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Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086360


Infective uvulitis is a rare condition in children. In this report, we describe the case of a 4-year old-patient who presented a group A Streptococcus pharyngitis with uvulitis. No signs of epiglottitis were detected at nasal fibroscopy. She recovered rapidly with intravenous antibiotic therapy and 2 days of corticosteroid. Uvulitis is usually caused by group A Streptococcus or Haemophilus influentiae, but also other bacteria can be detected. Uvulitis can be isolated, or it can occur with epiglottitis and become an emergency.

Paediatr Drugs ; 22(6): 645-652, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885390


Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the most common vasculitides of childhood and the main cause of acquired heart disease in developed countries. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in association with aspirin represents the main treatment for KD. However, 10-20% of patients fail to respond to standard treatment and have an increased risk of cardiac complications. There is currently no accepted protocol for treatment of resistant cases. Several authors highlighted the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) as a mediator of inflammation in KD and suggested the possibility of using IL-1 or its receptor as a target of therapy. The use of IL-1 inhibitors in patients with KD has been reported in the scientific literature, but data are largely limited to individual case reports and small case series. We summarized the scientific literature related to the use of anakinra, analyzing preclinical and clinical data. Thirty-eight patients have been described so far, most of them with KD-related complications. Twenty-two were described in case reports and case series, while 16 were patients from the completed KAWAKINRA phase IIa study. Almost all patients received clinical benefit, and no relevant side effects were noted. Based on this evidence, in our opinion, anakinra may be considered as an option after the failure of the first IVIG infusion, especially in patients with coronary involvement.

Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(6): 1255-1262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828142


OBJECTIVES: Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is a rare non-infectious bone inflammatory disorder; when multifocal, it is referred to as Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis (CRMO). This study evaluates the demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of a multi-centre cohort of patients with CNO/CRMO. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of patients with an established diagnosis of CNO/CRMO followed at paediatric rheumatology centres across Europe (Italy, France, Slovenia) and India were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: There were no demographic differences across countries, but time to diagnosis was significantly longer in India (p=0.041). Pain was almost invariably present at disease onset; functional impairment was more frequent among Italian and Slovenian patients (p=0.001). The number of sites of bone involvement was similar between genders and countries, with long bone metaphises being the most common site. Raised acute phase reactants, detected in >50% of patients, were not associated with clinical manifestations or response to treatment. Comorbidities, evinced in 37% of patients, were equally distributed between genders and nationalities. Imaging approach was similar across countries, without any association between radiological findings and clinical manifestations. NSAIDs were almost invariably used as first-line treatment, but response rate was significantly lower in Italy (p=0.02). Methotrexate was used in 28% of case, with an overall rate of response of 82%. Health conditions and rate of permanent deformities were similar across different countries. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in clinical presentation, radiological features and response to treatment described in this multinational cohort of CNO/CRMO might provide novel insights into this still elusive disease.

Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 475-479, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507124


BACKGROUND: Uveitis is an inflammatory disorder of the uveal tract of the eye that can affect both adults and children. Non-infectious uveitis can be an expression of a systemic autoimmune condition, or it can be idiopathic. It is a serious disease, associated with possible severe complications leading to visual impairment and blindness. For this reason, a prompt diagnosis and assessment of an appropriate treatment, with the collaboration of specialists such as ophthalmologists and rheumatologists, are extremely important. Many treatment options may be associated to side effects; therefore, clinicians should follow a stepladder approach starting with the least aggressive treatments to induce remission of inflammation. In this review, we reported the current evidence-based treatments for non-infectious uveitis in pediatric and adult patients with particular attention to the biologic response modifier treatment options. Important multicenter studies have demonstrated the efficacy of adalimumab, both in adults (VISUAL I, VISUAL II, VISUAL III) and in children (SYCAMORE, ADJUVITE), while for other agents data are still scarce.

Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/patologia