Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(1): 273-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 mAb) is a treatment option in children with refractory immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), and Evans syndrome (ES). Prevalence and clinical course of RTX-induced hypogammaglobulinemia in these patients are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after RTX use. METHODS: Clinical and immunologic data from children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia, AHA, and ES were collected from 16 Italian centers and 1 UK center at pre-RTX time point (0), +6 months, and yearly, up to 4 years post-RTX. Patients with previously diagnosed malignancy or primary immune deficiency (PID) were excluded. RESULTS: We analyzed 53 children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia (n = 36), AHA (n = 13), and ES (n = 4). Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-48). Thirty-two percent of patients (17 of 53) experienced PH, defined as IgG levels less than 2 SD for age at last follow-up (>12 months after RTX). Significantly delayed B-cell recovery was observed in children experiencing PH (hazard ratio, 0.55; P < .05), and 6 of 17 (35%) patients had unresolved B-cell lymphopenia at last follow-up. PH was associated with IgA and IgM deficiency, younger age at RTX use (51 vs 116 months; P < .01), a diagnosis of AHA/ES, and better response to RTX. Nine patients with PH (9 of 17 [53%]) were eventually diagnosed with a PID. CONCLUSIONS: Post-RTX PH is a frequent condition in children with autoimmune cytopenia; a sizable proportion of patients with post-RTX PH were eventually diagnosed with a PID. In-depth investigation for PID is therefore recommended in these patients.

2.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 32(2): 70-75, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508259

RESUMO

Background: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin G (SCIG) may be a better option than intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) for patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) due to reduced systemic and serious adverse reactions and easier administration. The Infusione Bimensile di Immunoglobuline Sottocute (IBIS) study investigated the effects of Hizentra®, a 20%-concentrated SCIG, administered biweekly in patients with PID. This subanalysis aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratory outcomes in the IBIS pediatric subcohort. Methods: Thirteen children with PID were observed for 12 months retrospectively (with previous IVIG/SCIG) and prospectively with biweekly Hizentra. Results: Mean ± standard deviation serum IG levels during the retrospective (833.8 ± 175.7 mg/dL) and the prospective (842.0 ± 188.0 mg/dL) phases were comparable; there were also no differences in the number of infections. Conclusions: Biweekly Hizentra is a noninferior option with respect to previous IVIG/SCIG-based treatment.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(1): 51-60, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269248

RESUMO

Selective IgA deficiency is defined as absolute or partial when serum IgA level is < 7 mg/dl or 2 SD below normal for age, respectively. Few data are available on partial selective IgA deficiency, as probably most children with low serum IgA are seldom referred to a specialist clinic in common pediatric practice. The aim of our study was to better define the profile of both symptomatic forms and their clinical outcome in a pediatric immunology setting. Thus, clinical and immunological data from 103 symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency (53 absolute and 50 partial), 4-18 years of age, were collected at diagnosis and 80 patients (44 absolute and 36 partial) were monitored for a mean period of 5 years. Also, the prevalence of TNFRSF13B mutations has been assessed in 56 patients. The most common clinical features were infections (86/103; 83%), allergy (39/103; 38%), and autoimmunity (13/103; 13%). No significative differences were observed between absolute and partial selective IgA deficiency patients. However, a significative difference in the rate of IgA normalization between partial and absolute selective IgA deficiency patients (33 vs 9%, p = 0.01) was detected. Furthermore, a lower incidence of infections was associated to a normalization reversal compared to a final absolute or partial defect status (12 vs 53 and 64% respectively, p < 0.01).Conclusions: Regardless of a diagnosis of absolute or partial defect, monitoring of symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency is recommended overtime for prompt identification and treatment of associated diseases. Further, diagnostic workup protocols should be revisited in children with IgA deficiency. What is Known: ● Selective IgA Deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency and is usually asymptomatic. ● Symptomatic pediatric patients with selective IgA deficiency mostly suffer with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. What is New: ● Symptomatic children with partial IgA defect may have similar clinical, immunological, and genetic features than symptomatic children with absolute IgA deficiency. ● Symptomatic children with partial IgA deficiency deserve accurate monitoring for associated diseases as per children with absolute IgA deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência de IgA/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Deficiência de IgA/complicações , Deficiência de IgA/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Prevalência
5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2128-2134, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207636

RESUMO

Otorhinolaryngologic manifestations are common in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but poorly described. This study aimed to better define the ear-nose-throat (ENT) phenotype of 22q11.2DS patients, in the attempt to best detect subjects requiring subspecialist intervention. We enrolled 25 patients affected with 22q11.2DS. Anatomic and functional ENT findings were investigated using clinical, laboratory, and instrumental data. Immunophenotype and frequency of infections were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. ENT anomalies were found in 88% of patients, and in 20% congenital palate defects required surgery. Adenoid or palatine tonsil hypertrophy was noted in 80% and 48%. Forty-eight percent of subjects had rhinolalia/phonia, severe in half of these. We also found nasal regurgitation or laryngeal penetration/aspiration in 20% and 16%, respectively. Instrumental exams revealed a mild conductive hearing loss in 32% (bilateral in most cases), tympanometric anomalies in 28%, and swallowing abnormalities in 16%. Statistical univariate analysis showed a direct association between rhinolalia/phonia and episodes of laryngeal aspiration (p = .016) and between tympanometric anomalies and increased adenoid volume (p = .044). No association between episodes of food aspiration and palatal anomalies was found. Moreover, no statistically significant association was observed between the number of airway infections and the ENT findings. This study contributes to better define the ENT phenotype in patients with 22q11.2DS, helpful to prevent potential complications. Furthermore, the identification of a subcategory of patients may allow the early adoption of specific speech therapy programs to improve the clinical outcome of 22q11.2DS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Orelha/anormalidades , Nariz/anormalidades , Faringe/anormalidades , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(5): 602-609, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951948

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) replacement therapy is a standard treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Hizentra®, a 20% human subcutaneous IgG (SCIG), is approved for biweekly administration for PIDs. The aim of the multicenter IBIS study was to prospectively investigate the efficacy of biweekly Hizentra® compared with previous IVIG or SCIG treatment regimens in patients with PIDs. The study consisted of a 12-month retrospective period followed by 12-month prospective observational period. The main endpoints included pre-infusion IgG concentrations, proportion of patients with serious bacterial infections (SBIs), other infections, hospitalizations due to PID-related illnesses, and days with antibiotics during the study periods. Of the 36 patients enrolled in the study, 35 patients continued the study (mean age 26.1 ± 14.4 years; 68.6% male). The mean pre-infusion IgG levels for prior immunoglobulin regimens during the retrospective period (7.84 ± 2.09 g/L) and the prospective period (8.55 ± 1.76 g/L) did not show any significant variations (p = 0.4964). The mean annual rate of SBIs/patient was 0.063 ± 0.246 for both prospective and retrospective periods. No hospitalizations related to PIDs were reported during the prospective period versus one in the retrospective period. All patients were either very (76.5%) or quite (23.5%) satisfied with biweekly Hizentra® at the end of the study. In conclusion, the IBIS study provided real-world evidence on the efficacy of biweekly Hizentra® in patients with PIDs, thus verifying the data generated by the pharmacometric modeling and simulation study in a normal clinical setting.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Vaccine ; 36(24): 3541-3554, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426658

RESUMO

Infectious complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with primary or secondary immunodeficiency. Prevention of infectious diseases by vaccines is among the most effective healthcare measures mainly for these subjects. However immunocompromised people vary in their degree of immunosuppression and susceptibility to infection and, therefore, represent a heterogeneous population with regard to immunization. To date there is no well- established evidence for use of vaccines in immunodeficient patients, and indications are not clearly defined even in high-quality reviews and in most of the guidelines prepared to provide recommendations for the active vaccination of immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this document is to issue recommendations based on published literature and the collective experience of the Italian primary immunodeficiency centers, about how and when vaccines can be used in immunocompromised patients, in order to facilitate physician decisions and to ensure the best immune protection with the lowest risk to the health of the patient.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Criança , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/microbiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Itália , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(8): 751-758, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932937

RESUMO

Since the discovery of FOXN1 deficiency, the human counterpart of the nude mouse, a growing body of evidence investigating the role of FOXN1 in thymus and skin, has been published. FOXN1 has emerged as fundamental for thymus development, function, and homeostasis, representing the master regulator of thymic epithelial and T cell development. In the skin, it also plays a pivotal role in keratinocytes and hair follicle cell differentiation, although the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain to be fully elucidated. The nude severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype is indeed characterized by the clinical hallmarks of athymia with severe T cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries in the field and give interesting perspective about new and promising therapeutic approaches for disorders of immune system with athymia.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/deficiência , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Unhas/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Timo/fisiologia , Alopecia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Repressão Epigenética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fenótipo
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(7): 1913-1918, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436605

RESUMO

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion is the most common chromosomal alteration associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), even though this is not the only underlying cause of DGS. In rare patients, mutations in a single gene, TBX1, have been described resulting in a DGS phenotype. Recently, it has been reported that at least part of the TBX1 mutant phenotype is due to excessive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Evidence suggests that miRNA may modulate the expression of critical T-box transcriptional regulators during midface development and Bmp-signaling. We report on a 7-year-old Caucasian male born to a mother affected with gestational diabetes (GDM) who had a 371Kb-interstitial deletion of 3p12.3 identified by array CGH, involving the ZNF717, MIR1243, and 4273 genes. The child presented with a DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) associated with unilateral renal agenesis and language delay. The immunological evaluation revealed a severe reduction and impairment of T lymphocytes. FISH analysis and TBX1 sequencing were negative. Among the miRNA-4273 predicted target genes, we found BMP3, which is involved in several steps of embryogenesis including kidney and lung organogenesis and in insulin gene expression. Since, DGA is not commonly found in newborns of diabetic mothers, we hypothesize that the pathogenesis of DGA associated with GDM is multifactorial, involving both genetic and/or epigenetic cofactors.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2017: 4590127, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430280

RESUMO

The immune system is a complex system able to recognize a wide variety of host agents, through different biological processes. For example, controlled changes in the redox state are able to start different pathways in immune cells and are involved in the killing of microbes. The generation and release of ROS in the form of an "oxidative burst" represent the pivotal mechanism by which phagocytic cells are able to destroy pathogens. On the other hand, impaired oxidative balance is also implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory complications, which may affect the function of many body systems. NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays a pivotal role in the production of ROS, and the defect of its different subunits leads to the development of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). The defect of the different NOX subunits in CGD affects different organs. In this context, this review will be focused on the description of the effect of NOX2 deficiency in different body systems. Moreover, we will also focus our attention on the novel insight in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency and inflammation-related manifestations and on the protective role of NOX2 deficiency against the development of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , NADPH Oxidases/deficiência , Humanos
11.
Front Immunol ; 7: 466, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a growing number of novel genetic defects underlying primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have been identified, increasing the number of PID up to more than 250 well-defined forms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and proper filtering strategies greatly contributed to this rapid evolution, providing the possibility to rapidly and simultaneously analyze large numbers of genes or the whole exome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of targeted NGS and whole exome sequencing (WES) in the diagnosis of a case series, characterized by complex or atypical clinical features suggesting a PID, difficult to diagnose using the current diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed genetic variants identified through targeted NGS or WES in 45 patients with complex PID of unknown etiology. RESULTS: Forty-seven variants were identified using targeted NGS, while 5 were identified using WES. Newly identified genetic variants were classified into four groups: (I) variations associated with a well-defined PID, (II) variations associated with atypical features of a well-defined PID, (III) functionally relevant variations potentially involved in the immunological features, and (IV) non-diagnostic genotype, in whom the link with phenotype is missing. We reached a conclusive genetic diagnosis in 7/45 patients (~16%). Among them, four patients presented with a typical well-defined PID. In the remaining three cases, mutations were associated with unexpected clinical features, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of typical PIDs. In addition, we identified 31 variants in 10 patients with complex phenotype, individually not causative per se of the disorder. CONCLUSION: NGS technologies represent a cost-effective and rapid first-line genetic approach for the evaluation of complex PIDs. WES, despite a moderate higher cost compared to targeted, is emerging as a valuable tool to reach in a timely manner, a PID diagnosis with a considerable potential to draw genotype-phenotype correlation. Nevertheless, a large fraction of patients still remains without a conclusive diagnosis. In these patients, the sum of non-diagnostic variants might be proven informative in future studies with larger cohorts of patients.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 4: 107, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27766253

RESUMO

Increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations has been identified in different primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In such conditions, autoimmunity and immune deficiency represent intertwined phenomena that reflect inadequate immune function. Autoimmunity in PIDs may be caused by different mechanisms, including defects of tolerance to self-antigens and persistent stimulation as a result of the inability to eradicate antigens. This general immune dysregulation leads to compensatory and exaggerated chronic inflammatory responses that lead to tissue damage and autoimmunity. Each PID may be characterized by distinct, peculiar autoimmune manifestations. Moreover, different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie autoimmunity in PID. In this review, the main autoimmune manifestations observed in different PID, including humoral immunodeficiencies, combined immunodeficiencies, and syndromes with immunodeficiencies, are summarized. When possible, the pathogenetic mechanism underlying autoimmunity in a specific PID has been explained.

13.
Int Rev Immunol ; 35(1): 25-38, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25774666

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) include a heterogeneous group of mostly monogenic diseases characterized by functional/developmental alterations of the immune system. Skin and skin annexa abnormalities may be a warning sign of immunodeficiency, since both epidermal and thymic epithelium have ectodermal origin. In this review, we will focus on the most common immune disorders associated with ectodermal alterations. Elevated IgE levels represent the immunological hallmark of hyper-IgE syndrome, characterized by severe eczema and susceptibility to infections. Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a group of rare disorders that affect tissues of ectodermal origin. Hypoidrotic ED (HED), the most common form, is inherited as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked trait (XLHED). HED and XLHED are caused by mutations in NEMO and EDA-1 genes, respectively, and show similarities in the cutaneous involvement but differences in the susceptibility to infections and immunological phenotype. Alterations in the transcription factor FOXN1 gene, expressed in the mature thymic and skin epithelia, are responsible for human and murine athymia and prevent the development of the T-cell compartment associated to ectodermal abnormalities such as alopecia and nail dystrophy. The association between developmental abnormalities of the skin and immunodeficiencies suggest a role of the skin as a primary lymphoid organ. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a co-culture of human skin-derived keratinocytes and fibroblasts, in the absence of thymic components, can support the survival of human haematopoietic stem cells and their differentiation into T-lineage committed cells.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/imunologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Eczema/imunologia , Epiderme/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/imunologia , Humanos , Síndrome de Job/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Timo/imunologia
15.
Clin Immunol ; 161(2): 131-5, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307434

RESUMO

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) consists of disorders resulting from molecular alterations of ectodysplasin-A (EDA) pathway. Hypomorphic mutations in NF-kB essential modulator, downstream EDA, result in HED with immunodeficiency (HED-ID), characterized by susceptibility to encapsulated pyogenic bacteria infections. Increased susceptibility to pneumococcal infections and poor response to polysaccharide antigens are associated with defect in T-independent B-cell immunity. We investigated B-cell differentiation and immunoglobulin secretion induced by the TLR9 ligand CpG in two HED-ID and in a HED patient caused by EDA mutations (XLHED). In HED-ID, only few B cells differentiated into plasma cells upon TLR9 stimulation and memory B cells did not produce IgG and IgA, but small amounts of IgM. Unexpectedly, memory B cells from XLHED patient failed to produce normal IgA or IgG amount upon TLR9 stimulation. Our findings expand the knowledge about the pathogenesis of humoral alterations in HED patients and help explain the susceptibility to pneumococcal infections.


Assuntos
Células Produtoras de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Receptor Toll-Like 9/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1356: 90-106, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26235889

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inherited disorders responsible for severe dysfunctions of the immune system. These diseases are life-threatening when the diagnosis is made too late; they are the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency. SCID patients often die during the first two years of life if appropriate treatments to reconstitute their immune system are not undertaken. Conventionally, SCIDs are classified according either to the main pathway affected by the molecular defect or on the basis of the specific immunologic phenotype that reflects the stage where the blockage occurs during the differentiation process. However, during the last few years many new causative gene alterations have been associated with unusual clinical and immunological phenotypes. Many of these novel forms of SCID also show extra-hematopoietic alterations, leading to complex phenotypes characterized by a functional impairment of several organs, which may lead to a considerable delay in the diagnosis. Here we review the biological and clinical features of SCIDs paying particular attention to the most recently identified forms and to their unusual or extra-immunological clinical features.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/classificação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Humanos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia
17.
BMC Med Genet ; 15: 1, 2014 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24383682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome, which occurs in approximately 1:4000 births. Familial autosomal dominant recurrence of the syndrome is detected in about 8-28% of the cases. Aim of this study is to evaluate the intergenerational and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in a cohort of familial cases carrying a 22q11.2 deletion. METHODS: Thirty-two 22q11.2DS subjects among 26 families were enrolled. RESULTS: Second generation subjects showed a significantly higher number of features than their transmitting parents (212 vs 129, P = 0.0015). Congenital heart defect, calcium-phosphorus metabolism abnormalities, developmental and speech delay were more represented in the second generation (P < 0.05). Ocular disorders were more frequent in the parent group. No significant difference was observed for the other clinical variables. Intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity was identified in the pedigrees. In 23/32 families, a higher number of features were found in individuals from the second generation and a more severe phenotype was observed in almost all of them, indicating the worsening of the phenotype over generations. Both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the phenotypic variability. CONCLUSIONS: Second generation subjects showed a more complex phenotype in comparison to those from the first generation. Both ascertainment bias related to patient selection or to the low rate of reproductive fitness of adults with a more severe phenotype, and several not well defined molecular mechanism, could explain intergenerational and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in this syndrome.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Int Rev Immunol ; 33(2): 83-93, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24432845

RESUMO

FOXN1 gene belongs to the forkhead box gene family that comprises a diverse group of "winged-helix" transcription factors that have been implicated in a variety of biochemical and cellular processes, such as development, metabolism, aging and cancer. These transcription factors share the common property of being developmentally regulated and of directing tissue-specific transcription and cell-fate decisions. Foxn1 is selectively expressed in thymic and skin epithelial cells, where it acts through its molecular targets to regulate the balance between growth and differentiation. In particular, Foxn1 is required for thymic epithelial patterning and differentiation from the initial epithelial thymic anlage to a functional cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs) meshwork necessary for the crosstalk with the lymphoid compartment. A mutation in FoxN1 generates alymphoid cystic thymic dysgenesis due to defective TECs, causing primary T-cell immunodeficiency, named Nude/SCID syndrome, and leads to a hairless "nude" phenotype in both mice and humans. This immune defect represents the first example of a Severe Combined Immunodeficiencies (SCID) phenotype not primarily related to an abnormality intrinsic of the hematopoietic cell, but rather to a peculiar alteration of the thymic epithelia cell. This review focuses on the key role of FOXN1 in cell development and its clinical implication in humans.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/fisiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Timo/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Processos de Crescimento Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Mutação/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Organogênese
19.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 49(3): 274-9, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24344832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. Enteropathy is a very common feature in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. In patients with Del22 gastrointestinal (GI) alterations, including feeding disorders and congenital abnormalities have been often reported, mostly in the first year of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Aim of this monocentric study is to better define the GI involvement in a cohort of 26 patients affected with Del22 syndrome. Anamnestic information was retrospectively collected for each patient. Weight and height parameters at the time of the screening were recorded. Plasma levels of hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, albumin, total protein, calcium, phosphorus, transaminase levels, antigliadin (AGA) IgA and IgG, and antitissue transglutaminase (anti-TGase) titers were measured. RESULTS. A GI involvement was identified in the 58% of patients. The prominent problems were abdominal pain, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux and chronic constipation. Weight deficiency, short stature and failure to thrive were reported in 54, 42, and 30% of the patients, respectively. The evidence of sideropenic anemia, in keeping with hypoproteinemia, impaired acid steatocrit or cellobiose/mannitol test suggested an abnormal intestinal permeability. In this cohort, a high prevalence of AGA IgA and IgG positivity was observed. Celiac disease (CD) was suspected in three patients, and in one of them confirmed by histology. In this patient, a long-lasting gluten-free diet failed to restore the intestinal architecture. CONCLUSIONS. In conclusion, GI involvement is a very common feature in Del22 patients. A better characterization of GI involvement would be very useful to improve the management of these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de DiGeorge/sangue , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA