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1.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 8, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to describe seasonal trends of acute kidney injury (AKI) and its relationship with weather conditions in a hospitalized population. METHODS: We retrospectively collected demographic (age, sex), clinical (ICD-9-CM codes of diagnosis discharge) and laboratory data (creatinine values) from the inpatient population admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS between January 2010 and December 2014 with inclusion of all patients ≥18 years with at least two values available for creatinine. The outcome of interest was AKI development, defined according to creatinine kinetics criteria. The exposures of interest were the months and seasons of the year; air temperature and humidity level were also evaluated. Log-binomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, eGFR, comorbidities, Charlson/Deyo index score, year of hospitalization were used to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidential intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 64,610 patients met the inclusion criteria. AKI occurred in 2864 (4.4%) hospital admissions. After full adjustment, winter period was associated with increased risk of AKI (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05, 1.29, p=0.003). Lower air temperature and higher humidity level were associated with risk of AKI, however in multivariable-adjusted models only higher humidity level showed a significant and independent association. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is one of the most common complications of hospitalized populations with a defined seasonal pattern and a significant increase in incidence during wintertime; weather conditions, particularly higher humidity level, are independent predictors of AKI and could partially justify the observed seasonal variations.

2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382913

RESUMO

To assess whether NLRP3 gene promoter methylation was able to discriminate glucocorticoid-resistant from glucocorticoid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) patients with minimal change disease (MCD) or focal glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), we measured the methylation level of NLRP3 promoter in DNA from peripheral blood cells of 10 adult glucocorticoid-resistant FSGS patients already in hemodialysis and 18 glucocorticoid-sensitive INS patients (13 MCD/5 FSGS) and in 21 INS pediatric patients with MCD/FSGS before starting any treatment. Association of NLRP3 inflammasome with glucocorticoid resistance was recapitulated in vitro in monocytic cell lines (THP-1 and U937). In both adults and pediatric patients, NLRP3 promoter methylation resulted significantly reduced in glucocorticoid-resistant compared to glucocorticoid-sensitive patients. Indeed, NLRP3 methylation distinguished glucocorticoid-resistant and glucocorticoid-sensitive patients (AUROC 86.7% in adults, p=0.00019, and 73.5% in children, p=0.00097). NLRP3 knock-down augmented sensitivity to glucocorticoids in THP-1 cells, while NLRP3 inflammasome activation lowered glucocorticoid receptor concentration, increasing glucocorticoid resistance in U937 cells. Our results uncovered a new biological mechanism by which INS patients may acquire glucocorticoid resistance, that could be used in future as a novel non-invasive diagnostic tool.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155053

RESUMO

Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely linked pathological processes. Combating high blood pressure (BP) is an essential part of preventing CKD progression and reducing cardiovascular (CV) risk. Data from recent randomized controlled trials on patients at high CV risk showed the beneficial effects of intensive action to meet BP targets on mortality related to CV disease. The impact of meeting such targets on renal function is still unclear, however, particularly for patients with CKD. This issue has been the object of several post hoc analyses because lowering BP definitely has a nephroprotective role, but the early decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) associated with antihypertensive therapies and strict BP targets is still a concern in nephrology clinical practice. The present review discusses the results of studies on this topic, focusing specifically on the clinical significance of early GFR decline in response to treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, or to different BP targets, in terms of renal and CV outcomes, and how this tips the balance towards continuing or discontinuing antihypertensive therapy.

4.
J Endourol ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050741

RESUMO

Introduction: Relative supersaturation (SS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaP), and uric acid (UA) has been used for assessing urinary crystallization and estimated by programs, including EQUIL, Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS), and Lithorisk. We compared outputs from these programs and their correspondence with stone composition. Materials and Methods: SS of CaOx, CaP, and UA, using EQUIL, JESS, and Lithorisk were calculated from stone-forming patients. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to ascertain the correspondence between the outputs. Fractional regression models evaluated the relationship between SS and the percentage of each compound in the stones. Results: Two hundred eleven patients were included. Pearson correlation coefficients for CaOx (r ≥ 0.96), CaP (r ≥ 0.99), and UA SS (r ≥ 0.99) showed a high correspondence between all programs. We observed a significant correspondence between CaOx SS and the percentage of CaOx dihydrate in the stone (p < 0.001), as well as between the percentage of brushite and apatite and CaP SS. UA SS showed the strongest correspondence with the percentage of UA in the stones (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Good correlation between EQUIL, JESS, and Lithorisk was observed and good correspondence with stone composition. The magnitude of the association demonstrated by fractional regression models supports evidence for applying SS in clinical practice.

5.
Urolithiasis ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048172

RESUMO

The Consensus Group deliberated on a number of questions concerning urine and stone analysis over a period of months, and then met to develop consensus. The Group concluded that analyses of urine and stones should be routine in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary stone diseases. At present, the 24-h urine is the most useful type of urine collection, and accepted methods for analysis are described. Patient education is also important for obtaining a proper urine sample. Graphical methods for reporting urine analysis results can be helpful both for the physician and for educating the patient as to proper dietary changes that could be beneficial. Proper analysis of stones is also essential for diagnosis and management of patients. The Consensus Group also agreed that research has shown that evaluation of urinary crystals could be very valuable, but the Group also recognizes that existing methods for assessment of crystalluria do not allow this to be part of stone treatment in many places.

6.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918723

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Kidney stones are a common condition in the general population, however, high-quality evidence for its management is scarce. We propose the creation of an international network with the aim of sharing practice patterns and patient data towards an improvement of our knowledge of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: An online survey was circulated through several scientific societies. Items were grouped into six domains. Each center's overall score (OS) was also calculated. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Chi square and Mann-Whitney tests were performed for differences across centers. RESULTS: The countries that contributed most were Italy (8.6%), Turkey (6.6%), France and Spain (6.1%). Some type of nutritional work-up was implemented in 62% of centers. A DEXA scan was performed by 46% of centers, whereas some kind of acidification test was performed by 25% of centers. Most centers (80%) implemented blood investigations at least at baseline. With regard to 24-h urine exams, 7 out of 16 were performed by at least 50% of centers. Information on stone composition was collected by 58% of centers. The OS was significantly higher among higher-volume centers compared with lower-volume centers (p = 0.002). Significant differences between EU and non-EU centers were found. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design; no validation on information. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey highlights the potential for the creation of a network of centers that could share information in a common database for observational research and for enrollment of patients in interventional trials.

7.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776204

RESUMO

Aim of our study was to analyze the association between serum sodium (Na) variability and acute kidney injury (AKI) development. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study on the inpatient population admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014 with inclusion of adult patients with ≥ 2 Na and ≥ 2 serum creatinine measurements. We included only patients with ≥ 2 Na measurements before AKI development. The outcome of interest was AKI. The exposures of interest were hyponatremia, hypernatremia and Na fluctuations before AKI development. Na variability was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CV). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were fitted to obtain hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the exposures of interest and AKI. Overall, 56,961 patients met our inclusion criteria. During 1541 person-years of follow-up AKI occurred in 1450 patients. In multivariable hazard models, patients with pre-existent dysnatremia and those who developed dysnatremia had a higher risk of AKI compared with patients with normonatremia. Logistic models suggested a higher risk for AKI in the 3rd (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.18, 1.70, p < 0.001) and 4th (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.24, 1.91, p < 0.001) highest quartiles of Na CV with a significant linear trend across quartiles (p trend < 0.001). This association was also independent from Na highest and lowest peak value. Dysnatremia is a common condition and is positive associated with AKI development. Furthermore, high Na variability might be considered an independent early indicator for kidney injury development.

8.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(Suppl 75)2020 08 03.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749084

RESUMO

The natural history of urinary kidney stone disease includes the risk of relapses and can be associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease, bone and cardiovascular disease. For this reason, a wide clinical-metabolic assessment of the kidney stone patient is of great importance since the first presentation of the stone, to set an appropriate preventive treatment. The proposed diagnostic-therapeutic pathway includes a careful medical history, in order to highlight a secondary kidney stone disease and the main risk factors for kidney stones, chronic renal disease, or cardiovascular and bone disease; a metabolic evaluation on multiple levels, according to the severity of the disease, and the presence or absence of risk factors, and appropriate instrumental investigations. Thus, the information collected makes it possible to set a preventive treatment consisting of general rules and, if necessary, specific pharmacological or nutritional interventions. This paper has been prepared by the Italian Multidisciplinary Study Group for Kidney Stone Disease, and it is addressed to the several professional figures involved in the management of patients suffering from nephrolithiasis, from the emergency doctor to the general practitioner, urologist, nephrologist, radiologist, and dietician. A diagnostic-therapeutic pathway for patients with kidney stone disease was first published on this Journal in 2010. The present contribution aims at amending and updating the article published exactly ten years ago, to serve as an easy-to-use reference and to guide good clinical practice in this field.

9.
Cytokine ; 135: 155223, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of postdialysis fatigue (PDF), an intermittent but debilitating fatigue occurring after haemodialysis (HD) treatment, is still unclear. In other inflammatory diseases, increasing evidence points toward the involvement of the immune system in the onset of fatigue symptoms. Altered serum levels of inflammatory cytokines have also been shown in HD patients. Therefore, we investigated whether pre- and postdialysis serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) or their intradialytic changes (if any) were related to PDF or the time HD patients reported needing to recover from HD treatment (TIRD). METHODS: Serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were measured immediately before and after HD in 45 patients using commercially available kits on an ELLA™ automated immunoassay system. The presence and severity of PDF as well as TIRD duration were assessed by self-report measures. KEY RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of patients reported PDF, with a median PDF severity index of 3.30 [IQR: 3.00-4.30] on a scale from 1 to 5. Median TIRD was 120 min [IQR: 60-480]. PDF severity correlated strongly with TIRD, rs = 0.85, p < 0.001. Only predialysis levels of IL-10 significantly and positively correlated with PDF severity (rs = 0.43, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study do not support the involvement of the immune system in the onset of PDF or the time patients needed to recover from HD treatment. A positive, but counterintuitive relationship was found between predialysis levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and PDF severity, which warrants further research.

10.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(6): 1100-1108.e2, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645453

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Fatigue is prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients and associated with depressive mood. To advance our understanding of its etiology and develop appropriate treatments, reliable measurement instruments are needed. However, conventional fatigue and mood questionnaires are prone to bias because of their retrospective nature and may misrepresent or overestimate actual symptom experience (i.e., the so-called memory-experience gap). Experience sampling methodology (ESM) overcomes this limitation through repeated real-time assessments in patients' natural environment, thereby providing reliable and ecologically valid data. OBJECTIVES: We investigated to what extent retrospective symptom reporting accurately represents real-time experiences of fatigue and mood in HD patients using an ESM mobile Health application (PsyMate™; smartHealth GmbH, Luxembourg). METHODS: Forty HD patients used the PsyMate for one week to assess real-time fatigue and mood. In addition, they retrospectively evaluated their symptom experience completing end-of-day and end-of-week questionnaires as well as the conventional Fatigue Severity Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Results of real-time observations (N = 1777) showed that fatigue and mood varied between and within individuals. Retrospective end-of-week fatigue evaluation was significantly higher than the average real-time fatigue score; t(38) = 3.54, P = 0.001, and d = 0.57. Fatigue Severity Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale correlated moderately to strong with the average ESM score for fatigue and mood: r = 0.66 and r = 0.77, respectively. CONCLUSION: Retrospective fatigue assessment may lead to overestimation of real-time symptom experience. ESM provides detailed insight and personalized information about symptom experiences, which may be crucial for the design of more targeted and personalized interventions for fatigue and mood problems in HD patients.

12.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 52(10): 1959-1967, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fatigue and depressed mood are considered main impediments to physical activity in haemodialysis (HD) patients. A better understanding of their interrelationships is crucial to develop effective therapies. Moreover, measurement of daily physical activity (DPA) in HD patients is tricky, as it is usually assessed by subjective self-report questionnaires. Therefore, we aimed to objectively measure sponteanous DPA with motion sensors and to explore its relation with fatigue and depressive symptoms. METHODS: DPA was assessed for seven consecutive days in 37 HD patients based on their daily step count measured with the SenseWear™ Armband. The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were administered to evaluate fatigue and depressed mood. RESULTS: Median DPA was 2424 steps/day, (IQR:892-4545). In 81% of subjects, DPA felt within a sedentary lifestyle classification, as they made < 5.000 steps/day. DPA did not correlate with fatigue (rs = 0.04, p = 0.832), and did not significantly differ between patients categorized as clinically fatigued (n = 23, FSS ≥ 4) or not (n = 14, FSS < 4) (p = 0.654, d = 0.20). Although low-depressed subjects (n = 19, BDI-II ≤ 13) made on average 1.7 times more steps/day than high-depressed subjects (n = 18, BDI-II > 13) (p = 0.111, d = 0.60), depressive mood did also not correlate significantly with DPA (rs = - 0.23, p = 0.175). CONCLUSION: Objective assessment of DPA with motion sensors is feasible in HD patients and allows identifying a sedentary lifestyle. Our results suggest that spontanous DPA is determined by age rather than by fatigue or mood.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545922

RESUMO

In this Special Issue entitled "Rare Kidney Diseases: New Translational Research Approach to Improve Diagnosis and Therapy", of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, that includes original articles and reviews, authors have underlined the role of biomedical research in providing new insights into the pathologies of complex kidney diseases [...].

14.
J Nephrol ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514990

RESUMO

Kidney stone disease is a common condition with a high recurrence rate and elevated costs. Despite the well-known positive effects of high fluid intake, there are little data about the roles of water composition and timing of ingestion during the day. This study examines the effect of two different waters [calcium-bicarbonate water (CBW) and oligomineral water (OW)] consumed at different times during the day on urine composition in a group of healthy volunteers. In a cross-over randomized trial, 12 healthy volunteers were assigned to a different sequence of four combined interventions (1 L of water consumed during fasting and 1 L of water consumed with meals): CBW/OW; OW/CBW; CBW/CBW; OW/OW. Participants were instructed to follow the same diet and to avoid smoking, caffeine and other beverages during the day of intervention, and to collect their urine every 2 h during the day, followed by a single overnight collection. The relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate was higher for CBW/CBW compared with all other interventions, while relative supersaturation for calcium phosphate was lower for the combination OW/CBW with meals. Urinary excretion of oxalate was lower in all interventions including CBW, while no significant differences were found for urinary calcium. Water composition and timing of ingestion have complex and interacting effects on lithogenic risk. Depending on individual characteristics, a strategy involving either OW or a mix of CBW during meals and OW outside of meals could be effective in modulating the lithogenic profile.Trial registered at clinicaltrial.gov: Protocol ID NCT03447847.

15.
J Nephrol ; 33(6): 1321-1332, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535833

RESUMO

The transmission of cancer from a donor organ is a rare event but has important consequences. Aim of this systematic review was to summarize all the published evidence on cancer transmission in kidney recipients. We reviewed published case reports and series describing the outcome of recipients with donor-transmitted cancer until August 2019. A total of 128 papers were included, representing 234 recipients. The most common transmitted cancers were lymphoma (n = 48, 20.5%), renal cancer (42, 17.9%), melanoma (40, 17.1%), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 13, 5.6%), neuroendocrine cancers comprising small cell lung cancer (n = 11, 4.7%) and choriocarcinoma (n = 10, 4.3%). There was a relative lack of glioblastoma and gastrointestinal cancers with only 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Melanoma and lung cancer had the worst prognosis, with 5-years overall survival of 43% and 19%, respectively; while renal cell cancer and lymphomas had a favorable prognosis with 5-years overall survival of 93 and 63%, respectively. Metastasis of cancer outside the graft was the most important adverse prognostic factor. Overall reporting was good, but information on donors' cause of death and investigations at procurement was often lacking. Epidemiology of transmitted cancer has evolved, thanks to screening with imaging and blood tests, as choriocarcinoma transmission have almost abolished, while melanoma and lymphoma are still difficult to detect and prevent.

19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet plays an important role in kidney stone formation. Several individual components have been associated with the risk of kidney stone formation, but there is limited evidence regarding the role of healthful dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the risk of incident kidney stones. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study using 3 different cohorts: the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 42,902 men), the Nurses' Health Study I (n = 59,994 women), and the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 90,631 women). We assessed diet every 4 y using an FFQ and calculated adherence to a Mediterranean diet using the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED). A subgroup of 6077 participants provided ≥1 24-h urine sample, and urinary solute excretion was analyzed. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the independent association between the aMED and incidence of kidney stones, adjusting for potential confounders. We used adjusted linear regression models to study the relation between aMED and urine composition. RESULTS: During 3,316,633 person-years of follow-up, 6576 cases of incident kidney stones were identified. For participants in the highest aMED score category, the risk of developing a kidney stone was between 13% and 41% lower compared with participants in the lowest score (pooled HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.87; P value for trend <0.001). A higher aMED score was associated with higher urinary citrate, magnesium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid, volume, and pH, and lower urinary sodium, resulting in lower supersaturation for calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk of developing a kidney stone.

20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1221: 669-684, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274731

RESUMO

Organ fibrosis is defined as a deregulated wound-healing process characterized by a progressive accumulation of fibrous tissue and by reduced remodeling that can lead to the loss of functionality of the affected organ. This pathological process is quite common in several parenchymal organs such as kidneys, liver, and lungs and represents a real health emergency in developed western countries since a real anti-fibrotic therapy is not yet available in most cases. Heparanase (HPSE), which is the enzyme that cuts off the side chains of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, appears to be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of fibrosis in all these organs, even if with different mechanisms. Here we discuss how the interplay between HPSE and components of the immune and inflammatory responses can activate recruitment, proliferation, and activation of myofibroblasts which represent the main cell type responsible for the deposition of fibrous matrix. Finally, bearing in mind that once the activity of HPSE is inhibited no other molecule is able to perform the same function, it is desirable that this enzyme could prove to be a suitable pharmacological target in anti-fibrotic therapy.


Assuntos
Fibrose/enzimologia , Fibrose/patologia , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato , Humanos , Miofibroblastos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Cicatrização
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