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1.
Front Oncol ; 12: 860767, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547873

RESUMO

The immune contexture of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is generally immunosuppressive. A role for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in PDAC has only been demonstrated for the rare and hypermutated mismatch repair (MMR) deficient (MMR-d) subtype. Homologous recombination repair (HR) deficient (HR-d) PDAC is more prevalent and may encompass up to 20% of PDAC. Its genomic instability may promote a T-cell mediated anti-tumor response with therapeutic sensitivity to ICIs. To investigate the immunogenicity of HR-d PDAC, we used multiplex immunohistochemistry (IHC) to compare the density and spatial distribution of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs), and CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in HR-d versus HR/MMR-intact PDAC. We also evaluated the IHC positivity of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) across the subgroups. 192 tumors were evaluated and classified as HR/MMR-intact (n=166), HR-d (n=25) or MMR-d (n=1) based on germline testing and tumor molecular hallmarks. Intra-tumoral CD8+ T-cell infiltration was higher in HR-d versus HR/MMR-intact PDAC (p<0.0001), while CD8+ T-cell densities in the peri-tumoral and stromal regions were similar in both groups. HR-d PDAC also displayed increased intra-tumoral FOXP3+ Tregs (p=0.049) and had a higher CD8+:FOXP3+ ratio (p=0.023). CD68+ TAM expression was similar in HR-d and HR/MMR-intact PDAC. Finally, 6 of the 25 HR-d cases showed a PD-L1 Combined Positive Score of >=1, whereas none of the HR/MMR-intact cases met this threshold (p<0.00001). These results provide immunohistochemical evidence for intra-tumoral CD8+ T-cell enrichment and PD-L1 positivity in HR-d PDAC, suggesting that HR-d PDAC may be amenable to ICI treatment strategies.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide gene-environment interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the use of any MHT, estrogen-only, and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy with CRC risk, among 28,486 postmenopausal women (11,519 cases and 16,967 controls) from 38 studies, using logistic regression, two-step method, and 2- or 3-degree-of-freedom (d.f.) joint test. A set-based score test was applied for rare genetic variants. RESULTS: The use of any MHT, estrogen-only and estrogen-progestogen were associated with a reduced CRC risk [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.71 (0.64-0.78), 0.65 (0.53-0.79), and 0.73 (0.59-0.90), respectively]. The two-step method identified a statistically significant interaction between a GRIN2B variant rs117868593 and MHT use, whereby MHT-associated CRC risk was significantly reduced in women with the GG genotype [0.68 (0.64-0.72)] but not within strata of GC or CC genotypes. A statistically significant interaction between a DCBLD1 intronic variant at 6q22.1 (rs10782186) and MHT use was identified by the 2-d.f. joint test. The MHT-associated CRC risk was reduced with increasing number of rs10782186-C alleles, showing ORs of 0.78 (0.70-0.87) for TT, 0.68 (0.63-0.73) for TC, and 0.66 (0.60-0.74) for CC genotypes. In addition, five genes in rare variant analysis showed suggestive interactions with MHT (two-sided P < 1.2x10-4). CONCLUSION: Genetic variants that modify the association between MHT and CRC risk were identified, offering new insights into pathways of CRC carcinogenesis and potential mechanisms involved.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1077-1089, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently known associations between common genetic variants and colorectal cancer explain less than half of its heritability of 25%. As alcohol consumption has a J-shape association with colorectal cancer risk, nondrinking and heavy drinking are both risk factors for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Individual-level data was pooled from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium to compare nondrinkers (≤1 g/day) and heavy drinkers (>28 g/day) with light-to-moderate drinkers (1-28 g/day) in GxE analyses. To improve power, we implemented joint 2df and 3df tests and a novel two-step method that modifies the weighted hypothesis testing framework. We prioritized putative causal variants by predicting allelic effects using support vector machine models. RESULTS: For nondrinking as compared with light-to-moderate drinking, the hybrid two-step approach identified 13 significant SNPs with pairwise r2 > 0.9 in the 10q24.2/COX15 region. When stratified by alcohol intake, the A allele of lead SNP rs2300985 has a dose-response increase in risk of colorectal cancer as compared with the G allele in light-to-moderate drinkers [OR for GA genotype = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.17; OR for AA genotype = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31], but not in nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Among the correlated candidate SNPs in the 10q24.2/COX15 region, rs1318920 was predicted to disrupt an HNF4 transcription factor binding motif. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the association with colorectal cancer in 10q24.2/COX15 observed in genome-wide association study is strongest in nondrinkers. We also identified rs1318920 as the putative causal regulatory variant for the region. IMPACT: The study identifies multifaceted evidence of a possible functional effect for rs1318920.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
4.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is increasing. The objective of this study was to compare the 30-day post-operative complications and length-of-stay (LOS) between patients undergoing hepatectomy for iCCA with and without NAC. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using the ACS-NSQIP database queried from 2014 to 2018. Patients with NAC receipt were propensity-score matched into 1:3 ratio with controls using the greedy-matching algorithm and a caliper of 0.2. Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effect sizes. RESULTS: A total of 1508 patients who underwent hepatectomy for iCCA were included. 706 patients remained after matching and balance were achieved. The NAC group had 110 (60.1%) complications vs. 289 (55.3%) complications in the non-NAC group (p = 0.29). NAC was not associated with worse 30-day postoperative complications [OR 1.24, 95% CI: 0.87-1.76; p = 0.24]. Post-operative LOS in the NAC group was 8.56 days (mean, SD 7.4) vs. non-NAC group 9.27 days (mean, SD 8.41, p = 0.32). NAC was not associated with longer post-operative LOS [RR 0.93, 95% CI:0.80, 1.08; p = 0.32]. CONCLUSION: NAC may be safely administered without increasing the risk of 30-day complications or post-operative hospital LOS.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383926

RESUMO

Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease and it is not well understood whether diabetes is more strongly associated with some tumor molecular subtypes than others. A better understanding of the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes could provide important insights into the biology of this association. We used data on lifestyle and clinical characteristics from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), including 9756 colorectal cancer cases (with tumor marker data) and 9985 controls, to evaluate associations between reported diabetes and risk of colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes. Tumor markers included BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype. In the multinomial logistic regression model, comparing colorectal cancer cases to cancer-free controls, diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer regardless of subtype. The highest OR estimate was found for BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer, n = 1086 (ORfully adj : 1.67, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.36-2.05), with an attenuated association observed between diabetes and colorectal cancer without BRAF-mutations, n = 7959 (ORfully adj : 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48). In the case only analysis, BRAF-mutation was differentially associated with diabetes (Pdifference  = .03). For the other markers, associations with diabetes were similar across tumor subtypes. In conclusion, our study confirms the established association between diabetes and colorectal cancer risk, and suggests that it particularly increases the risk of BRAF-mutated tumors.

6.
JAMA Surg ; 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353121

RESUMO

Importance: Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and nearly 70% of patients with this cancer have unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLMs). Compared with chemotherapy, liver transplant has been reported to improve survival in patients with CRLMs, but in North America, liver allograft shortages make the use of deceased-donor allografts for this indication problematic. Objective: To examine survival outcomes of living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) for unresectable, liver-confined CRLMs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included patients at 3 North American liver transplant centers with established LDLT programs, 2 in the US and 1 in Canada. Patients with liver-confined, unresectable CRLMs who had demonstrated sustained disease control on oncologic therapy met the inclusion criteria for LDLT. Patients included in this study underwent an LDLT between July 2017 and October 2020 and were followed up until May 1, 2021. Exposures: Living-donor liver transplant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Perioperative morbidity and mortality of treated patients and donors, assessed by univariate statistics, and 1.5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of recurrence-free and overall survival for transplant recipients. Results: Of 91 evaluated patients, 10 (11%) underwent LDLT (6 [60%] male; median age, 45 years [range, 35-58 years]). Among the 10 living donors, 7 (70%) were male, and the median age was 40.5 years (range, 27-50 years). Kaplan-Meier estimates for recurrence-free and overall survival at 1.5 years after LDLT were 62% and 100%, respectively. Perioperative morbidity for both donors and recipients was consistent with established standards (Clavien-Dindo complications among recipients: 3 [10%] had none, 3 [30%] had grade II, and 4 [40%] had grade III; donors: 5 [50%] had none, 4 [40%] had grade I, and 1 had grade III). Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings of recurrence-free and overall survival rates suggest that select patients with unresectable, liver-confined CRLMs may benefit from total hepatectomy and LDLT.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1068-1076, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has a strong epigenetic component that is accompanied by frequent DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations in addition to heritable genetic risk. It is of interest to understand the interrelationship of germline genetics, DNAm, and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide methylation quantitative trait locus (meQTL) analysis in 1,355 people, assessing the pairwise associations between genetic variants and lymphocytes methylation data. In addition, we used penalized regression with cis-genetic variants ± 1 Mb of methylation to identify genome-wide heritable DNAm. We evaluated the association of genetically predicted methylation with colorectal cancer risk based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of over 125,000 cases and controls using the multivariate sMiST as well as univariately via examination of marginal association with colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Of the 142 known colorectal cancer GWAS loci, 47 were identified as meQTLs. We identified four novel colorectal cancer-associated loci (NID2, ATXN10, KLHDC10, and CEP41) that reside over 1 Mb outside of known colorectal cancer loci and 10 secondary signals within 1 Mb of known loci. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging information of DNAm regulation into genetic association of colorectal cancer risk reveals novel pathways in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. Our summary statistics-based framework sMiST provides a powerful approach by combining information from the effect through methylation and residual direct effects of the meQTLs on disease risk. Further validation and functional follow-up of these novel pathways are needed. IMPACT: Using genotype, DNAm, and GWAS, we identified four new colorectal cancer risk loci. We studied the landscape of genetic regulation of DNAm via single-SNP and multi-SNP meQTL analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003897, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting findings on the potential adverse effects of long-term antihypertensive medication use on cancer risk. Naturally occurring variation in genes encoding antihypertensive drug targets can be used as proxies for these targets to examine the effect of their long-term therapeutic inhibition on disease outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a mendelian randomization analysis to examine the association between genetically proxied inhibition of 3 antihypertensive drug targets and risk of 4 common cancers (breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ACE, ADRB1, and SLC12A3 associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with systolic blood pressure (SBP) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were used to proxy inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ß-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1), and sodium-chloride symporter (NCC), respectively. Summary genetic association estimates for these SNPs were obtained from GWAS consortia for the following cancers: breast (122,977 cases, 105,974 controls), colorectal (58,221 cases, 67,694 controls), lung (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls), and prostate (79,148 cases, 61,106 controls). Replication analyses were performed in the FinnGen consortium (1,573 colorectal cancer cases, 120,006 controls). Cancer GWAS and FinnGen consortia data were restricted to individuals of European ancestry. Inverse-variance weighted random-effects models were used to examine associations between genetically proxied inhibition of these drug targets and risk of cancer. Multivariable mendelian randomization and colocalization analyses were employed to examine robustness of findings to violations of mendelian randomization assumptions. Genetically proxied ACE inhibition equivalent to a 1-mm Hg reduction in SBP was associated with increased odds of colorectal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.22; P = 3.6 × 10-4). This finding was replicated in the FinnGen consortium (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.92; P = 0.035). There was little evidence of association of genetically proxied ACE inhibition with risk of breast cancer (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.02, P = 0.35), lung cancer (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.10; P = 0.93), or prostate cancer (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.13; P = 0.08). Genetically proxied inhibition of ADRB1 and NCC were not associated with risk of these cancers. The primary limitations of this analysis include the modest statistical power for analyses of drug targets in relation to some less common histological subtypes of cancers examined and the restriction of the majority of analyses to participants of European ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that genetically proxied long-term ACE inhibition was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, warranting comprehensive evaluation of the safety profiles of ACE inhibitors in clinical trials with adequate follow-up. There was little evidence to support associations across other drug target-cancer risk analyses, consistent with findings from short-term randomized controlled trials for these medications.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Membro 3 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética
10.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) after curative hepatectomy are as high as 50% to 70%, and about half of these recurrences occur within 2 years. This systematic review aims to define prognostic factors (PFs) for early recurrence (ER, within 24 months) and 24-month disease-free survival (DFS) after curative-intent iCCA resections. METHODS: Systematic searching was performed from database inception to 14 January 2021. Duplicate independent review and data extraction were performed. Data on 13 predefined PFs were collected. Meta-analysis was performed on PFs for ER and summarized using forest plots. The Quality in Prognostic Factor Studies tool was used for risk-of-bias assessment. RESULTS: The study enrolled 10 studies comprising 4158 patients during an accrual period ranging from 1990 to 2016. In the risk-of-bias assessment of patients who experienced ER after curative-intent iCCA resection, six studies were rated as low risk and four as moderate risk (49.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49.2-50.0). Nine studies were pooled for meta-analysis. Of the postoperative PFs, multiple tumors, microvascular invasion, macrovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, and R1 resection were associated with an increased hazard for ER or a reduced 24-month DFS, and the opposite was observed for receipt of adjuvant chemo/radiation therapy. Of the preoperative factors, cirrhosis, sex, HBV status were not associated with ER or 24-month DFS. CONCLUSION: The findings from this systematic review could allow for improved surveillance, prognostication, and treatment decision-making for patients with resectable iCCAs. Further well-designed prospective studies are needed to explore prognostic factors for iCCA ER with a focus on preoperative variables.

11.
Immunity ; 55(2): 324-340.e8, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139353

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a sensor of products of tryptophan metabolism and a potent modulator of immunity. Here, we examined the impact of AhR in tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). TAMs exhibited high AhR activity and Ahr-deficient macrophages developed an inflammatory phenotype. Deletion of Ahr in myeloid cells or pharmacologic inhibition of AhR reduced PDAC growth, improved efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade, and increased intra-tumoral frequencies of IFNγ+CD8+ T cells. Macrophage tryptophan metabolism was not required for this effect. Rather, macrophage AhR activity was dependent on Lactobacillus metabolization of dietary tryptophan to indoles. Removal of dietary tryptophan reduced TAM AhR activity and promoted intra-tumoral accumulation of TNFα+IFNγ+CD8+ T cells; provision of dietary indoles blocked this effect. In patients with PDAC, high AHR expression associated with rapid disease progression and mortality, as well as with an immune-suppressive TAM phenotype, suggesting conservation of this regulatory axis in human disease.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/imunologia , Triptofano/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos , Indóis/imunologia , Indóis/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Microbiota/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 127, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996992

RESUMO

Identification of new genetic markers may improve the prediction of colorectal cancer prognosis. Our objective was to examine genome-wide associations of germline genetic variants with disease-specific survival in an analysis of 16,964 cases of colorectal cancer. We analyzed genotype and colorectal cancer-specific survival data from a consortium of 15 studies. Approximately 7.5 million SNPs were examined under the log-additive model using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for clinical factors and principal components. Additionally, we ran secondary analyses stratifying by tumor site and disease stage. We used a genome-wide p-value threshold of 5 × 10-8 to assess statistical significance. No variants were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival in the full case analysis or in the stage-stratified analyses. Three SNPs were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival for cases with tumors located in the distal colon (rs698022, HR = 1.48, CI 1.30-1.69, p = 8.47 × 10-9) and the proximal colon (rs189655236, HR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.65-2.77, p = 9.19 × 10-9 and rs144717887, HR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.57-2.58, p = 3.14 × 10-8), whereas no associations were detected for rectal tumors. Findings from this large genome-wide association study highlight the potential for anatomical-site-stratified genome-wide studies to identify germline genetic risk variants associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival. Larger sample sizes and further replication efforts are needed to more fully interpret these findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(4): 528-539, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged younger than 50 years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 141 variants. METHODS: Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3486 cases and 3890 controls aged younger than 50 years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per SD of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.20; odds ratio per SD of PRS = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51 to 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CI = 0.615 to 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10 000 men and 21 per 10 000 women among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While ovarian cancer is the third most common Lynch syndrome-associated cancer in women, there is no established screening strategy to identify Lynch syndrome in this population. The objective of this study was to assess whether the 4-item brief Family History Questionnaire can be used as a screening tool to identify women with ovarian cancer at risk of Lynch syndrome. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, participants with newly diagnosed non-serous, non-mucinous ovarian cancer completed the brief Family History Questionnaire, extended Family History Questionnaire, and had tumors assessed with immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins, MLH1 methylation, and microsatellite instability testing. All underwent universal germline testing for Lynch syndrome. Performance characteristics were compared between the brief Family History Questionnaire, extended Family History Questionnaire, immunohistochemistry±MLH1 methylation, and microsatellite instability testing. RESULTS: Of 215 participants, 169 (79%) were evaluable with both the brief Family History Questionnaire and germline mutation status; 12 of these 169 were confirmed to have Lynch syndrome (7%). 10 of 12 patients (83%) with Lynch syndrome were correctly identified by the brief Family History Questionnaire, compared with 6 of 11 (55%) by the extended Family History Questionnaire, 11 of 13 (85%) by immunohistochemistry±MLH1 methylation, and 9 of 11 (82%) by microsatellite instability testing. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the brief Family History Questionnaire were 83%, 65%, 15%, and 98%, respectively. A combined approach with immunohistochemistry and the brief Family History Questionnaire correctly identified all 12 patients with Lynch syndrome. The brief Family History Questionnaire was more sensitive than the extended Family History Questionnaire and took <10 min for each patient to complete. CONCLUSIONS: The brief Family History Questionnaire alone or combined with immunohistochemistry may serve as an adequate screening strategy, especially in centers without access to universal tumor testing.

15.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(4): 671-677, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We tested the feasibility of a simultaneous resection clinical trial in patients with synchronous colorectal cancer liver metastases to obtain the necessary information to plan a randomized trial. METHODS: Multicenter feasibility single-arm trial enrolling patients with synchronous colorectal cancer liver metastases eligible for simultaneous resection. Prespecified criteria for feasibility were: proportion of eligible patients enrolled ≥66%, and the proportion of enrolled patients who completed simultaneous resection ≥75%. The prespecified 90-day major postoperative complication rate was 30%. RESULTS: Of 61 eligible patients from February 2017 to August 2019, 41 were enrolled (67%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 55%-78%), 32 underwent simultaneous resection (78%; 95% CI, 63%-88%). Four patients were not enrolled due to the surgeon's preference, three were due to the complexity of resection (right hepatectomy and low anterior resection). Intraoperative complications during liver resection (n = 4) and progression of disease (n = 4) were the main reasons for not undergoing simultaneous resection. The 90-day incidence of major complications was 41% (95% CI, 16%-58%) and the 90-day postoperative mortality was 6% (95% CI, 1.7%-20%). CONCLUSION: According to prespecified criteria, enrolling patients with synchronous colorectal cancer liver metastases to a trial of simultaneous resection is feasible; however, it is associated with higher than anticipated 90-day postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Int J Cancer ; 150(9): 1447-1454, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888857

RESUMO

Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. We evaluated genetic variants associated with CRP levels and their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors in association with CRC-specific mortality. Our study included 16 142 CRC cases from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We identified 618 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRP levels from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between SNPs and CRC-specific mortality adjusting for age, sex, genotyping platform/study and principal components. We investigated their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors using likelihood ratio tests. Of 5472 (33.9%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3547 (64.8%) were due to CRC. No variants were associated with CRC-specific mortality after multiple comparison correction. We observed strong evidence of interaction between variant rs1933736 at FRK gene and sex in relation to CRC-specific mortality (corrected Pinteraction  = .0004); women had higher CRC-specific mortality associated with the minor allele (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.19) whereas an inverse association was observed for men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.82-0.94). There was no evidence of interactions between CRP-associated SNPs and alcohol, obesity or smoking. Our study observed a significant interaction between sex and a CRP-associated variant in relation to CRC-specific mortality. Future replication of this association and functional annotation of the variant are needed.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Eur Radiol ; 32(4): 2492-2505, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), few pre-operative prognostic biomarkers are available. Radiomics has demonstrated potential but lacks external validation. We aimed to develop and externally validate a pre-operative clinical-radiomic prognostic model. METHODS: Retrospective international, multi-center study in resectable PDAC. The training cohort included 352 patients (pre-operative CTs from five Canadian hospitals). Cox models incorporated (a) pre-operative clinical variables (clinical), (b) clinical plus CT-radiomics, and (c) post-operative TNM model, which served as the reference. Outcomes were overall (OS)/disease-free survival (DFS). Models were assessed in the validation cohort from Ireland (n = 215, CTs from 34 hospitals), using C-statistic, calibration, and decision curve analyses. RESULTS: The radiomic signature was predictive of OS/DFS in the validation cohort, with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) 2.87 (95% CI: 1.40-5.87, p < 0.001)/5.28 (95% CI 2.35-11.86, p < 0.001), respectively, along with age 1.02 (1.01-1.04, p = 0.01)/1.02 (1.00-1.04, p = 0.03). In the validation cohort, median OS was 22.9/37 months (p = 0.0092) and DFS 14.2/29.8 (p = 0.0023) for high-/low-risk groups and calibration was moderate (mean absolute errors 7%/13% for OS at 3/5 years). The clinical-radiomic model discrimination (C = 0.545, 95%: 0.543-0.546) was higher than the clinical model alone (C = 0.497, 95% CI 0.496-0.499, p < 0.001) or TNM (C = 0.525, 95% CI: 0.524-0.526, p < 0.001). Despite superior net benefit compared to the clinical model, the clinical-radiomic model was not clinically useful for most threshold probabilities. CONCLUSION: A multi-institutional pre-operative clinical-radiomic model for resectable PDAC prognostication demonstrated superior net benefit compared to a clinical model but limited clinical utility at external validation. This reflects inherent limitations of radiomics for PDAC prognostication, when deployed in real-world settings. KEY POINTS: • At external validation, a pre-operative clinical-radiomics prognostic model for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) outperformed pre-operative clinical variables alone or pathological TNM staging. • Discrimination and clinical utility of the clinical-radiomic model for treatment decisions remained low, likely due to heterogeneity of CT acquisition parameters. • Despite small improvements, prognosis in PDAC using state-of-the-art radiomics methodology remains challenging, mostly owing to its low discriminative ability. Future research should focus on standardization of CT protocols and acquisition parameters.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Canadá , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 22(3): 131-142, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789870

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), already among the deadliest epithelial malignancies, is rising in both incidence and contribution to overall cancer deaths. Decades of research have improved our understanding of PDAC carcinogenesis, including characterizing germline predisposition, the cell of origin, precursor lesions, the sequence of genetic alterations, including simple and structural alterations, transcriptional changes and subtypes, tumour heterogeneity, metastatic progression and the tumour microenvironment. These fundamental advances inform contemporary translational efforts in primary prevention, screening and early detection, multidisciplinary management and survivorship, as prospective clinical trials begin to adopt molecular-based selection criteria to guide targeted therapies. Genomic and transcriptomic data on PDAC were also included in the international pan-cancer analysis of approximately 2,600 cancers, a milestone in cancer research that allows further insight through comparison with other tumour types. Thus, this is an ideal time to review our current knowledge of PDAC evolution and heterogeneity, gained from the study of preclinical models and patient biospecimens, and to propose a model of PDAC evolution that takes into consideration findings from varied sources, with a particular focus on the genomics of human PDAC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(1): 210-220, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) activates oncogenic signaling pathways and induces inflammation to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: We characterized F. nucleatum and its subspecies in colorectal tumors and examined associations with tumor characteristics and colorectal cancer-specific survival. We conducted deep sequencing of nusA, nusG, and bacterial 16s rRNA genes in tumors from 1,994 patients with colorectal cancer and assessed associations between F. nucleatum presence and clinical characteristics, colorectal cancer-specific mortality, and somatic mutations. RESULTS: F. nucleatum, which was present in 10.3% of tumors, was detected in a higher proportion of right-sided and advanced-stage tumors, particularly subspecies animalis. Presence of F. nucleatum was associated with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.97; P = 0.0004). This association was restricted to nonhypermutated, microsatellite-stable tumors (HR, 2.13; P = 0.0002) and those who received chemotherapy [HR, 1.92; confidence interval (CI), 1.07-3.45; P = 0.029). Only F. nucleatum subspecies animalis, the main subspecies detected (65.8%), was associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR, 2.16; P = 0.0016), subspecies vincentii and nucleatum were not (HR, 1.07; P = 0.86). Additional adjustment for tumor stage suggests that the effect of F. nucleatum on mortality is partly driven by a stage shift. Presence of F. nucleatum was associated with microsatellite instable tumors, tumors with POLE exonuclease domain mutations, and ERBB3 mutations, and suggestively associated with TP53 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: F. nucleatum, and particularly subspecies animalis, was associated with a higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality and specific somatic mutated genes. IMPACT: Our findings identify the F. nucleatum subspecies animalis as negatively impacting colorectal cancer mortality, which may occur through a stage shift and its effect on chemoresistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
20.
HPB (Oxford) ; 24(1): 72-78, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most significant cause of morbidity following distal pancreatectomy. Hemopatch™ is a thin, bovine collagen-based hemostatic sealant. We hypothesized that application of Hemopatch™ to the pancreatic stump following distal pancreatectomy would decrease the incidence of clinically-significant POPF. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, single-arm, multicentre phase II study of application of Hemopatch™ to the pancreatic stump following distal pancreatectomy. The primary outcome was clinically-significant POPF within 90 days of surgery. A sample size of 52 patients was required to demonstrate a 50% relative reduction in Grade B/C POPF from a baseline incidence of 20%, with a type I error of 0.2 and power of 0.75. Secondary outcomes included incidence of POPF (all grades), 90-day mortality, 90-day morbidity, re-interventions, and length of stay. RESULTS: Adequate fixation Hemopatch™ to the pancreatic stump was successful in all cases. The rate of grade B/C POPF was 25% (95%CI: 14.0-39.0%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of grade B/C POPF compared to the historical baseline (p = 0.46). The 90-day incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade ≥3 complications was 26.9% (95%CI: 15.6-41.0%). CONCLUSION: The use of Hemopatch™ was not associated with a decreased incidence of clinically-significant POPF compared to historical rates. (NCT03410914).


Assuntos
Pancreatectomia , Fístula Pancreática , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Pâncreas , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Fístula Pancreática/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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