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1.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 17(5): 615-625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have analyzed the association between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression (nuclear and cytoplasmic localization), hTERT methylation status, and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype infection in cervical cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred seventy-three patients with cervical cancer were analyzed. hTERT protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. hTERT DNA methylation analysis was performed using a PCR-RLB-hTERT assay, targeting two regions of the hTERT promoter. Type specific HPV infection was detected by using GP5+/GP6+PCR-RLB. RESULTS: hTERT protein expression was found in both cytoplasm and nucleus (78.0% of the samples showed a cytoplasmic localization and 79.8% had a nuclear localization). A statistically significant association was found between alpha 9 and 7 HPV species with a non-methylation pattern of the hTERT promoter and between these species and high expression of hTERT protein with nuclear localization. CONCLUSION: hTERT protein is found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of patients with cervical cancer and confirm the relationship between the non-methylated status of hTERT promoter and some HPV species as well as the relationship between these species and hTERT protein expression.

2.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 296, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several environmental factors favour the occurrence of acute respiratory disease, which is the main reason for paediatric consultations in our country (Colombia). Tobacco smoke is considered a significant environmental pollutant with a great impact on health. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of cotinine levels measured in urine, in children between 1 to 60 months of age who attended an emergency department with acute respiratory disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted that included children between 1 and 60 months of age with acute respiratory disease who were admitted to the emergency department of the Universidad de La Sabana Clinic between April and July 2016. RESULTS: We included 268 patients and 36% were female. Of the total population examined, 33.96% showed positive results for urinary cotinine, of whom 97.8% had values between 10 and 100 ng/ml, which is considered positive for exposure to second-hand smoke. The principal pathology was recurrent wheezing in 43.96% of these cases. Regarding the presence of smokers at home, it is important to mention that in 54.95% of the children with positive urinary cotinine test was no related with smokers at home. And in 45.05% of positive urinary cotinine was evidence of smokers at home, being associated with the positive result P <  0.001 and smoking within the house P = 0.018; smoking when children were present did not have significant P = 0.105. The activities performed after smoking such as hand washing, change of clothes, eating, brushing teeth, did not influence the test result P = 0.627. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of urinary cotinine was observed, which is associated with the presence of a smoker at home, and this relationship was independent of the activities performed by the smoker after smoking. In addition, a positive test for urinary cotinine was presented in some children without documented exposure to cigarette smoke inside the home, which may be explained by the presence of environmental cotinine. Therefore, it is necessary to perform educational interventions aimed at parents and caregivers who smoke.

3.
Trials ; 21(1): 387, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exchange transfusion is a highly complex procedure that requires high levels of expertise. Trainee paediatricians do not have adequate training in exchange transfusion because opportunities to perform this procedure in practice are scarce. This protocol seeks to compare two educational interventions for exchange transfusion that allow students to develop competencies to perform the technique in an appropriate and safe way. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized parallel single-blind clinical trial with allocation by simple randomization to the educational intervention (simulation or a digital didactic environment). Students from the paediatric specialization who volunteer to participate will be included. A practical evaluation of the procedure will be performed through a simulated scenario using a standardized clinical case. The main outcome is defined as the result of evaluation using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination; superior performance will be defined when the percentage is greater than or equal to 85%, and non-superior performance will be defined when the result is less than 84%. The chi-square independence test or the Fisher exact test will be used to evaluate the effect of the interventions. Multivariate analysis will be performed using a non-conditional logistic regression model. Stata 15® software will be used. DISCUSSION: Exchange transfusion is a procedure that requires expertise to achieve adequate outcomes. The inclusion of new educational strategies, such as simulation and digital didactic environments, is seen as a training option that can improve performance in clinical skills, reduce adverse events and increase the level of trust. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04070066. Registered on 28 August 2019. https://clinicaltrials.gov.

4.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 23(4): 135-143, Oct-Dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058357

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: estimar la carga de enfermedad asociada al consumo de tabaco en Colombia y evaluar el potencial efecto sanitario y económico del aumento de precio en los cigarrillos mediante impuestos. Materiales y métodos: se diseñó un modelo de simulación de Monte Cario de primer orden que incorporó la historia natural, los costos y la calidad de vida de enfermedades relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco en adultos. Se estimó el impacto en la prevalencia de tabaquismo y en la recaudación de diferentes escenarios de aumento de precio a través de impuestos. Resultados: en Colombia cada año mueren 32.088 personas como consecuencia del consumo de cigarrillo y pueden atribuírsele los siguientes porcentajes: el 16% de las muertes cardiovasculares, el 13% de las producidas por accidentes cerebrovasculares, el 77% de las muertes ocasionadas por enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y el 80% de las muertes por cáncer de pulmón. Las enfermedades relacionadas con el cigarrillo representan un costo directo anual al sistema de salud de más de 4,5 billones de pesos, mientras la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos apenas logra cubrir un 10% de este gasto. Un aumento en el precio de los cigarrillos del 50% podría evitar, en un horizonte de 10 años, más de 45.000 muertes y generar recursos por 8 billones por ahorro en gastos sanitarios y aumento de recaudación. Conclusiones: la carga de enfermedad y el costo para el sistema de salud asociados al consumo de tabaco son muy elevados en Colombia. Un aumento del precio de los cigarrillos a través de los impuestos tendría importantes beneficios tanto sanitarios como económicos.


Abstract Objective: to estimate the burden of disease associated with tobacco consumption in Colombia and to evaluate the potential health and economic effect of the price increase in cigarettes through taxes. Materials and methods: to estimate the burden of disease, a first-order Monte Carlo simulation model was designed that incorporated the natural history, costs and quality of life of diseases related to tobacco consumption in adults. A tax model was designed to calculate the impact on the prevalence of smoking and on the collection of different price increase scenarios. Results: according to the proposed model, it can be estimated that in Colombia 26,464 people die every year as a result of cigarette smoking. 13% of cardiovascular deaths, 13% of those caused by strokes, 77% of deaths caused by chronic lung disease and 81 % of deaths from lung cancer can be attributed to their consumption. The diseases related to cigarettes in Colombia represent a direct annual cost of more than 4 billion pesos, while the tax collection from the sale of cigarettes barely covers 10% of this expense. An increase in the price of cigarettes of 50% could prevent more than 30,000 deaths in ten years and generate resources for 7.9 billion savings in health spending and increased collection. Conclusions: the burden of disease and the cost to the health system associated with tobacco use are very high in Colombia. An increase in the price of cigarettes through taxes would have important health and economic benefits for Colombia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tabagismo , Pneumopatias , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Impostos , Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Fumar Cigarros
5.
Biomedica ; 39(3): 561-575, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584769

RESUMO

Introduction: The antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a therapeutic strategy linked to drug-related problems that cause or can cause the appearance of negative results associated with the medication. It is important, therefore, to identify their incidence, characterize them, and classify them to design strategies to minimize their impact. Objective: To estimate the overall incidence and the incidence of each one of the antiretroviral drugs-related problems in the treatment of the HIV infection in a cohort of hospitalized patients in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive, retrospective cohort study in patients aged 18 years or more diagnosed with HIV infection and under antiretroviral treatment hospitalized between January 1st, 2015, and December 31st, 2016, in the Hospital Santa Clara, Bogotá. Results: The overall incidence of antiretroviral drug-related problems was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93). The incidence of drug-drug interactions was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.90), 0.28 (95% CI: 0.22-0.35) for adverse reactions, and 0.12 (CI 95%: 0.08-0.17) for prescription errors. Conclusion: Drug-related problems should be studied, diagnosed, prevented, and treated. Their knowledge can enable health care professionals to anticipate their emergence, reduce their incidence, implement risk management plans, and optimize adherence to antiretroviral treatment.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Incidência , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(3): 561-575, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038815

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción. El tratamiento antirretroviral de la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV) se ha relacionado con diversos problemas de los medicamentos que causan o pueden causar la aparición de resultados negativos. En este contexto, es importante determinar su incidencia, caracterizarlos y clasificarlos para diseñar estrategias que minimicen su impacto. Objetivo. Estimar la incidencia global y de cada uno de los problemas relacionados con los medicamentos antirretrovirales utilizados en el tratamiento del HIV en una cohorte de pacientes hospitalizados en una institución de tercer nivel de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de cohorte en pacientes de 18 años o más de edad con diagnóstico de infección por el HIV y en tratamiento antirretroviral, hospitalizados entre el 1° enero de 2015 y el 31 de diciembre de 2016 en el Hospital Santa Clara de Bogotá. Resultados. La incidencia global de los problemas relacionados con los medicamentos antirretrovirales fue de 0,90 (IC95% 0,85-0,93). La incidencia de las interacciones medicamentosas fue de 0,85 (IC95% 0,80-0,90), la de las reacciones adversas de 0,28 (IC95% 0,22-0,35) y la del error de prescripción de 0,12 (IC95% 0,08-0,17). Conclusión. Los problemas relacionados con los medicamentos deben estudiarse, diagnosticarse, prevenirse y tratarse para que el personal de salud pueda anticiparse a su aparición, disminuir su incidencia, implementar planes de manejo del riesgo y optimizar el cumplimiento del tratamiento antirretroviral.


Abstract Introduction: The antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a therapeutic strategy linked to drug-related problems that cause or can cause the appearance of negative results associated with the medication. It is important, therefore, to identify their incidence, characterize them, and classify them to design strategies to minimize their impact. Objective: To estimate the overall incidence and the incidence of each one of the antiretroviral drugs-related problems in the treatment of the HIV infection in a cohort of hospitalized patients in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive, retrospective cohort study in patients aged 18 years or more diagnosed with HIV infection and under antiretroviral treatment hospitalized between January 1st, 2015, and December 31st, 2016, in the Hospital Santa Clara, Bogotá. Results: The overall incidence of antiretroviral drug-related problems was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93). The incidence of drug-drug interactions was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.90), 0.28 (95% CI: 0.22-0.35) for adverse reactions, and 0.12 (CI 95%: 0.08-0.17) for prescription errors. Conclusion: Drug-related problems should be studied, diagnosed, prevented, and treated. Their knowledge can enable health care professionals to anticipate their emergence, reduce their incidence, implement risk management plans, and optimize adherence to antiretroviral treatment.

7.
Biomedica ; 39(1): 65-74, 2019 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Direct visual inspection for cervical cancer screening remains controversial, whereas colposcopy-biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of preneoplastic cervical lesions. OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more and of false positives for colposcopy and direct visual inspection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women aged 25-59 underwent direct visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), Lugol's iodine (VIA-VILI), and colposcopy. Punch biopsies were obtained for all positive tests. Using histology as the gold standard, detection and false positive rates were compared for VIA, VIA-VILI, and colposcopy (two thresholds). Sensitivity and false positive ratios with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: We included 5,011 women in the analysis and we obtained 602 biopsies. Positivity rates for colposcopy high-grade and low-grade diagnosis were 1.6% and 10.8%. Positivity rates for VIA and VIA-VILI were 7.4% and 9.9%. VIA showed a significantly lower detection rate than colposcopy with low-grade diagnosis as the threshold (SR=0.72; 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and significantly lower false positive rate (FPR=0.70; 95% CI 0.65-0.76). No differences between VIA-VILI and colposcopy low-grade threshold were observed. VIA and VIA-VILI showed significantly higher detection and false positive rates than colposcopy high-grade threshold. Sensitivity rates for visual inspection decreased with age and false positive rates increased. For all age groups, false positive rates for VIA and VIA-VILI were significantly higher than colposcopy. CONCLUSIONS: Detection rates for VIA-VILI similar to colposcopy low-grade threshold represent a chance to reduce cervical cancer mortality through see-and-treat approaches among women with limited access to health care. Lower detection rates suggest reviewing high-grade colposcopy findings as the threshold for biopsy in certain settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Ácido Acético , Adulto , Biópsia , Colômbia , Colposcopia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Iodetos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(1): 65-74, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001390

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Direct visual inspection for cervical cancer screening remains controversial, whereas colposcopy-biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of preneoplastic cervical lesions. Objectives: To determine the rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more and of false positives for colposcopy and direct visual inspection. Materials and methods: Women aged 25-59 underwent direct visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), Lugol's iodine (VIA-VILI), and colposcopy. Punch biopsies were obtained for all positive tests. Using histology as the gold standard, detection and false positive rates were compared for VIA, VIA-VILI, and colposcopy (two thresholds). Sensitivity and false positive ratios with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results: We included 5,011 women in the analysis and we obtained 602 biopsies. Positivity rates for colposcopy high-grade and low-grade diagnosis were 1.6% and 10.8%. Positivity rates for VIA and VIA-VILI were 7.4% and 9.9%. VIA showed a significantly lower detection rate than colposcopy with low-grade diagnosis as the threshold(SR=0.72; 95% CI0.57-0.91), and significantly lower false positive rate (FPR=0.70; 95% CI 0.65-0.76). No differences between VIA-VILI and colposcopy low-grade threshold were observed. VIA and VIA-VILI showed significantly higher detection and false positive rates than colposcopy high-grade threshold. Sensitivity rates for visual inspection decreased with age and false positive rates increased. For all age groups, false positive rates for VIA and VIA-VILI were significantly higher than colposcopy. Conclusions: Detection rates for VIA-VILI similar to colposcopy low-grade threshold representa chance to reduce cervical cancer mortality through see-and-treat approaches among women with limited access to health care. Lower detection rates suggest reviewing high-grade colposcopy findings as the threshold for biopsy incertain settings.


Resumen Introducción. La inspección visual directa para la tamización del cáncer cervical sigue siendo controversial, mientras que la colposcopia y la biopsia siguen considerándose como métodos de referencia para diagnosticar lesiones cervicales precancerosas. Objetivo. Determinar las tasas de detección de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical de grado 2 y de los falsos positivos en la colposcopia y la inspección visual directa. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron mujeres de 25 a 59 años sometidas a citología convencional, inspección visual directa con ácido acético y disolución de Lugol y colposcopia. Se practicó biopsia en todas las pruebas positivas. Utilizando la histología como el medio de verificación de referencia, se compararon las tasas de detección y de falsos positivos de cada prueba. Se estimaron las razones de sensibilidad y de falsos positivos con los correspondientes intervalos de confianza. Resultados. Se incluyeron 5.011 mujeres. Las colposcopias positivas de alto y bajo grado correspondieron a 1,6 y 10,8 %, respectivamente. La inspección visual directa con ácido acético y solución yodada de Lugol fue positiva en 7,4 y 9,9 %, respectivamente. La inspección visual directa con ácido acético tuvo tasas de detección y falsos positivos significativamente menores que la coloscopia con umbral de bajo grado (razón de sensibilidad: 0,72; IC95% 0,57-0,91; razón de falsos positivos: 0,70; CI95% 0,65-0,76); no hubo diferencias entre la inspección visual directa con solución yodada de Lugol y la colposcopia con dicho umbral. Las tasas de detección y de falsos positivos de los dos tipos de inspección visual fueron significativamente más altas que las de la colposcopia con el umbral de alto grado. Las tasas de detección de la inspección visual disminuyeron con la edad y las de falsos positivos aumentaron. Conclusiones: Las tasas de detección similares para la inspección visual directa con ácido acético o con solución yodada de Lugol y la colposcopia con umbral de bajo grado representan una oportunidad para reducir la mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino cuando el acceso a los servicios de salud es limitado. Las tasas de detección más bajas para la colposcopia con umbral de alto grado sugieren la necesidad de revisar dicho umbral en ciertos entornos.

9.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 739, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two debriefing strategies for the development of neonatal resuscitation skills in health professionals responsible for the critical newborn care in a high-complexity university Hospital. RESULTS: A simple blind randomized clinical trial was conducted. Twenty-four professionals (pediatricians, nurses, and respiratory therapists) were randomly assigned for two interventions; one group received oral debriefing and the other oral debriefing assisted by video. Three standardized clinical scenarios that were recorded on video were executed. A checklist was applied for the evaluation, administered by a reviewer blinded to the assignment of the type of debriefing. The two debriefing strategies increased the technical and behavioral neonatal resuscitation skills of the participants, without one being superior to the other. The coefficient of the difference in the compliance percentage between the two types of debriefing was - 3.6% (95% CI - 13.77% to 6.47%). When comparing the development of technical and behavioral skills among the professionals evaluated, no significant differences were found between the types of debriefing. The two debriefing strategies increase compliance percentages, reaching or approaching 100%. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03606278. July 30, 2018. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Competência Clínica , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/terapia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/educação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Método Simples-Cego , Gravação em Vídeo
10.
Prev Med ; 115: 19-25, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092313

RESUMO

Most evidence on breast cancer screening accuracy derives from high income countries. We evaluated screening accuracy and factors related to program implementation in Bogota, Colombia. Between 2008 and 2012 participants underwent clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. Positive results underwent histological verification. Adherence to screening protocols was analyzed. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were estimated and adjusted by overdiagnosis. Impact of alternative screening algorithms on follow-up was explored, including combined screening tests and modified coding systems for mammography. In total, 7436 women aged 50-69 were enrolled; 400 discontinued and 1003 non-compliant with screening protocols. 23 cancer cases were diagnosed. Mammography sensitivity and specificity were 78.3% (95%CI 77.3-99.3) and 99.4% (95%CI 99.2-99.6). CBE sensitivity was 39.1% (95%CI 37.9-40.3) and specificity 83.4% (95%CI 82.6-84.3). Parallel mammography and CBE showed the highest sensitivity (95.6%) and combined as serial tests the lowest (positive CBE followed by mammography 13.0%). A simplified coding system for mammography (recall/no-recall) had 6.3% of positive results and a minor reduction in specificity compared with standard mammography, but reported the best balance between recall rates and screening protocol compliance. Call-backs had high rates of loss-to-follow-up; thus, alternative screening algorithms might help increase screening compliance and follow-up in low and middle income countries, particularly in populations with poor screening history and low access to health services.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Mamografia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Exame Físico/métodos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobremedicalização , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Oncol Lett ; 16(2): 2511-2516, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013645

RESUMO

Certain variants of human papillomavirus (HPV)type 58 are associated with an increased risk of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer. However, little is known about the persistence of HPV58 E6/E7 variants in women with incident HPV58 infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence and persistence of HPV58 E6/E7 variants in 71 women with incident HPV58 infection throughout their follow-up. These women belonged to a cohort examined in a longitudinal study of 1,610 Colombian women, who were HPV-negative and had normal baseline cytology. E6/E7 DNA regions of HPV58-positive samples were amplified and sequenced using automated direct sequencing. A total of 639 samples were analyzed from the 71 women, and 117 samples (18.3%) were HPV58-positive. HPV58 E6/E7 variants were detected in 85.5% of the samples. The T307/A694/G744/A761 variant was identified in 88% of the samples, the T307/G744 variant was identified in 9% of samples and the T187/T307/A367/G744/G793/T798/A801/T840/C852 was identified in 3% of the samples. Overall, 50% of the HPV58 infections were present after 1 year of follow-up and all infections were cleared after 7 years. Women who had first sexual intercourse at >15 years of age had a lower clearance rate than those who had sexual intercourse for the first time at ≤15 years of age [hazard ratio (HR)=0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.09-0.92]. Likewise, parous women had a higher clearance rate than nulliparous women (HR=3.43, 95% CI=1.23-9.60). There was no difference in clearance rates between HPV58 E6/E7 variants. In conclusion, HPV58 variants were not associated with persistence of the infection in this group of women.

12.
Oncol Lett ; 15(1): 354-360, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387223

RESUMO

Epidemiological information on telomerase activity (TA) and development of cervical lesions is scarce. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort of Colombian women tested for Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Measurement of TA was done in cervical scrapes of 25 women who developed High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HGSIL) during the first 6 years of follow-up and was compared with that of 104 control women who maintained normal cytology during the entire follow-up. TA was measured by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol-ELISA. TA and HPV infections were significantly more frequent in cases than in controls. Likewise, 68% of the cases were positive for both TA and HPV compared with only 7.7% of the controls (P<0.0001). Factors independently associated with increased odds of HGSIL included TA, high risk HPV (hrHPV) infections and multiple parities. When restricted to hrHPV positive women, TA was strongly associated with increased odds of HGSIL (adjusted odds ratio=37.94, 95% confidence interval, 1.64-678.1). In addition to an infection with hrHPV, TA appears to be a significant cofactor for HGSIL.

13.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 21(2): 86-94, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-900457

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Reportar la supervivencia global, libre de evento, la respuesta histológica a quimioterapia neoadyuvante y los resultados de la cirugía de preservación de la extremidad en pacientes con osteosarcoma convencional tratados sin altas dosis de metotrexato en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia. Pacientes y métodos: una cohorte de pacientes menores de 21 años de edad con diagnóstico de osteosarcoma convencional, con o sin metástasis, fueron tratados con quimioterapia preoperatoria por doce semanas; seguidos de cirugía de control local en la semana 15 y tres ciclos de quimioterapia posoperatoria. En el tratamiento se administraron cuatro medicamentos (ifosfamida, doxorrubicina, cisplatino y etopósido) y no se incluyó el uso de metotrexato. La supervivencia global y libre de evento fue calculada por el método de Kaplan-Meier. Se realizó análisis multivariable para predictores de supervivencia mediante el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron para α 0,05. Resultados: Entre enero de 1997 y diciembre de 2007 ingresaron 122 pacientes con osteosarcoma convencional, para una mediana de seguimiento de 25,4 meses (rango 1,13 a 169). La edad promedio fue 13,7 años (DE: 2,9) y de los procedimientos quirúrgicos la cirugía de salvamento correspondió al 52% y la cirugía ablativa al 38%. La supervivencia global y libre de evento fue mayor en los buenos respondedores a quimioterapia que en malos respondedores (HR = 4,33; IC 95% 1,77-10,58)) y (HR = 2,90; IC 95% 1,60-5,27). La supervivencia global y libre de evento fue diferente entre los pacientes con y sin metástasis al diagnóstico (HR = 2,13; IC 95% 0,97-4,72) y(HR = 2,07; (IC 95% 1,10 - 3,90). Conclusión: El osteosarcoma puede ser tratado con quimioterapia sin altas dosis de metotrexato logrando supervivencia moderadamente efectiva y comparable con la de países desarrollados.


Abstract Objective: To report event-free overall survival rates and histological response results for neoadjuvant chemotherapy and limb-salvage surgery in conventional osteosarcoma patients treated without high methotrexate doses in the National Cancer Institute of Colombia. Patients and Methods: A cohort of under 21-year old patients diagnosed with conventional osteosarcoma, with or without metastasis, underwent preoperative chemotherapy for twelve weeks, followed by local control surgery in week 15, and three postoperative chemotherapy cycles. Treatment did not include methotrexate. Four drugs were administered: ifosfamide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and etoposide. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate overall survival and event-free rates. A multivariate analysis of survival predictors was carried out with the Cox proportional hazards method. Statistical analysis was based on an α of 0.05. Results: From January 1997 to December 2007, a total of l22 conventional osteosarcoma patients received treatment, with a median follow-up of 24.4 months (range 1.13 to 169). The mean patient age was 13.7 years (SD ±2.9 yrs). Limb-salvage surgery was performed in 52% and ablative surgery in 38%. Overall survival and event-free rates were higher in the good responders to chemotherapy than in the poor responders: (HR = 4.33; 95% CI; 1.77-10.58) and (HR = 2.90; 95% CI; 1.60-5.27. The overall survival and event-free rates were different between patients with and without metastasis at diagnosis: (HR = 2.13; 95% CI; 0.97-4.72) and (HR = 2.07; (95% CI; 1.10-3.90. Conclusion: Osteosarcoma can be treated with chemotherapy without high methotrexate doses to achieve moderately effective survival rates comparable with those in developed countries.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Osteossarcoma , Metotrexato , Colômbia , Tratamento Farmacológico , Sobrevivência , Terapêutica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Infectio ; 21(2): 88-95, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892711

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado de la salud representan un problema de salud pública y la transmisión horizontal supone un incremento en la morbimortalidad y los costos en la atención. La vigilancia activa es costosa y tiene alto riesgo de omitir la detección de brotes, mientras que la virtual (modelos matemáticos) permite la búsqueda sistemática de alertas de brotes. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la relación costo-efectividad del uso de la herramienta SaTScan-Whonet para la detección temprana de infecciones bacterianas, comparada con la vigilancia tradicional en una institución de alta complejidad de Colombia. Metodología: En un hospital universitario de alta complejidad se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, se identificó un brote bacteriano, se caracterizó clínicamente y por biología molecular. Se extrajeron las bases de datos de los sistemas automatizados de identificación y susceptibilidad microbiológica. Se realizaron análisis retrospectivos de SaTScan-Whonet, así como simulaciones diarias para el primer semestre de 2011 de manera prospectiva; también se identificó la fecha para la alerta de detección de brote, tanto en la vigilancia activa como en la virtual. Resultados: Se aislaron 4.584 microorganismos en los servicios de hospitalización tanto UCI como no UCI entre 2010 y 2011 (2.288 y 2.296 respectivamente). Por vigilancia activa se notificó un brote por Enterococcus faecium el 28 de marzo de 2011, que fue caracterizado por biología molecular con la presencia del gen Van A, que confiere resistencia a glucopéptidos. Se identificó de manera retrospectiva una alerta de brote para E. faecium entre el 14 de marzo y el 10 de mayo de 2011 con un intervalo de recurrencia de 609.384. En los análisis prospectivos simulados se identificó la primera alerta de brote de esta bacteria el 13 de abril de 2011 con un intervalo de recurrencia de 3.897 (p = 0,0002655). Conclusión: La utilización de dicha herramienta de manera prospectiva no fue superior a la vigilancia activa en cuanto a oportunidad en la detección. Los análisis retrospectivos tuvieron un alto rendimiento diagnóstico y podrían ser de utilidad para los sistemas de vigilancia y control de los entes reguladores.


Abstract Background: Healthcare-associated infections represent a public health problem, and horizontal transmission has led to an increase in morbidity and mortality as well as higher health care costs. Active surveillance is expensive and carries high risk of failing to detect outbreaks. Virtual surveillance (mathematical models) allows a systematic search for alerts to outbreaks. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the SaTScan-Whonet tool for the early detection of outbreaks of bacterial infection, compared with traditional surveillance, in an institution of high complexity in Colombia. Methodology: In a university hospital of high complexity a retrospective study was performed, identifying a bacterial outbreak that was characterised clinically and by molecular biology techniques. Databases of automated systems of identification and microbiological susceptibility were extracted. Retrospective analyses were performed using SaTScan-Whonet and daily simulations during the first semester of 2011 in a prospective manner. The date for the alert to the detection of the outbreak for both active and virtual surveillance was also identified. Results: A total of 4,584 microorganisms were isolated both inside and outside the ICU bet-ween 2010 and 2011 (2,288 and 2,296, respectively). An outbreak of Enterococcus faecium was identified by active surveillance on March 28, 2011. Using molecular biology techniques, the outbreak was characterised, showing the presence of the vanA gene, which confers resistance to glycopeptides. An alert to an Enterococcus faecium outbreak was retrospectively identified between March 14 and May 10, 2011 with a recurrence interval of 609,384. The first alert to outbreak for this bacterium was identified in a prospective simulated analysis on April 13, 2011 with a recurrence interval of 3,897 (P=.0002655). Conclusion: The use of such a tool prospectively is not superior to active surveillance in regard to timely detection of bacterial outbreaks. Retrospective analyses have high diagnostic ability and could be very helpful in systems of surveillance and control of regulatory entities.

15.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 13(6): 483-491, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27807071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There exists limited information on the role of hTERT methylation, and its association with type-specific HPV infections in cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven frozen samples were analyzed for type-specific HPV infection using a GP5+/GP6+ PCR-RLB assay (RLB). hTERT DNA methylation analysis was performed using a newly developed PCR-RLB-hTERT. RESULTS: Ninety-three percent of samples were HPV-positive and fifteen different types were detected. hTERT methylation analysis of region 1 revealed no methylation in 78.8% of the samples and partial methylation in 21.2%. In region two, 68.2% showed no methylation and 31.8% showed a pattern of partial methylation. An association between the alpha 9 and alpha 7 species with a pattern of no methylation of hTERT in the region 1 was established (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively). CONCLUSION: Differences in patterns of methylation of the hTERT core promoter [region 1 (nt -208 to -1) and region 2 (nt +1 to +104) relative to first ATG] are related to the HPV species present.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Telomerase/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Feminino , Células HeLa , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/patogenicidade , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
16.
Trials ; 17(1): 521, 2016 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27782829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human lactancy is a simple and cost-effective strategy that influences infant and maternal mortality rates. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is an immediate postpartum period strategy that has proven to benefit the initiation and continuation of human lactation and to decrease hospitalization during the first week of life. This study aims to determine the effect of SSC initiation at birth (immediate versus early) in healthy, full-term newborns treated at the Universidad de La Sabana Clinic on the duration of exclusive human lactation. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized, blind clinical trial will be performed with full-term healthy newborns born at the Universidad de La Sabana Clinic. The blind trial participants will be those persons measuring the results and analyzing the data. The sample size will be calculated for a type I error of 5 %, a two-tailed type II error of 20 %, and an estimated percentage loss of 30 %; 150 infants will be included in each group. Randomization will be performed using permuted, size-6 blocks. Descriptive analysis will be conducted using central tendency and dispersion measurements. A bivariate analysis will be performed to determine which variables are associated with exclusive lactancy at 6 months. For continuous variables, Student's t test will be used for independent samples, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test will be used if the assumptions of normality for the t tests are not fulfilled. The assumption of normality will be evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Categorical variables in contingency tables will be constructed to assess the independence between variables using the chi-square test, or Fisher's exact test when the assumption of the number of cases is not met by the values in the contingency tables multiplied by two. This will be calculated as a measurement of the effect of relative risk (RR) with confidence intervals; the adjusted measurements will be calculated using a multivariate regression Poisson model. Variables with significant results will be used in the bivariate analysis, and those with biological plausibility will be used for the adjustment. The analysis will be carried out for a two-tailed type I error level of 5 %. The Stata 11 program will be used for data analysis. An interim analysis will be performed upon the submission of half the expected events (106), setting limits for the early termination of the trial according to the method proposed by Pampallona and Tsiatis (1994). INTERVENTION: There will be two SSC randomization groups: early versus immediate. After completing the neonatal adaptation process and based on the group assignment, the mother will be left with her newborn child in hospital accommodation. Prior to discharge, the Infant Breast-Feeding Assessment Tool (IBFAT) will be applied. Monitoring will initially be performed with a face-to-face assessment between 3 and 10 days of life, followed by monthly telephone calls for 6 months to verify lactation status. DISCUSSION: SSC at birth has shown benefits in the short and long term for both the mother and the full-term newborn. Although the meta-analysis that have been done have shown the benefits of this technique, multiple differences in the SSC interventions have been identified because criteria such as the initiation or duration of SSC (dose) have not been unified. Colombia has a malnutrition risk of 11,4 % in the total population for the period 2012-2014, so it is necessary to promote strategies that generate a positive impact on the duration of human lactation, providing support from the clinical setting of humanized delivery which is included in the IAMI strategy (Instituciones Amigas de la Mujer y la Infancia - Friends of Women and Children Institution). Therefore, we propose that the initiation time of SSC in full-term new-borns is related to the duration of exclusive human lactation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 02687685 . Registered on 2 February 2016. This study is not yet open for participant recruitment.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Método Canguru , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Tato , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Protocolos Clínicos , Colômbia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 20(2): 61-72, abr.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-797406

RESUMO

Objetivo: Calcular la carga económica de las enfermedades neoplásicas del cuello uterino en Colombia y el efecto de su prevención. Métodos: Se calculó la incidencia a partir de un modelo de Markov sobre historia natural de la infección por VPH. Se estimaron costos directos en pesos colombianos (COP) a partir de eventos generadores de costos identificados en guías nacionales e internacionales. El valor monetario de los procedimientos se basó en manuales tarifarios vigentes (ISS 2001 con ajuste del 30% y SOAT). Las frecuencias de uso se definieron por consenso de expertos. Se incluyeron costos programáticos en tamización (citología) y vacunación (VPH). Resultados: Los casos esperados por a˜no para NIC I, NIC II-III y cáncer fueron 177.317,46.911 y 5.110. El valor de la citología fue de COP$19.070 (US$10,8) y cada dosis de vacuna costó COP$23.700. La tamización representa el mayor costo en el control de la enfermedad (COP$126.933 millones). La vacuna genera un costo adicional de COP$11.977 millones y un ahorro de COP$15.969 millones; este último inició luego de 20 años de introducir la estrategia. Reducir el costo de la vacuna contribuye al ahorro y disminuir el costo de la tamización acorta su tiempo de inicio. Conclusiones: La vacunación contra VPH reduce los costos del control del cáncer de cuello uterino pero requiere una inversión sostenida por un periodo largo de tiempo. La reducción del costo de la vacunación y la tamización traería beneficios económicos importantes, donde las nuevas alternativas tecnológicas pueden jugar un papel relevante.


Objective: To estimate the economic burden cervical neoplastic disease in Colombia and the effects of its prevention. Methods: The incidence was calculated from a Markov model on the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Direct costs were estimated, in Colombian Pesos (COP), from cost-generating events identified in national and international guides. The monetary value of the procedures was based on current tariff manuals (ISS 2001 with a 30% adjustment and mandatory insurance (SOAT). The frequencies of use were defined by expert consensus. Screening program (cytology) and vaccination (HPV) costs were included. Results: The expected cases per year for IFRS (NIC) 1 (International Financial Reporting Standards), IFRS 2-3 and cancer were 177,317, 46,911, and 5,110, respectively. The cost of cytology was COP$19,070 (D 9.80) and each vaccine dose cost COP$23,700 (D 10.00). Screening represented the highest cost in the control of the disease (COP$126.933 million; D 38.5 million). The vaccine generated an additional cost of COP$11.977 million (D 3.5 million) and a saving of COP$15.969 million (D 4.8 million). This latter started 20 years after introducing the strategy. To reduce the cost of the vaccination contributes to a saving and to decrease the cost of screening shortens its start-up time. Conclusions: Vaccination against HPV reduces the costs of controlling uterine cervical cancer, but it requires a sustained investment for a long period of time. The reduction in the vaccine and screening costs would bring significant economic benefits, where the new, alternative technologies could play an important role.


Assuntos
Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Programas de Rastreamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Padrões de Referência , Ajustamento Social , Colo do Útero , Vacinação , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Consenso , Controle , Investimentos em Saúde
18.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 20(2): 52-60, abr.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-797405

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estimar el costo del manejo de cada uno de los estadios del cáncer de mama en Colombia. Métodos: La estimación de costos se realizó usando la metodología de un estudio de caso, dividida en tres etapas: identificar el consumo de recursos asociados a las diferentes fases de la enfermedad, cuantificar el consumo físico de recursos y valorizar el consumo de estos. La cantidad, frecuencia de uso y cumplimiento de los procedimientos y medicamentos se obtuvo mediante opinión de expertos de centros de oncología de cinco regiones el país (Bogotá, Barranquilla-Cartagena, Cali, Medellín y Bucaramanga). Los costos de los medicamentos se calcularon con base en el Sistema de Información de Precios de Medicamentos (SISMED) 2010 y la Resolución 4316 de 2011. Los costos de los procedimientos fueron obtenidos de los manuales ISS 2001 + 30%, SOAT y la información del estudio de suficiencia de la UPC. Resultados: Los estadios más costosos para el cáncer fueron el metastásico con un costo total de $144.400.865, seguido del cáncer de mama regional que alcanzó un costo total de $65.603.537. Se observó una contribución importante de la quimioterapia en el costo total para los diferentes estadios y en la recaída sistémica y local. Conclusiones: La diferencia en los costos del cáncer de mama entre estadios está altamente influenciada por el valor de los costos asociados al tratamiento de quimioterapia.


Objective: To estimate the cost of managing each of the stages of breast cancer in Colombia. Methods: The estimation of costs was performed using case study methodology, divided into three stages: the identification of the use of resources associated with the different stages of the disease, the quantification of the resource use, and the evaluation of this use. The quantity, frequency of use, and the percentage of compliance with procedures and medications were obtained by expert opinion in the cancer centres in five regions of the country (Bogotá, Barranquilla-Cartagena, Cali, Medellin and Bucaramanga). The drug costs were calculated using prices reported in the Price of Medications Information System (SISMED) 2010, and Resolution 4316 of 2011. The procedure costs were obtained from the ISS 2001 manuals + 30%, SOAT and information from the UPC sufficiency study. Results: The most expensive stages of breast cancer were metastatic cancer at a cost of COP $144,400,865 and regional cancer with COP $65,603,537 (D 56 million). A significant contribution by chemotherapy was observed in the total cost for the different stages and systemic and local recurrence. Conclusion: The difference in costs between the stages of breast cancer is highly influenced by the value of the costs associated with chemotherapy treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Terapêutica , Neoplasias da Mama , Custos e Análise de Custo , Atenção , Custos de Medicamentos , Colômbia , Recursos em Saúde
19.
Vet Med Int ; 2016: 5780408, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26981316

RESUMO

Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery.

20.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 5(6): 792-796, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28101358

RESUMO

High hypoxic, glycolytic and acidosis metabolisms characterize cervical cancer tumors and have been described to be involved in chemoradioresistance mechanisms. Based on these observations, the present study assessed four selected novel biomarkers on the prognosis of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. A total of 66 patients with stage IIB/IIIB cervical cancer were retrospectively included. The protein expression levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) and hexokinase 1 (HKII) were investigated by immunohistochemistry on tumor biopsies, hemoglobin was measured and the disease outcome was monitored. A total of 53 patients (80.3%) presented a complete response. For these patients, the protein expression levels of GLUT1, CAIX and HKII were overexpressed. A significant difference was observed (P=0.0127) for hemoglobin levels (≤11 g/dl) in responsive compared with non-responsive patients. The expression of GLUT1 is associated with a lower rate of both overall and disease-free survival, with a trend of decreased risk of 1.1x and 1.5x, respectively. Co-expression of GLUT1 and HKII is associated with a decreased trend risk of 1.6x for overall survival. Patients with hemoglobin levels ≤11 g/dl had a 4.3-fold risk (P=0.02) in decreasing both to the rate of overall and disease-free survival. The presence of anemic hypoxia (hemoglobin ≤11 g/dl) and the expression of GLUT1 and/or HKII influence treatment response and are associated with a lower overall and disease-free survival. The present results demonstrated that these biomarkers may be used as predictive markers and suggested that these metabolic pathways can be used as potential novel therapeutic targets.

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