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2.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070832

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection causes progressive liver damage, although about 20% of patients develop extrahepatic manifestations such as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV). Clinical manifestations range from mild to moderate (purpura, asthenia, arthralgia) to severe (leg ulcers, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma). A comprehensive review of therapeutic options for HBV-related CV is lacking. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) suppress HBV replication in 90-100% of cases and induce clinical response in most patients with mild-to-moderate CV. Plasma exchange can be performed in patients with severe CV and should be considered in severe or life-threatening cases combined with high doses of corticosteroids and antiviral treatment. A cautious use of rituximab can be considered only in association with NA treatment in refractory cases. A review of the literature and an analysis of data collected by six centers of the Italian Group for the Study of Cryoglobulinemia on 18 HBV-CV nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (NAs)-treated patients were carried out.

4.
Nat Metab ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035524

RESUMO

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are reported to have a greater prevalence of hyperglycaemia. Cytokine release as a consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may precipitate the onset of metabolic alterations by affecting glucose homeostasis. Here we describe abnormalities in glycometabolic control, insulin resistance and beta cell function in patients with COVID-19 without any pre-existing history or diagnosis of diabetes, and document glycaemic abnormalities in recovered patients 2 months after onset of disease. In a cohort of 551 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Italy, we found that 46% of patients were hyperglycaemic, whereas 27% were normoglycaemic. Using clinical assays and continuous glucose monitoring in a subset of patients, we detected altered glycometabolic control, with insulin resistance and an abnormal cytokine profile, even in normoglycaemic patients. Glycaemic abnormalities can be detected for at least 2 months in patients who recovered from COVID-19. Our data demonstrate that COVID-19 is associated with aberrant glycometabolic control, which can persist even after recovery, suggesting that further investigation of metabolic abnormalities in the context of long COVID is warranted.

5.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39 Suppl 129(2): 149-154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938790

RESUMO

People with cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) have an increased risk of infections, attributed to different causes: impairment of the immune system due to the disease itself, comorbidities, and immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, these patients may be at high risk for a more severe course of COVID-19, including hospitalisation and death. Concerns about efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccines, as well as doubts, not yet fully clarified in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, represent other important factors for a low vaccination rate in people with (CV). Indeed, providing an expert position on the issues related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients suffering from CV is of critical relevance in order to help both patients and clinicians who are treating them in making the best choice in each case. A multidisciplinary task force of the Italian Group for the Study of Cryoglobulinaemia (GISC) was convened, and through a Delphi technique produced provisional recommendations regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in cryoglobulinaemic patients.


Assuntos
Crioglobulinemia , Vasculite , Humanos , Itália , Vacinação
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656362, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936084

RESUMO

Since March 2020, the outbreak of Sars-CoV-2 pandemic has changed medical practice and daily routine around the world. Huge efforts from pharmacological industries have led to the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular two mRNA vaccines, namely the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and the mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and a viral-vectored vaccine, i.e. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), have recently been approved in Europe. Clinical trials on these vaccines have been published on the general population showing a high efficacy with minor adverse events. However, specific data about the efficacy and safety of these vaccines in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are still lacking. Moreover, the limited availability of these vaccines requires prioritizing some vulnerable categories of patients compared to others. In this position paper, we propose the point of view about the management of COVID-19 vaccination from Italian experts on IMIDs and the identification of high-risk groups according to the different diseases and their chronic therapy.


Assuntos
/imunologia , /prevenção & controle , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Prova Pericial , Glomerulonefrite/complicações , Glomerulonefrite/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/virologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/virologia , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Reumáticas/complicações , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/virologia , Dermatopatias/complicações , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Uveíte/complicações , Uveíte/imunologia , Uveíte/virologia
7.
EBioMedicine ; 66: 103306, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-level HIV viremia originating from virus reactivation in HIV reservoirs is often present in cART treated individuals and represents a persisting source of immune stimulation associated with sub-optimal recovery of CD4+ T cells. The HIV-1 Tat protein is released in the extracellular milieu and activates immune cells and latent HIV, leading to virus production and release. However, the relation of anti-Tat immunity with residual viremia, persistent immune activation and CD4+ T-cell dynamics has not yet been defined. METHODS: Volunteers enrolled in a 3-year longitudinal observational study were stratified by residual viremia, Tat serostatus and frequency of anti-Tat cellular immune responses. The impact of anti-Tat immunity on low-level viremia, persistent immune activation and CD4+ T-cell recovery was investigated by test for partitions, longitudinal regression analysis for repeated measures and generalized estimating equations. FINDINGS: Anti-Tat immunity is significantly associated with higher nadir CD4+ T-cell numbers, control of low-level viremia and long-lasting CD4+ T-cell recovery, but not with decreased immune activation. In adjusted analysis, the extent of CD4+ T-cell restoration reflects the interplay among Tat immunity, residual viremia and immunological determinants including CD8+ T cells and B cells. Anti-Env immunity was not related to CD4+ T-cell recovery. INTERPRETATION: Therapeutic approaches aiming at reinforcing anti-Tat immunity should be investigated to improve immune reconstitution in people living with HIV on long-term cART. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISS OBS T-002 ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01024556 FUNDING: Italian Ministry of Health, special project on the Development of a vaccine against HIV based on the Tat protein and Ricerca Corrente 2019/2020.

8.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926816

RESUMO

Although Italy has been on track for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) elimination since 2019, it fell off track due to the decrease in the number of treated patients. HCV elimination in Italy will be possible if immediate action is taken. A health policy was implemented beginning in 2021, consisting of screening among key populations and birth cohorts (1969-1989), estimated to have a high prevalence of undiagnosed individuals. The active screening requires regional governance that manages the processes' complexity integrating a well-organized network between territory assistance and hospital to achieve an effective HCV care cascade. This document aims to support the regional decision-making process by defining paths for screening and linkage-to-care. Implementing active screening strategies beyond a risk-based approach is required as a General Practitioners' task. Simplified paths must be drawn for the key populations screening. The infrastructure built for COVID-19 vaccination could be used also for HCV screening. According to a multidisciplinary care delivery, screening should be supplemented with rapid linkage-to-care and treatment of newly diagnosed patients. The realization of the proactive screening during the first two years is vital because it will define the tracks for the whole HCV cost-effective screening of 1948-1988 birth cohorts in Italy.

9.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals are highly effective for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, regardless race/ethnicity. We aimed to evaluate demographic, virological and clinical data of HCV-infected migrants vs. natives consecutively enrolled in the PITER cohort. METHODS: Migrants were defined by country of birth and nationality that was different from Italy. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression were used. RESULTS: Of 10,669 enrolled patients, 301 (2.8%) were migrants: median age 47 vs. 62 years, (p < 0.001), females 56.5% vs. 45.3%, (p < 0.001), HBsAg positivity 3.8% vs. 1.4%, (p < 0.05). Genotype 1b was prevalent in both groups, whereas genotype 4 was more prevalent in migrants (p < 0.05). Liver disease severity and sustained virologic response (SVR) were similar. A higher prevalence of comorbidities was reported for natives compared to migrants (p < 0.05). Liver disease progression cofactors (HBsAg, HIV coinfection, alcohol abuse, potential metabolic syndrome) were present in 39.1% and 47.1% (p > 0.05) of migrants and natives who eradicated HCV, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared to natives, HCV-infected migrants in care have different demographics, HCV genotypes, viral coinfections and comorbidities and similar disease severity, SVR and cofactors for disease progression after HCV eradication. A periodic clinical assessment after HCV eradication in Italians and migrants with cofactors for disease progression is warranted.

11.
J Travel Med ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693917

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Studies of the malaria parasites infecting various non-human primates (NHPs) have increased our understanding of the origin, biology and pathogenesis of human Plasmodium parasites.This review considers the major discoveries concerning NHP malaria parasites, highlights their relationships with human malaria, and considers the impact that this may have on attempts to eradicate the disease. KEY FINDINGS: The first description of NHP malaria parasites dates back to the early 20th century. Subsequently, experimental and fortuitous findings indicating that some NHP malaria parasites can be transmitted to humans have raised concerns about the possible impact of a zoonotic malaria reservoir on efforts to control human malaria.Advances in molecular techniques over the last 15 years have contributed greatly to our knowledge of the existence and geographical distribution of numerous Plasmodium species infecting NHPs, and extended our understanding of their close phylogenetic relationships with human malaria parasites. The clinical application of such techniques has also made it possible to document ongoing spillovers of NHP malaria parasites (Plasmodium knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. simium, P. brasilianum) in humans living in or near the forests of Asia and South America, thus confirming that zoonotic malaria can undermine efforts to eradicate human malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing molecular research supports the prophetic intuition of the pioneers of modern malariology who saw zoonotic malaria as a potential obstacle to the full success of malaria eradication programmes. It is therefore important to continue surveillance and research based on one-health approaches in order to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between NHPs, mosquito vectors, and humans during a period of ongoing changes in the climate and the use of land, monitor the evolution of zoonotic malaria, identify the populations most at risk, and implement appropriate preventive strategies.

12.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(3): 325-333, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the early stages of COVID-19 pneumonia, hypoxemia has been described in absence of dyspnea ("silent" or "happy" hypoxemia). Our aim was to report its prevalence and outcome in a series of hypoxemic patients upon Emergency Department admission. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study we enrolled a study population consisting of 213 COVID-19 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300 mmHg at hospital admission. Two groups (silent and dyspneic hypoxemia) were defined. Symptoms, blood gas analysis, chest X-ray (CXR) severity, need for intensive care and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Silent hypoxemic patients (68-31.9%) compared to the dyspneic hypoxemic patients (145-68.1%) showed greater frequency of extra respiratory symptoms (myalgia, diarrhea and nausea) and lower plasmatic LDH. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 225±68 mmHg and 192±78 mmHg in silent and dyspneic hypoxemia respectively (P=0.002). Eighteen percent of the patients with PaO2/FiO2 from 50 to 150 mmHg presented silent hypoxemia. Silent and dyspneic hypoxemic patients had similar PaCO2 (34.2±6.8 mmHg vs. 33.5±5.7 mmHg, P=0.47) but different respiratory rates (24.6±5.9 bpm vs. 28.6±11.3 bpm respectively, P=0.002). Even when CXR was severely abnormal, 25% of the population was silent hypoxemic. Twenty-six point five percent and 38.6% of silent and dyspneic patients were admitted to the ICU respectively (P=0.082). Mortality rate was 17.6% and 29.7% (log-rank P=0.083) in silent and dyspneic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Silent hypoxemia is remarkably present in COVID-19. The presence of dyspnea is associated with a more severe clinical condition.


Assuntos
/complicações , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e27091, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported a low prevalence of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 cases; however, no definitive conclusions can be drawn. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of tobacco smoke exposure with nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity accounting for possible confounders. METHODS: The nationwide, self-administered, cross-sectional web-based Italian National Epidemiological Survey on COVID-19 (EPICOVID19) was administered to an Italian population of 198,822 adult volunteers who filled in an online questionnaire between April 13 and June 2, 2020. For this study, we analyzed 6857 individuals with known NPS test results. The associations of smoking status and the dose-response relationship with a positive NPS test result and infection severity were calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs by means of logistic and multinomial regression models adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: Out of the 6857 individuals (mean age 47.9 years, SD 14.1; 4516/6857, 65.9% female), 63.2% (4334/6857) had never smoked, 21.3% (1463/6857) were former smokers, and 15.5% (1060/6857) were current smokers. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers were younger, were more educated, were less affected by chronic diseases, reported COVID-19-like symptoms less frequently, were less frequently hospitalized, and less frequently tested positive for COVID-19. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had almost half the odds of a positive NPS test result (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.45-0.65) compared to nonsmokers. We also found a dose-dependent relationship with tobacco smoke: mild smokers (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.55-1.05), moderate smokers (aOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.42-0.73), and heavy smokers (aOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.27-0.53). This inverse association also persisted when considering the severity of the infection. Current smokers had a statistically significantly lower probability of having asymptomatic (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.92), mild (aOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.81), and severe infections (aOR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared to those who never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection with a dose-dependent relationship. Ad hoc experimental studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04471701; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04471701.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671355

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 causes about 10% of global infections and has the most variable circulation profile in Europe. The history of "endemic" HCV-2 subtypes has been satisfactorily reconstructed, instead there is little information about the recent spread of the "epidemic" subtypes, including HCV-2c. To investigate the origin and dispersion pathways of HCV-2c, 245 newly characterized Italian and Albanian HCV-2 NS5B sequences were aligned with 247 publicly available sequences and included in phylogeographic and phylodynamic analyses using the Bayesian framework. Our findings show that HCV-2c was the most prevalent subtype in Italy and Albania. The phylogeographic analysis suggested an African origin of HCV-2c before it reached Italy about in the 1940s. Phylodynamic analysis revealed an exponential increase in the effective number of infections and Re in Italy between the 1940s and 1960s, and in Albania between the 1990s and the early 2000s. It seems very likely that HCV-2c reached Italy from Africa at the time of the second Italian colonization but did not reach Albania until the period of dramatic migration to Italy in the 1990s. This study contributes to reconstructing the history of the spread of epidemic HCV-2 subtypes to Europe.

15.
Pathogens ; 10(2)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672421

RESUMO

There have been previous reports of the human-to-cat transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but there are only a few molecular studies that have compared the whole genome of the virus in cats and their owners. We here describe a case of domestic SARS-CoV-2 transmission from a healthcare worker to his cat for which nasopharyngeal swabs of both the cat and its owner were used for full-genome analysis. The results indicate that quarantine measures should be extended to pets living in SARS-CoV-2-infected households.

17.
Cell ; 184(5): 1171-1187.e20, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621484

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 can mutate and evade immunity, with consequences for efficacy of emerging vaccines and antibody therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate that the immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor binding motif (RBM) is a highly variable region of S and provide epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characterization of a prevalent, sentinel RBM mutation, N439K. We demonstrate N439K S protein has enhanced binding affinity to the hACE2 receptor, and N439K viruses have similar in vitro replication fitness and cause infections with similar clinical outcomes as compared to wild type. We show the N439K mutation confers resistance against several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, including one authorized for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and reduces the activity of some polyclonal sera from persons recovered from infection. Immune evasion mutations that maintain virulence and fitness such as N439K can emerge within SARS-CoV-2 S, highlighting the need for ongoing molecular surveillance to guide development and usage of vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Aptidão Genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , /química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , /patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Virulência
18.
Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this single-centre prospective study was to evaluate the trend of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in HCWs working at the primary referral centre for infectious diseases and bioemergencies (eg, COVID-19) in Northern Italy and investigate the factors associated with seroconversion. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-nine HCW volunteers were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies three times between 4 March and 27 May 2020 and completed a questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposure, symptoms and personal protective equipment (PPE) training and confidence at each time. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rose from 3/679 to 26/608 (adjusted prevalence: 0.5%, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.7% and 5.4%, 95% CI 3.6 to 7.9, respectively) between the first two time points and then stabilised, in line with the curve of the COVID-19 epidemic in Milan. From the first time point, 61.6% of the HCWs had received training in the use of PPE and 17 (61.5%) of those who proved to be seropositive reported symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Contacts with ill relatives or friends and self-reported symptoms were independently associated with an increased likelihood of seroconversion (p<0.0001 for both), whereas there was no significant association with professional exposure. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the HCWs at our COVID-19 referral hospital was low at the time of the peak of the epidemic. The seroconversions were mainly attributable to extrahospital contacts, probably because the hospital readily adopted effective infection control measures. The relatively high number of asymptomatic seropositive HCWs highlights the need to promptly identify and isolate potentially infectious HCWs.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626045

RESUMO

Castiglione D'Adda is one of the municipalities more precociously and severely affected by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in Lombardy. With our study we aimed to understand the diffusion of the infection by mass serological screening. We searched for SARS-CoV-2 IgGs in the entire population on a voluntary basis using lateral flow immunochromatographic tests (RICT) on capillary blood (rapid tests). We then performed chemioluminescent serological assays (CLIA) and naso-pharyngeal swabs (NPS) in a randomized representative sample and in each subject with a positive rapid test. Factors associated with RICT IgG positivity were assessed by uni- and multivariate logistic regression models. Out of the 4143 participants, 918 (22·2%) showed RICT IgG positivity. In multivariable analysis, IgG positivity increases with age, with a significant non-linear effect (p = 0·0404). We found 22 positive NPSs out of the 1330 performed. Albeit relevant, the IgG prevalence is lower than expected and suggests that a large part of the population remains susceptible to the infection. The observed differences in prevalence might reflect a different infection susceptibility by age group. A limited persistence of active infections could be found after several weeks after the epidemic peak in the area.


Assuntos
/métodos , /transmissão , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Prevalência , /patogenicidade
20.
Eur J Intern Med ; 86: 41-47, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of aging and multimorbidity on Covid-19 clinical presentation is still unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the association between symptoms (or cluster of symptoms) and positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) was different according to patients' age and presence of multimorbidity. METHODS: The study included 6680 participants in the EPICOVID19 web-based survey, who reported information about symptoms from February to June 2020 and who underwent at least one NPS. Symptom clusters were identified through hierarchical cluster analysis. The associations between symptoms (and clusters of symptoms) and positive NPS were investigated through multivariable binary logistic regression in the sample stratified by age (<65 vs ≥65 years) and number of chronic diseases (0 vs 1 vs ≥2). RESULTS: The direct association between taste/smell disorders and positive NPS was weaker in older and multimorbid patients than in their younger and healthier counterparts. Having reported no symptoms reduced the chance of positive NPS by 86% in younger (95%CI: 0.11-0.18), and by 46% in older participants (95%CI: 0.37-0.79). Of the four symptom clusters identified (asymptomatic, generic, flu-like, and combined generic and flu-like symptoms), those associated with a higher probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection were the flu-like for older people, and the combined generic and flu-like for the younger ones. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and pre-existing chronic diseases may influence the clinical presentation of Covid-19. Symptoms at disease onset tend to aggregate differently by age. New diagnostic algorithms considering age and chronic conditions may ease Covid-19 diagnosis and optimize health resources allocation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04471701 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários
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