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1.
J Hosp Infect ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva has alerted health professionals to the possibility of contamination by aerosols generated in a number of procedures. The indication of pre-operative mouthwash containing 1% hydrogen peroxide for reducing the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva prior to oral procedures has been significantly disseminated through several citations and influenced various dental associations in the elaboration of dental care protocols during this pandemic period, including patients admitted to hospital wards and intensive care units. AIM: The objective of this work was to perform a systematic review to answer the following question: does hydrogen peroxide mouthwash (at any concentration) have a virucidal effect? METHODS: The Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE databases were searched by using the following key-words like: "hydrogen peroxide", "mouthwash", "mouth rinse", "rinse", "oral rinse", "mouth bath", "mouth wash" and "mouth washes".Reviews, letters to the editor, personal opinions, book chapters, case reports, congress abstracts, studies with animals and studies on mouthwash containing other compounds other than hydrogen peroxide were excluded. FINDINGS: During the initial search1,342 articles were identified on the five electronic databases. After excluding some duplicates, 976 articles remained. Only studies assessing the virucidal effect of hydrogen peroxide mouthwash were selected, regardless of publication date. After reading titles and abstracts, no article met the eligibility criteria. CONCLUSION: There is no scientific evidence supporting the indication of hydrogen peroxide mouthwash for control of the viral load regarding SARS-CoV-2 or any other viruses in saliva.

2.
Animal ; 10(2): 357-64, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26251114

RESUMO

Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport with high stocking densities in the larger countries; long fasting times due to animals passing through livestock markets and dealers; bad handling of animals by untrained personnel in these and other premises; and finally the lack of knowledge and skills by operators in charge of stunning procedures. Interventions at these stages have considered training animal handlers and transporters by showing them the consequences of bad handling with audiovisual material prepared on site. Research results have helped to improve AW and support the development of new legislation or to make changes in the existent legislation related to AW.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Manobra Psicológica , Ruminantes , Transportes , Matadouros/ética , Matadouros/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/educação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/ética , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Animais , Chile , Comércio , Humanos , Gado , Carne/economia , Carne/normas , América do Sul , Transportes/ética
3.
Meat Sci ; 96(1): 394-9, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23973566

RESUMO

Thirty llamas were used to study the effect of a 90 day feed supplementation on meat quality, chemical composition and muscle fatty acid profile. Treatments were: GR=llama on native pasture until slaughter; GR+SH=like GR, but with overnight free access to barley/alfalfa hay; and GR+SC=like GR, but with overnight free access to a wheat bran/sorghum grain concentrate. The supplementation had no effect on postmortem pH and temperature decline in the Longissimus lumborum muscle (LLM), cooking losses nor Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P>0.05). Meat from GR+SC llama had higher fat content in LLM (P<0.05) compared to GR and GR+SH llama. Intramuscular fat from GR+SH llama showed higher (P<0.01) proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids, higher (P<0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids and desirable fatty acids ratio, lower (P<0.05) omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) ratio, and higher (P<0.01) conjugated linoleic acid.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Carne/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Composição Corporal , Camelídeos Americanos , Culinária , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Medicago sativa , Músculo Esquelético/química
4.
Meat Sci ; 94(1): 89-94, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403300

RESUMO

Twenty male llama of the Kh'ara genotype, reared extensively in the north of Chile, were slaughtered at ages between 2 and 4 permanent teeth (2 to 3.5years) and analyses were carried out on the Longissimus lumborum muscle, including composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash, cholesterol, amino acids, fatty acid profile and collagen content) and meat quality parameters (pH, color, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force). Llama meat was characterized by a low cholesterol (39.04mg/100g) and intramuscular fat (1.56%) content, a total collagen content of 6.28mg/g, of which 20.28% was soluble collagen. Amino acid composition and fatty acid profile were similar to those found for beef finished on forage. Llama meat showed a low n-6/n-3 (4.69) and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (1.55) ratio and acceptable values of DFA (65.78%). Quality parameters in llama Longissimus muscle were within the ranges reported for more traditional meats such as beef and lamb.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Camelídeos Americanos/metabolismo , Colágeno/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/genética , Chile , Colesterol na Dieta/análise , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
5.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 41(8): 970-3, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22266408

RESUMO

Carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant disease with aggressive behaviour rarely producing oral manifestations. This article reports a case of an intraoral carcinosarcoma affecting a 71-year-old black male; the diagnosis was made by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Computed tomography scanning showed metastatic masses in the lungs. The patient was underwent a chemotherapy protocol regimen, but died as a consequence of the disease within 10 months of diagnosis. Distinctive characteristics of this presentation were the location of the lesion (floor of the mouth) and its clinical features resembling a benign lesion. A brief review of intraoral carcinosarcoma cases in the literature is also presented.


Assuntos
Carcinossarcoma/diagnóstico , Granuloma Piogênico/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Soalho Bucal/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinossarcoma/patologia , Carcinossarcoma/secundário , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Queratina-3/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Mesoderma/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Vimentina/análise
6.
Vet Rec ; 166(2): 45-50, 2010 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20064978

RESUMO

Two systems for transporting live salmon (Salmo salar) were compared in terms of their effects on blood variables, muscle pH and rigor index: an 'open system' well-boat with recirculated sea water at 13.5 degrees C and a stocking density of 107 kg/m3 during an eight-hour journey, and a 'closed system' well-boat with water chilled from 16.7 to 2.1 degrees C and a stocking density of 243.7 kg/m3 during a seven-hour journey. Groups of 10 fish were sampled at each of four stages: in cages at the farm, in the well-boat after loading, in the well-boat after the journey and before unloading, and in the processing plant after they were pumped from the resting cages. At each sampling, the fish were stunned and bled by gill cutting. Blood samples were taken to measure lactate, osmolality, chloride, sodium, cortisol and glucose, and their muscle pH and rigor index were measured at death and three hours later. In the open system well-boat, the initial muscle pH of the fish decreased at each successive stage, and at the final stage they had a significantly lower initial muscle pH and more rapid onset of rigor than the fish transported on the closed system well-boat. At the final stage all the blood variables except glucose were significantly affected in the fish transported on both types of well-boat.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Rigor Mortis/veterinária , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Transportes/métodos , Animais , Aquicultura , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/normas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Gelo , Densidade Demográfica , Salmo salar/sangue , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Navios , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Animal ; 3(5): 728-36, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22444452

RESUMO

Studies of bruises, as detected on carcasses at the slaughterhouse, may provide useful information about the traumatic situations the animals endure during the pre-slaughter period. In this paper, we review scientific data on the prevalence, risk factors and estimation of the age of bruises in beef cattle. Risk factors such as animal characteristics, transport conditions, stocking density, livestock auction and handling of the animals are discussed. Investigation of the age of bruises could provide information on when in the meat chain bruises occur and, could help to pinpoint where preventive measures should be taken, from the stage of collecting the animals on the farm until slaughter. We review the methods available to assess the age of the bruises; data on human forensic research are also included. The feasibility to identify traumatic episodes during the pre-slaughter period, in order to improve animal welfare is discussed.

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