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1.
J Surg Oncol ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of recurrence following liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases is a topic of debate. We determined risk factors for survival following recurrence after liver resection. METHODS: Long-term follow-up of patients in the PETCAM trial who had recurrence following liver resection. Risk groups were created according to their survival risk. Differences in overall survival (OS) between groups were estimated. Disease-free survival (DFS), patterns of disease recurrence and management were determined. Cox proportional hazard models, Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test were used. RESULTS: Among 368 patients who underwent liver resection, 264 (72%) experienced disease recurrence (51% lung and 41% liver). Following liver resection, DFS: 17 months (95% CI, 14-19); OS: 57 months (95% CI, 46-70). In those who recurred, 120 (45%) received chemotherapy only, and 112 (42%) underwent second surgical resection. Among patients who experienced recurrence (n = 264), the high-risk group (more than one site of recurrence or disease-free duration < 5 months and node-positive disease) had median OS: 19 months (95% CI, 15-23) vs 36 months (95% CI, 30-48) for patients in the low-risk group (HR = 2.9, 95% CI, 2.2-3.9). CONCLUSION: Recurrence following liver resection is common. Following recurrence after liver resection, patients should be carefully selected for surgical re-resection based on risk factors.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Identification of clinically actionable molecular subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is key to improving patient outcome. Intertumoral metabolic heterogeneity contributes to cancer survival and the balance between distinct metabolic pathways may influence PDAC outcome. We hypothesized that PDAC can be stratified into prognostic metabolic subgroups based on alterations in the expression of genes involved in glycolysis and cholesterol synthesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed bioinformatics analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, and clinical data in an integrated cohort of 325 resectable and nonresectable PDAC. The resectable datasets included retrospective The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) cohorts. The nonresectable PDAC cohort studies included prospective COMPASS, PanGen, and BC Cancer Personalized OncoGenomics program (POG). RESULTS: On the basis of the median normalized expression of glycolytic and cholesterogenic genes, four subgroups were identified: quiescent, glycolytic, cholesterogenic, and mixed. Glycolytic tumors were associated with the shortest median survival in resectable (log-rank test P = 0.018) and metastatic settings (log-rank test P = 0.027). Patients with cholesterogenic tumors had the longest median survival. KRAS and MYC-amplified tumors had higher expression of glycolytic genes than tumors with normal or lost copies of the oncogenes (Wilcoxon rank sum test P = 0.015). Glycolytic tumors had the lowest expression of mitochondrial pyruvate carriers MPC1 and MPC2. Glycolytic and cholesterogenic gene expression correlated with the expression of prognostic PDAC subtype classifier genes. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic classification specific to glycolytic and cholesterogenic pathways provides novel biological insight into previously established PDAC subtypes and may help develop personalized therapies targeting unique tumor metabolic profiles.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS:  Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(8): e1008344, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469826

RESUMO

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) is a lethal malignancy that is familial or associated with genetic syndromes in 10% of cases. Gene-based surveillance strategies for at-risk individuals may improve clinical outcomes. However, familial PC (FPC) is plagued by genetic heterogeneity and the genetic basis for the majority of FPC remains elusive, hampering the development of gene-based surveillance programs. The study was powered to identify genes with a cumulative pathogenic variant prevalence of at least 3%, which includes the most prevalent PC susceptibility gene, BRCA2. Since the majority of known PC susceptibility genes are involved in DNA repair, we focused on genes implicated in these pathways. We performed a region-based association study using the Mixed-Effects Score Test, followed by leave-one-out characterization of PC-associated gene regions and variants to identify the genes and variants driving risk associations. We evaluated 398 cases from two case series and 987 controls without a personal history of cancer. The first case series consisted of 109 patients with either FPC (n = 101) or PC at ≤50 years of age (n = 8). The second case series was composed of 289 unselected PC cases. We validated this discovery strategy by identifying known pathogenic BRCA2 variants, and also identified SMG1, encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase, to be significantly associated with PC following correction for multiple testing (p = 3.22x10-7). The SMG1 association was validated in a second independent series of 532 FPC cases and 753 controls (p<0.0062, OR = 1.88, 95%CI 1.17-3.03). We showed segregation of the c.4249A>G SMG1 variant in 3 affected relatives in a FPC kindred, and we found c.103G>A to be a recurrent SMG1 variant associating with PC in both the discovery and validation series. These results suggest that SMG1 is a novel PC susceptibility gene, and we identified specific SMG1 gene variants associated with PC risk.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

7.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 389-397, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209717

RESUMO

Before SNP-based risk can be incorporated in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, the ability of these SNPs to estimate CRC risk for persons with and without a family history of CRC, and the screening implications need to be determined. We estimated the association with CRC of a 45 SNP-based risk using 1181 cases and 999 controls, and its correlation with CRC risk predicted from detailed family history. We estimated the predicted change in the distribution across predefined risk categories, and implications for recommended screening commencement age, from adding SNP-based risk to family history. The inter-quintile risk ratio for colorectal cancer risk of the SNP-based risk was 3.28 (95% CI 2.54-4.22). SNP-based and family history-based risks were not correlated (r = 0.02). For persons with no first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 4 years earlier for women (5 years for men) in the highest quintile of SNP-based risk. For persons with two first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 16 years earlier for men and women in the highest quintile, and 7 years earlier for the lowest quintile. This 45 SNP panel in conjunction with family history, can identify people who could benefit from earlier screening. Risk reclassification by 45 SNPs could inform targeted screening for CRC prevention, particularly in clinical genetics settings when mutations in high-risk genes cannot be identified. Yet to be determined is cost-effectiveness, resources requirements, community, patient and clinician acceptance, and feasibility with potentially ethical, legal and insurance implications.

8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 955-966, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer has the highest fatality rate of all cancers. Adulthood obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer; however, life-course obesity is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) trajectories throughout the life-course and pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted (2011-2013) in Ontario, Canada. Cases were recruited from the Ontario pancreas cancer study (n = 310) and controls from the Ontario cancer risk factor study (n = 1258). Questionnaires captured self-reported height and weight at four timepoints (adolescence, 20 s, 30-40 s, 50-60 s). BMI trajectories were identified using latent class growth mixture modeling. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Five BMI trajectories were identified: stable-normal weight (38.9%), progressively overweight (42.2%), persistent overweight (12.6%), progressive obesity (4.2%), and persistent obesity (2.1%). The persistent overweight (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.02, 2.39) and progressive obesity trajectories (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 0.77, 2.87) compared to stable-normal weight were associated with increased odds of pancreatic cancer. When BMI was evaluated separately the strongest associations with pancreatic cancer emerged in young and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSION: BMI trajectories characterized by overweight in early adulthood were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk suggesting a life-course approach to disease risk.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

10.
Gut ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201285

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transcriptional analyses have identified several distinct molecular subtypes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) that have prognostic and potential therapeutic significance. However, to date, an indepth, clinicomorphological correlation of these molecular subtypes has not been performed. We sought to identify specific morphological patterns to compare with known molecular subtypes, interrogate their biological significance, and furthermore reappraise the current grading system in PDAC. DESIGN: We first assessed 86 primary, chemotherapy-naive PDAC resection specimens with matched RNA-Seq data for specific, reproducible morphological patterns. Differential expression was applied to the gene expression data using the morphological features. We next compared the differentially expressed gene signatures with previously published molecular subtypes. Overall survival (OS) was correlated with the morphological and molecular subtypes. RESULTS: We identified four morphological patterns that segregated into two components ('gland forming' and 'non-gland forming') based on the presence/absence of well-formed glands. A morphological cut-off (≥40% 'non-gland forming') was established using RNA-Seq data, which identified two groups (A and B) with gene signatures that correlated with known molecular subtypes. There was a significant difference in OS between the groups. The morphological groups remained significantly prognostic within cancers that were moderately differentiated and classified as 'classical' using RNA-Seq. CONCLUSION: Our study has demonstrated that PDACs can be morphologically classified into distinct and biologically relevant categories which predict known molecular subtypes. These results provide the basis for an improved taxonomy of PDAC, which may lend itself to future treatment strategies and the development of deep learning models.

11.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-16, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With a dismal 8% median 5-year overall survival, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal malignancy. Only 10% to 20% of patients are eligible for surgery, and more than 50% of these patients will die within 1 year of surgery. Building a molecular predictor of early death would enable the selection of patients with PDAC who are at high risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed the Pancreatic Cancer Overall Survival Predictor (PCOSP), a prognostic model built from a unique set of 89 PDAC tumors in which gene expression was profiled using both microarray and sequencing platforms. We used a meta-analysis framework that was based on the binary gene pair method to create gene expression barcodes that were robust to biases arising from heterogeneous profiling platforms and batch effects. Leveraging the largest compendium of PDAC transcriptomic data sets to date, we show that PCOSP is a robust single-sample predictor of early death-1 year or less-after surgery in a subset of 823 samples with available transcriptomics and survival data. RESULTS: The PCOSP model was strongly and significantly prognostic, with a meta-estimate of the area under the receiver operating curve of 0.70 (P = 2.6E-22) and d-index (robust hazard ratio) of 1.9 (range, 1.6 to 2.3; ( = 1.4E-04) for binary and survival predictions, respectively. The prognostic value of PCOSP was independent of clinicopathologic parameters and molecular subtypes. Over-representation analysis of the PCOSP 2,619 gene pairs-1,070 unique genes-unveiled pathways associated with Hedgehog signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and extracellular matrix signaling. CONCLUSION: PCOSP could improve treatment decisions by identifying patients who will not benefit from standard surgery/chemotherapy but who may benefit from a more aggressive treatment approach or enrollment in a clinical trial.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(15): 4674-4681, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068372

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gene fusions involving neuregulin 1 (NRG1) have been noted in multiple cancer types and have potential therapeutic implications. Although varying results have been reported in other cancer types, the efficacy of the HER-family kinase inhibitor afatinib in the treatment of NRG1 fusion-positive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is not fully understood. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty-seven patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma received comprehensive whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing and analysis. Two patients with gene fusions involving NRG1 received afatinib treatment, with response measured by pretreatment and posttreatment PET/CT imaging. RESULTS: Three of 47 (6%) patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were identified as KRAS wild type by whole-genome sequencing. All KRAS wild-type tumors were positive for gene fusions involving the ERBB3 ligand NRG1. Two of 3 patients with NRG1 fusion-positive tumors were treated with afatinib and demonstrated a significant and rapid response while on therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This work adds to a growing body of evidence that NRG1 gene fusions are recurrent, therapeutically actionable genomic events in pancreatic cancers. Based on the clinical outcomes described here, patients with KRAS wild-type tumors harboring NRG1 gene fusions may benefit from treatment with afatinib.See related commentary by Aguirre, p. 4589.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Feminino , Fusão Gênica , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Neuregulina-1 , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)
13.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 45(8): 1341-1348, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET), alone or combined with computed tomography (CT), potentially enhances detection of occult metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: We compared the impact of PET/PET-CT with conventional imaging, versus conventional imaging alone, in patients with potentially resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched for studies investigating PET/PET-CT to determine resectability. Outcomes included overall (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), change in surgical management, and futile laparotomy. Evidence quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A pre-specified protocol was registered in PROSPERO. RESULTS: Of 4034 articles, two randomized trials (n = 554), and 11 non-randomized studies (n = 2251) were included. PET/PET-CT did not improve OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, 95% CI 0.69-1.26, moderate quality) or DFS (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82-1.26, moderate quality). In the two trials, PET/PET-CT changed surgical management in 8% of cases (95% CI 5-11%, high quality), and did not significantly reduce futile laparotomies (risk ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.24-1.47, low quality). Among non-randomized studies, PET/PET-CT changed surgical management in 20% of cases (95% CI 17-22%, very low quality) and reduced futile laparotomies (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.81, very low quality). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence suggests that preoperative PET/PET-CT does not improve OS or DFS in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. These results do not support routine use of PET/PET-CT in patients with potentially resectable disease. The main limitation of this study was the lack of randomized studies.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5449, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931954

RESUMO

In this work, we assess the reproducibility and prognostic value of CT-derived radiomic features for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Two radiologists contoured tumour regions on pre-operative CT of two cohorts from two institutions undergoing curative-intent surgical resection for PDAC. The first (n = 30) and second cohorts (n = 68) were used for training and validation of proposed prognostic model for overall survival (OS), respectively. Radiomic features were extracted using PyRadiomics library and those with weak inter-reader reproducibility were excluded. Through Cox regression models, significant features were identified in the training cohort and retested in the validation cohort. Significant features were then fused via Cox regression to build a single radiomic signature in the training cohort, which was validated across readers in the validation cohort. Two radiomic features derived from Sum Entropy and Cluster Tendency features were both robust to inter-reader reproducibility and prognostic of OS across cohorts and readers. The radiomic signature showed prognostic value for OS in the validation cohort with hazard ratios of 1.56 (P = 0.005) and 1.35 (P = 0.022), for the first and second reader, respectively. CT-based radiomic features were shown to be prognostic in patients with resectable PDAC. These features may help stratify patients for neoadjuvant or alternative therapies.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1238-1245, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. The currently identified common susceptibility loci account for a small fraction of estimated heritability. We sought to estimate overall heritability of pancreatic cancer and partition the heritability by variant frequencies and functional annotations. METHODS: Analysis using the genome-based restricted maximum likelihood method (GREML) was conducted on Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from 3,568 pancreatic cancer cases and 3,363 controls of European Ancestry. RESULTS: Applying linkage disequilibrium- and minor allele frequency-stratified GREML (GREML-LDMS) method to imputed GWAS data, we estimated the overall heritability of pancreatic cancer to be 21.2% (SE = 4.8%). Across the functional groups (intronic, intergenic, coding, and regulatory variants), intronic variants account for most of the estimated heritability (12.4%). Previously identified GWAS loci explained 4.1% of the total phenotypic variation of pancreatic cancer. Mutations in hereditary pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes are present in 4% to 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer, yet our GREML-LDMS results suggested these regions explain only 0.4% of total phenotypic variance for pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Although higher than previous studies, our estimated 21.2% overall heritability may still be downwardly biased due to the inherent limitation that the contribution of rare variants in genes with a substantive overall impact on disease are not captured when applying these commonly used methods to imputed GWAS data. IMPACT: Our work demonstrated the importance of rare and common variants in pancreatic cancer risk.

16.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Cancer ; 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant risk factor for CRC. Counseling for FDRs regarding CRC risk factors and personalized risk is important to improve knowledge and screening compliance. METHODS: A 3-arm randomized controlled trial compared tailored in-person and telephone CRC counseling interventions with controls among FDRs who were not mutation carriers for known hereditary cancer syndromes, but who were considered to be at an increased risk based on family history. It was hypothesized that both telephone and in-person approaches would increase CRC knowledge, screening adherence, perceived risk accuracy, and psychosocial functioning compared with controls. The authors anticipated greater satisfaction with the in-person approach. CRC knowledge, risk perception, psychosocial functioning, and intention to screen were assessed at baseline and at 2-week and 2-month follow-ups (primary endpoint). RESULTS: A total of 278 FDRs (mean age, 47.4 years, standard deviation, 11.38 years) participated. At baseline, participants reported low to moderate CRC knowledge and overestimations of risk. Screening adherence was 73.7%. At 2 months, participants in the in-person arm and telephone arm demonstrated improvements in knowledge and perceived risk and were not found to be statistically different from each other. However, when comparing each intervention with controls, knowledge in the in-person arm was found to be statistically significantly higher, but the difference between the telephone and control arms was not. Cancer-related stress reduced over time in all groups. Intervention benefits were maintained at 1 year. Baseline screening intent/adherence were high, and therefore did not reach statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Tailored in-person or telephone formats for providing CRC risk counseling, incorporating behavioral interventions, appear to improve knowledge and risk perceptions, with high client satisfaction.

18.
HPB (Oxford) ; 21(8): 1072-1078, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal vein embolization (PVE) is used before major hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to increase future liver remnant (FLR) volume. However, this may increase tumour growth rate, leading to more extensive resections. This study aimed to determine the effect of tumour growth, following PVE, on treatment plan. METHOD: Retrospective cohort study conducted on patients treated from 2008 to 2015 with PVE before major hepatectomy for HCC. Liver and tumour volumetry was performed on pre- and post-PVE CT scans. Image-based and actioned plans were compared before and after PVE. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients received PVE. Non-tumour total liver volume decreased (median 1440 to 1394 cm3; p = 0.031), while tumour (median 161-240 cm3; p < 0.001) and FLR volumes (median 430-574 cm3; p < 0.001) increased. The treatment plan changed in 15/31 patients: more extensive resection (n = 6), less extensive resection (n = 1), no resection as scheduled (n = 8). Tumour progression accounted for a clinically relevant change in treatment plan in 8/31 patients. CONCLUSION: Following PVE in the setting of HCC, tumour progression accounts for a change in treatment plan in approximately a quarter of patients. Further research is warranted to determine whether additional liver directed therapy should routinely be used to slow the growth of HCC post-PVE.

19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(1): e1006596, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629588

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst prognosis among solid malignancies and improved therapeutic strategies are needed to improve outcomes. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and patient-derived organoids (PDO) serve as promising tools to identify new drugs with therapeutic potential in PDAC. For these preclinical disease models to be effective, they should both recapitulate the molecular heterogeneity of PDAC and validate patient-specific therapeutic sensitivities. To date however, deep characterization of the molecular heterogeneity of PDAC PDX and PDO models and comparison with matched human tumour remains largely unaddressed at the whole genome level. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of the genetic landscape of 16 whole-genome pairs of tumours and matched PDX, from primary PDAC and liver metastasis, including a unique cohort of 5 'trios' of matched primary tumour, PDX, and PDO. We developed a pipeline to score concordance between PDAC models and their paired human tumours for genomic events, including mutations, structural variations, and copy number variations. Tumour-model comparisons of mutations displayed single-gene concordance across major PDAC driver genes, but relatively poor agreement across the greater mutational load. Genome-wide and chromosome-centric analysis of structural variation (SV) events highlights previously unrecognized concordance across chromosomes that demonstrate clustered SV events. We found that polyploidy presented a major challenge when assessing copy number changes; however, ploidy-corrected copy number states suggest good agreement between donor-model pairs. Collectively, our investigations highlight that while PDXs and PDOs may serve as tractable and transplantable systems for probing the molecular properties of PDAC, these models may best serve selective analyses across different levels of genomic complexity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Genoma/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Humanos , Pâncreas/patologia
20.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 267-282.e7, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686769

RESUMO

We integrated clinical, genomic, and transcriptomic data from 224 primaries and 95 metastases from 289 patients to characterize progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Driver gene alterations and mutational and expression-based signatures were preserved, with truncations, inversions, and translocations most conserved. Cell cycle progression (CCP) increased with sequential inactivation of tumor suppressors, yet remained higher in metastases, perhaps driven by cell cycle regulatory gene variants. Half of the cases were hypoxic by expression markers, overlapping with molecular subtypes. Paired tumor heterogeneity showed cancer cell migration by Halstedian progression. Multiple PDACs arising synchronously and metachronously in the same pancreas were actually intra-parenchymal metastases, not independent primary tumors. Established clinical co-variates dominated survival analyses, although CCP and hypoxia may inform clinical practice.

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