in this prospective observational trial. PET/CT images of 92 patients were visually and quantitatively analyzed. Each patient was classified as oligometastatic or plurimetastatic according to the total number of detected lesions (up to 3 and up to 5 or > 3 and > 5, respectively). Univariate and intra-patient lesions' similarity analysis were performed. RESULTS: [18F]FMCH PET/CT identified 370 lesions, anatomically classified as regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. Thirty-eight and 54 patients were designed oligometastatic and plurimetastatic, respectively, using a 3-lesion threshold. The number of oligometastic scaled up to 60 patients (thus 32 plurimetastatic patients) with a 5-lesion threshold. Similarity analysis showed high lesions' heterogeneity. Grouping patients according to the number of metastases, patients with oligometastatic PCa defined with a 5-lesion threshold presented lesions heterogeneity comparable to plurimetastic patients. Lesions within patients having a limited tumor burden as defined by three lesions were characterized by less heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: We found a comparable heterogeneity between patients with up to five lesions and plurimetastic patients, while patients with up to three lesions were less heterogeneous than plurimetastatic patients, featuring different cells phenotypes in the two groups. Our results supported the use of a 3-lesion threshold to define oligometastatic PCa.

6.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 93(3): 301-306, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the effectiveness of active surveillance versus post-surgical active treatment, in patients with testicular germ cells tumor (TGCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 52 patients who underwent surgery for TGCT from January 2009 to December 2014. All the patients were divided into two age groups: the Group A included children-adolescents from 18 months to 21 years old, while the Group B comprised young adults from 22 to 39 years old. Clinical, histopathological, therapeutic and follow-up data were collected. RESULTS: Overall, 22 patients (42,3%) were enrolled in the Group A and 30 patients (57.7%) were categorized in the Group B. Inguinal orchiectomy was performed in all patients. Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy was performed in 4 patients (7.7%). Post-surgical management differed based on clinical stage, resulting in active surveillance or adjuvant therapy. After an average 7 years follow-up period (range: 3.5-9.0 years), the overall survival rate is 100%. The relapse risk is significantly higher for the patients in the Group B, displaying a recurrence free-survival rate of 72% versus 95% (Group A); 11 relapses (21.1%) were recorded 2 years after surgery. Of these, 3 recurrences (12.0%) occurred in patients undergoing an active surveillance approach, while 8 (29.6%) in patients subjected to an active treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The excellent prognosis in both age groups confirms the high curability of this neoplasia. The active surveillance could represent an optimal option for low recurrence risk tumors. However, post-surgical treatments should be taken into consideration for TGCT with high risk factors, including tumor size, lymphovascular and rete testis invasion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Orquiectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. RESULTS AND LIMITATION: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. CONCLUSION: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

8.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(9)2021 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573332

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PC) is a polygenic disease with multiple gene interactions. Therefore, a detailed analysis of its epidemiology and evaluation of risk factors can help to identify more accurate predictors of aggressive disease. We used the transcriptome data from a cohort of 243 patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Key regulatory genes involved in proliferation activity, in the regulation of stress, and in the regulation of inflammation processes of the tumor microenvironment were selected to test a priori multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) models and create a combined score to better predict the patients' survival and disease-free intervals. Survival was positively correlated with cortisol expression and negatively with Mini-Chromosome Maintenance 7 (MCM7) and Breast-Related Cancer Antigen2 (BRCA2) expression. The disease-free interval was negatively related to the expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), MCM7, BRCA2, and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1). MDS suggested two separate pathways of activation in PC. Within these two dimensions three separate clusters emerged: (1) cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF, (2) PD-L1 and cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTL4); (3) and finally EZH2, MCM7, BRCA2, and c-Myc. We entered the three clusters of association shown in the MDS in several Kaplan-Meier analyses. It was found that only Cluster 3 was significantly related to the interval-disease free, indicating that patients with an overall higher activity of regulatory genes of proliferation and DNA repair had a lower probability to have a longer disease-free time. In conclusion, our data study provided initial evidence that selecting patients with a high grade of proliferation and DNA repair activity could lead to an early identification of an aggressive PC with a potentials for metastatic development.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Idoso , Proliferação de Células/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Análise de Regressão
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/farmacologia
10.
Tumori ; : 3008916211033905, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemochrome parameters at the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and the development of macrocytosis during sunitinib therapy are considered prognostic. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic role of hematologic parameters and macrocytosis in mRCC treated with sunitinib. METHODS: We analyzed clinical data of 100 patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib as first-line therapy in a retrospective multicenter study. We calculated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) at baseline and erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) during therapy. We considered the following cutoffs: NLR >3, PLR >150, LMR <3, and MCV >100 fl. Clinical data histology, prior nephrectomy, Fuhrman grading, metastatic sites, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center score, and Heng score were collected. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analysis using Cox regression model with time-dependent (macrocytosis) covariate were applied. RESULTS: At the univariate analysis, low LMR was associated with shorter PFS and OS (p = 0.02 and p = 0.06, respectively). High PLR was associated with worse PFS (p = 0.005); median OS was 23 vs 28 months (p = 0.13). At the multivariate analysis, poor risk (Heng score), low LMR, and high PLR were associated with shorter PFS (hazard ratio 7.1, 1.5, and 2, respectively); poor PS and poor risk (Heng score) were related to worst OS. Macrocytosis was observed in 26 patients and was not prognostic of survival. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib, low LMR (>3) and high PLR (>150) were associated with shorter PFS. Macrocytosis was not prognostic.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 650249, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854977

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether prostate cancer (PC) patients can be accurately classified on the bases of tissue expression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). This retrospective study included 28 patients with PC. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were used for diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry staining techniques were used to evaluate PSMA and GRPR expression (both number of cells expressed and % of area stained). To assess the independent associations among selected variables, a multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis was used. It was found that the PSMA expression was inversely correlated with GRPR expression. Only the number of cells expressing GRPR was significantly related to the Gleason score. Both the percentage of area expressing GRPR and the number of cells expressing PSMA were close to reaching significance at the 0.05 level. MDS provided a map of the overall, independent association confirming that GRPR and PSMA represent inversely correlated measures of the same dimension. In conclusion, our data showed that GRPR expression should be evaluated in prostate biopsy specimens to improve our ability to detect PC with low grades at the earliest phases of development. Considering that GRPRs appear to be directly involved in the mechanisms of tumor proliferation, advancements in nuclear medicine radiotherapy can focus on this receptor to improve the therapeutic approach to PC. Further studies in our laboratory will investigate the molecular mechanisms of activation based on GRPR.

12.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm ; 36(5): 391-396, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769088

RESUMO

Background: The retrospective studies that have so far described the outcomes of the sequential use of life-prolonging agents (LPAs) did not include metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients who received radium-223 (223Ra) as part of their treatment. Consequently, it is not known whether including 223Ra in the therapeutic sequence has an impact on cumulative survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate this impact by comparing the cumulative overall survival (OS) in two series of mCRPC patients sequentially treated with two or three LPAs after first-line docetaxel (DOC), including 223Ra and not. Materials and Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of mCRPC patients with bone involvement alone who received two or three LPAs (including 223Ra) after first-line DOC. The control group was a contemporary series of mCRPC patients with bone involvement alone treated with sequences of two or three LPAs other than 223Ra after first-line DOC. Results: Median cumulative OS was 40.6 months in the 223Ra group of 78 patients and 36.2 months in the non-223Ra group of 186 patients (p = 0.08). OS outcomes were significantly influenced by the number of treatment lines, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) and prostate-specific antigen levels. Conclusions: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study designed to evaluate the impact of introducing 223Ra in the treatment sequences for mCRPC patients, and the results show that its use does not negatively affect cumulative OS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Acetato de Abiraterona/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
13.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 70, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare form of skin cancer with a poor prognosis, has increased in Italy in recent decades. Avelumab, an anti-programmed death ligand 1 monoclonal antibody, is approved for the treatment of metastatic MCC (mMCC) based on the results of the phase 2 JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial. The global avelumab expanded access program (EAP) was designed to provide compassionate use of avelumab prior to approval for patients with mMCC who had limited treatment options. We report findings from a subgroup of Italian patients enrolled in the avelumab EAP. METHODS: Eligible patients had mMCC and progressive disease following ≥ 1 prior line of chemotherapy or were ineligible for chemotherapy or clinical trial participation. Patients received avelumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks. Treating physicians were provided with an initial 3-month supply of avelumab; resupply was permitted if the patient achieved a complete response, partial response, stable disease, or other clinical benefit per physician assessment. Safety and efficacy data for the EAP were reported at the treating physician's discretion. RESULTS: Between April 1, 2016, and September 14, 2018, 109 requests for avelumab were received from Italy, and 102 were approved. All but 1 of the approved patients had received ≥ 1 prior line of therapy. At data cutoff (March 22, 2019), 95 patients had been supplied with avelumab and response data were available for 55 patients. The objective response rate in response-evaluable patients was 29.1%, including 6 patients (10.9%) who achieved a complete response and 10 patients (18.2%) who achieved a partial response; in the total population supplied with avelumab (n = 95), the proportion who had an objective response was 16.8%. The median duration of treatment in responding patients was 9.7 months (range, 3.5-41.7 months). The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse events were infusion-related reaction (single preferred term; n = 3 [3.2%]) and pyrexia (n = 2 [2.1%]). CONCLUSIONS: Results from Italian patients enrolled in the avelumab EAP are consistent with the findings of the JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial and confirm the efficacy and safety of avelumab treatment in this population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 51(3): 484-491, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the current immunotherapy era, VEGFR inhibitors maintain effectiveness in metastatic renal cell cancer. Real-world data concerning pazopanib are limited. The aim of this study is to add information about efficacy and safety of pazopanib as first-line treatment in metastatic renal cell cancer patients not enrolled into clinical trials. METHODS: Retrospective analysis (the PAMERIT study) of first-line pazopanib in real-world metastatic renal cell cancer patients among 39 Centers in Italy. Outcomes were progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate and treatment-related adverse events. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test and multivariable Cox's models were used and adjusted for age, histology, previous renal surgery, International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium score and pazopanib initial dose. RESULTS: Among 474 patients, 87.3% had clear cell metastatic renal cell cancer histology. Most of them (84.6%) had upfront renal surgery. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 15.8 and 34.4 months, respectively, significantly correlating with International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium's good prognosis (P < 0.001), ECOG PS 0 (P < 0.001), age (<75 years, P = 0.005), surgery (P < 0.001) and response to pazopanib (P < 0.001). After 3 months of pazopanib, overall disease control rate have been observed in 76.6% patients. Among International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium's favorable group patients, 57/121 (47%) showed complete/partial response. No unexpected AEs emerged. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world study, metastatic renal cell cancer patients treated with first-line pazopanib reached greater progression-free survival and overall survival than in pivotal studies and had high response rates when belonging to International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium's favorable group, without new toxicities. Pazopanib has been confirmed a valid first-line option for International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium's good prognosis metastatic renal cell cancer patients who cannot be submitted to immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Surg Oncol ; 35: 106-113, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866943

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the increasing reliance on targeted therapies and immunotherapy, no standard management strategy is today available for the treatment of locally, distant, or both renal cell carcinoma (RCC) recurrences, and their surgical treatment seems to play a crucial role. We report the 20-year experience of our center evaluating the short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergone surgical resection of RCC recurrences, and the possible role of repeated surgical resections of RCC recurrences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1999 to January 2019, 40 patients underwent surgical resection of isolated locally recurrent RCC (iLR-RCC-group), locally recurrent RCC associated with the presence of distant recurrence (LR-DR-RCC-group), and distant-only recurrent RCC (DR-RCC-group). Data regarding pre-, intra-, post-operative course, and follow-up, prospectively collected in an institutional database, were retrospectively analyzed and compared. RESULTS: iLR-RCC-group was composed of 9 patients, LR-DR-RCC-group of 6 patients, and DR-RCC-group of 25 patients. The recurrence rate was 55.6% (5/9 patients) in iLR-RCC-group, 50% (3/6 patients) in LR-DR-RCC-group, and 44% (11/25) patients in DR-RCC-group, p = 0.830. 3/5 (60%) patients in iLR-RCC-group, 2/3 (66.7%) patients in LR-DR-RCC-group, and 7/11 (63.6%) patients in DR-RCC group underwent to almost one further local treatments of their recurrences, respectively (p = 0.981). No differences in the mean disease-free survival (p = 0.384), overall survival (OS) (p = 0.881), and cancer-specific survival (p = 0.265) were reported between the three groups. In DR-RCC-group, patients who underwent further local treatments of new recurrences presented a longer OS: 150.7 versus 66.5 months (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: A surgical resection of RCC recurrences should be always taken in consideration, also in metastatic patients and/or in those who have already undergone surgery of previous RCC recurrence, whenever radicality is still possible, because this approach may offer a potentially long survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Nefrectomia/mortalidade , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 86(4): 527-533, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone became a standard hormonal therapy for patients with metastatic castration-resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, patients may experience primary resistance to treatment. To date, few predictive biomarkers of efficacy have been identified. Our aim was to investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.-362T>C in the CYP17A1 gene, and clinical outcome in mCRPC patients treated with abiraterone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: mCRPC patients candidate to receive abiraterone were enrolled in the present retrospective pharmacogenetic study. Based on a literature selection, CYP17A1 rs2486758 (c.-362T > C) was selected and analysed by real-time PCR on genomic DNA extracted from whole blood. Univariate analysis was performed to test the association between the SNP and treatment-related clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty mCRPC patients were enrolled in the present study. Patients carrying the mutant CYP17A1 c.-362CT/CC genotypes showed a shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) and prostate-specific antigen-PFS (PSA-PFS) compared to patients carrying the TT genotype (10.7 vs 14.2 months and 8 vs 16 months, respectively; p = 0.04). No association between the selected SNP and the overall survival was found. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an association between CYP17A1 c.-362T>C polymorphism and poorer clinical outcome with abiraterone for mCRPC patients. However, further validations on larger cohort of patients are needed to confirm its role as a predictive biomarker for abiraterone resistance.


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Eur J Transl Myol ; 30(2): 8931, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782760

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia has been reported to be directly responsible for at least 20% of cancer deaths. Management of muscle wasting in cancer-associated cachexia appears to be of pivotal importance for survival of patients. In this regard, it would be interesting to identify before its patent appearance eventual functional markers of muscle damage, to plan specific exercise protocols to counteract cachexia. The muscle function of 13 oncologic patients and 15 controls was analyzed through: i) analysis of the oxidative metabolism, indirectly evaluated trough dosage of blood lactate levels before and after a submaximal incremental exercise on a treadmill; ii) analysis of strength and, iii) endurance, in both lower and upper limbs muscles, employing an isokinetic dynamometer. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare the muscle activities between groups. Analysis of oxidative metabolism during the incremental exercise on a treadmill showed that patients performed a shorter exercise than controls. Lactate levels were significantly higher in patients both at baseline and after the task. Muscle strength analysis in patients group showed a reduction of Maximum Voluntary Contraction during the isometric contraction and, a tendency to fatigue during endurance task. Data emerging from this study highlight an impairment of muscle oxidative metabolism in subjects affected by a pre-cachexia stage of cancer. A trend of precocious fatigability and an impairment of muscle strength production were also observed. This evidence underlines the relevance of assessing muscle function in order to develop novel rehabilitative approaches able to counteract motor impairment and eventually to prevent cachexia in these patients.

18.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(6): 477-488, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has brought clinical benefits to patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). Most patients tolerate immunotherapy but serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported. Some studies indicate a correlation between irAEs and clinical response in other cancer types (eg, lung cancer and melanoma). For patients with mRCC, the impact of irAE on clinical outcome is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 167 patients with mRCC treated with nivolumab as standard of care between March 2017 and January 2018 in 16 Italian centers was performed. irAEs were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.4.0. RESULTS: Any grade and grade 3/4 irAEs occurred in 46% and 8.9% of patients, respectively. The median time to appearance of irAEs was 10 weeks; 38.8% of patients required steroid treatment. The most common irAEs were cutaneous (33.7%) and gastrointestinal (23.3%). The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 20.13 and 7.86 months, respectively. Patients with irAEs showed a greater overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.63) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.29-0.66) benefit as well as better overall response rate (27.3% vs. 13.7%; odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.03-5.44) and disease control rate (68.8% vs. 48%; odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.23-4.67) if compared with those without irAEs. No correlation was found between steroid use and clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed that the appearance of irAEs was associated with better outcomes in patients treated with nivolumab. This data may be limited by sample size and the retrospective nature of the study.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580478

RESUMO

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone of treatment for prostate cancer and, in recent years, androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies (abiraterone and enzalutamide) have both been used for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In our study, we sought to investigate the association between ADT and immune disorders, considering a potential role of androgens in the immune modulation. We retrospectively evaluated CRPC patients treated with abiraterone/enzalutamide between July 2011 and December 2018. We assessed the risk of developing immune alterations and their impact on outcome. We included 844 CRPC patients receiving AR-directed therapies, of whom 36 (4.3%) had autoimmune diseases and 47 (5.6%) second tumors as comorbidities. Median age was 70 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 63-75)]. We showed higher significant incidence of autoimmune diseases during their hormone sensitive status (p = 0.021) and the presence of autoimmune comorbidities before starting treatment with abiraterone/enzalutamide was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (10.1 vs. 13.7 months, HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.03-2.27, p = 0.038). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of autoimmune disorders was an independent predictor of OS (HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-2.60, p = 0.031). In conclusion, CRPC patients with autoimmune alterations before starting AR-directed therapies may have worse prognosis. Further prospective studies are warranted to assess the role of immune modulation in the management of prostate cancer patients.

20.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(11): 2633-2638, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249345

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the fracture risk and survival outcomes in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who received sequentially abiraterone acetate (AA) and radium 223 [223Ra]RaCl2 in the daily clinical practice. MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of mCRPC patients who received [223Ra]RaCl2 immediately after progressing during an AA treatment line in everyday clinical practice. RESULTS: We reviewed data of a consecutive series of 94 mCRPC patients. Most of the patients (85.1%) received [223Ra]RaCl2 as second- or third-line treatment. [223Ra]RaCl2 treatment was well-tolerated; there were only four cases of grade 3 anaemia, two cases of grade 3 leukopenia and one case of grade 3 neutropenia. The overall fracture rate is 2.1%; one fracture was recorded during the course of [223Ra]RaCl2 treatment, and one was recorded 1 month after its end. The fractures both occurred at metastatic sites. Median OS from [223Ra]RaCl2 start was more than 14 months regardless of the treatment line when [223Ra]RaCl2 was administered. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that the treatment with [223Ra]RaCl2 immediately after AA was active and safe with a very low risk of a fracture. Thus, the present observational report makes a valuable contribution to the current debate concerning the risks and benefits of including [223Ra]RaCl2 in the therapeutic algorithm.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Rádio (Elemento) , Acetato de Abiraterona/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Rádio (Elemento)/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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