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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257553

RESUMO

Temporal variation in natural selection is predicted to strongly impact the evolution and demography of natural populations, with consequences for the rate of adaptation, evolution of plasticity, and extinction risk. Most of the theory underlying these predictions assumes a moving optimum phenotype, with predictions expressed in terms of the temporal variance and autocorrelation of this optimum. However, empirical studies seldom estimate patterns of fluctuations of an optimum phenotype, precluding further progress in connecting theory with observations. To bridge this gap, we assess the evidence for temporal variation in selection on breeding date by modeling a fitness function with a fluctuating optimum, across 39 populations of 21 wild animals, one of the largest compilations of long-term datasets with individual measurements of trait and fitness components. We find compelling evidence for fluctuations in the fitness function, causing temporal variation in the magnitude, but not the direction of selection. However, fluctuations of the optimum phenotype need not directly translate into variation in selection gradients, because their impact can be buffered by partial tracking of the optimum by the mean phenotype. Analyzing individuals that reproduce in consecutive years, we find that plastic changes track movements of the optimum phenotype across years, especially in bird species, reducing temporal variation in directional selection. This suggests that phenological plasticity has evolved to cope with fluctuations in the optimum, despite their currently modest contribution to variation in selection.

2.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 70, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier breeding is one of the strongest responses to global change in birds and is a key factor determining reproductive success. In most studies of climate effects, the focus has been on large-scale environmental indices or temperature averaged over large geographical areas, neglecting that animals are affected by the local conditions in their home ranges. In riverine ecosystems, climate change is altering the flow regime, in addition to changes resulting from the increasing demand for renewable and clean hydropower. Together with increasing temperatures, this can lead to shifts in the time window available for successful breeding of birds associated with the riverine habitat. Here, we investigated specifically how the environmental conditions at the territory level influence timing of breeding in a passerine bird with an aquatic lifestyle, the white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus. We relate daily river discharge and other important hydrological parameters, to a long-term dataset of breeding phenology (1978-2015) in a natural river system. RESULTS: Dippers bred earlier when winter river discharge and groundwater levels in the weeks prior to breeding were high, and when there was little snow in the catchment area. Breeding was also earlier at lower altitudes, although the effect dramatically declined over the period. This suggests that territories at higher altitudes had more open water in winter later in the study period, which permitted early breeding also here. Unexpectedly, the largest effect inducing earlier breeding time was territory river discharge during the winter months and not immediately prior to breeding. The territory river discharge also increased during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The observed earlier breeding can thus be interpreted as a response to climate change. Measuring environmental variation at the scale of the territory thus provides detailed information about the interactions between organisms and the abiotic environment.


Assuntos
Hidrologia , Passeriformes , Animais , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema
3.
J Anim Ecol ; 89(10): 2279-2289, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654115

RESUMO

Understanding components of interspecific competition has long been a major goal in ecological studies. Classical models of competition typically consider equal responses of all individuals to the density of competitors, however responses may differ both among individuals from the same population, and between populations. Based on individual long-term monitoring of two chamois populations in sympatry with red deer, we built a multi-event capture-recapture model to assess how vital rates of the smaller chamois are affected by competition from the larger red deer. In both populations, mortality and breeding probabilities of female chamois depend on age and in most cases, breeding status the preceding year. Successful breeders always performed better the next year, indicating that some females are of high quality. In one population where there was high spatial overlap between the two species, the survival of old female chamois that were successful breeders the preceding year (high-quality) was negatively related to an index of red deer population size suggesting that they tend to skip reproduction instead of jeopardizing their own survival when the number of competitors increases. The breeding probability of young breeders (ages 2 and 3) was similarly affected by red deer population size. In contrast, in the second site with low spatial overlap between the two species, the vital rates of female chamois were not related to red deer population size. We provide evidence for population-specific responses to interspecific competition and more generally, for context-, age- and state-dependent effects of interspecific competition. Our results also suggest that the classical assumption of equal responses of all individuals to interspecific competition should be relaxed, and emphasize the need to move towards more mechanistic approaches to better understand how natural populations respond to changes in their environment.

4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1930): 20201069, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605517

RESUMO

Expression of adaptive reaction norms of life-history traits to spatio-temporal variation in food availability is crucial for individual fitness. Yet little is known about the neural signalling mechanisms underlying these reaction norms. Previous studies suggest a role for the dopamine system in regulating behavioural and morphological responses to food across a wide range of taxa. We tested whether this neural signalling system also regulates life-history reaction norms by exposing the zooplankton Daphnia magna to both dopamine and the dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion, an antidepressant that enters aquatic environments via various pathways. We recorded a range of life-history traits across two food levels. Both treatments induced changes to the life-history reaction norm slopes. These were due to the effects of the treatments being more pronounced at restricted food ration, where controls had lower somatic growth rates, higher age and larger size at maturation. This translated into a higher population growth rate (r) of dopamine and bupropion treatments when food was restricted. Our findings show that the dopamine system is an important regulatory mechanism underlying life-history trait responses to food abundance and that bupropion can strongly influence the life history of aquatic species such as D. magna. We discuss why D. magna do not evolve towards higher endogenous dopamine levels despite the apparent fitness benefits.


Assuntos
Daphnia/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Alimentos , Traços de História de Vida , Reprodução , Zooplâncton
5.
Evol Lett ; 4(3): 180-188, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547779

RESUMO

Meaningful comparison of variation in quantitative trait requires controlling for both the dimension of the varying entity and the dimension of the factor generating variation. Although the coefficient of variation (CV; standard deviation divided by the mean) is often used to measure and compare variation of quantitative traits, it only accounts for the dimension of the former, and its use for comparing variation may sometimes be inappropriate. Here, we discuss the use of the CV to compare measures of evolvability and phenotypic plasticity, two variational properties of quantitative traits. Using a dimensional analysis, we show that contrary to evolvability, phenotypic plasticity cannot be meaningfully compared across traits and environments by mean-scaling trait variation. We further emphasize the need of remaining cognizant of the dimensions of the traits and the relationship between mean and standard deviation when comparing CVs, even when the scales on which traits are expressed allow meaningful calculation of the CV.

6.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 35(6): 523-538, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396819

RESUMO

In (st)age-structured populations, the long-run population growth rate is negatively affected by temporal variation in vital rates. In most cases, natural selection should minimize temporal variation in the vital rates to which the long-run population growth is most sensitive, resulting in demographic buffering. By reviewing empirical studies on demographic buffering in wild populations, we found overall support for this hypothesis. However, we also identified issues when testing for demographic buffering. In particular, solving scaling problems for decomposing, measuring, and comparing stochastic variation in vital rates and accounting for density dependence are required in future tests of demographic buffering. In the current context of climate change, demographic buffering may mitigate the negative impact of environmental variation and help populations to persist in an increasingly variable environment.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Crescimento Demográfico , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Seleção Genética
7.
Ecol Appl ; 30(6): e02134, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299142

RESUMO

Mast seeding in temperate oak populations shapes the dynamics of seed consumers and numerous communities. Mast seeding responds positively to warm spring temperatures and is therefore expected to increase under global warming. We investigated the potential effects of changes in oak mast seeding on wild boar population dynamics, a widespread and abundant consumer species. Using long-term monitoring data, we showed that abundant acorn production enhances the proportion of breeding females. With a body-mass-structured population model and a fixed hunting rate of 0.424, we showed that high acorn production over time would lead to an average wild boar population growth rate of 1.197 whereas non-acorn production would lead to a stable population. Finally, using climate projections and a mechanistic model linking weather data to oak reproduction, we predicted that mast seeding frequency might increase over the next century, which would lead to increase in both wild boar population size and the magnitude of its temporal variation. Our study provides rare evidence that some species could greatly benefit from global warming thanks to higher food availability and therefore highlights the importance of investigating the cascading effects of changing weather conditions on the dynamics of wild animal populations to reliably assess the effects of climate change.

8.
Oecologia ; 192(4): 999-1012, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242324

RESUMO

From current theories on life-history evolution, fast early-life growth to reach early reproduction in heavily hunted populations should be favored despite the possible occurrence of mortality costs later on. However, fast growth may also be associated with better individual quality and thereby lower mortality, obscuring a clear trade-off between early-life growth and survival. Moreover, fast early-life growth can be associated with sex-specific mortality costs related to resource acquisition and allocation throughout an individual's lifetime. In this study, we explore how individual growth early in life affects age-specific mortality of both sexes in a heavily hunted population. Using longitudinal data from an intensively hunted population of wild boar (Sus scrofa), and capture-mark-recapture-recovery models, we first estimated age-specific overall mortality and expressed it as a function of early-life growth rate. Overall mortality models showed that faster-growing males experienced lower mortality at all ages. Female overall mortality was not strongly related to early-life growth rate. We then split overall mortality into its two components (i.e., non-hunting mortality vs. hunting mortality) to explore the relationship between growth early in life and mortality from each cause. Faster-growing males experienced lower non-hunting mortality as subadults and lower hunting mortality marginal on age. Females of all age classes did not display a strong association between their early-life growth rate and either mortality type. Our study does not provide evidence for a clear trade-off between early-life growth and mortality.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Sus scrofa , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1616, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962419

RESUMO

Extreme climate events often cause population crashes but are difficult to account for in population-dynamic studies. Especially in long-lived animals, density dependence and demography may induce lagged impacts of perturbations on population growth. In Arctic ungulates, extreme rain-on-snow and ice-locked pastures have led to severe population crashes, indicating that increasingly frequent rain-on-snow events could destabilize populations. Here, using empirically parameterized, stochastic population models for High-Arctic wild reindeer, we show that more frequent rain-on-snow events actually reduce extinction risk and stabilize population dynamics due to interactions with age structure and density dependence. Extreme rain-on-snow events mainly suppress vital rates of vulnerable ages at high population densities, resulting in a crash and a new population state with resilient ages and reduced population sensitivity to subsequent icy winters. Thus, observed responses to single extreme events are poor predictors of population dynamics and persistence because internal density-dependent feedbacks act as a buffer against more frequent events.


Assuntos
Clima Frio/efeitos adversos , Modelos Estatísticos , Rena , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Feminino , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Neve , Processos Estocásticos , Svalbard
11.
Ecol Lett ; 22(5): 797-806, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816630

RESUMO

Understanding species coexistence has long been a major goal of ecology. Coexistence theory for two competing species posits that intraspecific density dependence should be stronger than interspecific density dependence. Great tits and blue tits are two bird species that compete for food resources and nesting cavities. On the basis of long-term monitoring of these two competing species at sites across Europe, combining observational and manipulative approaches, we show that the strength of density regulation is similar for both species, and that individuals have contrasting abilities to compete depending on their age. For great tits, density regulation is driven mainly by intraspecific competition. In contrast, for blue tits, interspecific competition contributes as much as intraspecific competition, consistent with asymmetric competition between the two species. In addition, including age-specific effects of intra- and interspecific competition in density-dependence models improves predictions of fluctuations in population size by up to three times.


Assuntos
Dieta , Passeriformes , Animais , Ecologia , Europa (Continente) , Cadeia Alimentar , Densidade Demográfica
12.
Evolution ; 72(11): 2325-2342, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259522

RESUMO

In changing environments, phenotypic traits are shaped by numerous agents of selection. The optimal phenotypic value maximizing the fitness of an individual thus varies through time and space with various environmental covariates. Selection may differ between different life-cycle stages and act on correlated traits inducing changes in the distribution of several traits simultaneously. Despite increasing interests in environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection, estimating varying selective optima on various traits throughout the life cycle, while considering (a)biotic factors as potential selective agents has remained challenging. Here, we provide a statistical model to measure varying selective optima from longitudinal data. We apply our approach to analyze environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection on egg-laying date and clutch size throughout the life cycle of a white-throated dipper population. We show the presence of a joint optimal phenotype that varies over the 35-year period, being dependent on altitude and temperature. We also find that optimal laying date is density-dependent, with high population density favoring earlier laying dates. By providing a flexible approach, widely applicable to free-ranging populations for which long-term data on individual phenotypes, fitness, and environmental factors are available, our study improves the understanding of phenotypic selection in varying environments.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Ninhada , Oviposição/fisiologia , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Fatores Etários , Altitude , Animais , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Modelos Estatísticos , Noruega , Densidade Demográfica , Temperatura
13.
Oecologia ; 183(4): 1065-1076, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154966

RESUMO

Pulsed resources influence the demography and evolution of consumer populations and, by cascading effect, the dynamics of the entire community. Mast seeding provides a case study for exploring the evolution of life history traits of consumers in fluctuating environments. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) population dynamics is related to seed availability (acorns/beechnuts). From a long-term monitoring of two populations subjected to markedly different environmental contexts (i.e., both low vs. high frequency of pulsed resources and low vs. high hunting pressure in Italy and in France, respectively), we assessed how pulsed resources shape the reproductive output of females. Using path analyses, we showed that in both populations, abundant seed availability increases body mass and both the absolute and the relative (to body mass) allocation to reproduction through higher fertility. In the Italian population, females equally relied on past and current resources for reproduction and ranked at an intermediate position along the capital-income continuum of breeding tactics. In contrast, in the French population, females relied on current more than past resources and ranked closer to the income end of the continuum. In the French population, one-year old females born in acorn-mast years were heavier and had larger litter size than females born in beechnut-mast years. In addition to the quantity, the type of resources (acorns/beechnuts) has to be accounted for to assess reliably how females allocate resources to reproduction. Our findings highlight a high plasticity in breeding tactics in wild boar females and provide new insight on allocation strategies in fluctuating environments.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Sus scrofa , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos
14.
Sci Adv ; 3(2): e1602298, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28164157

RESUMO

Climate change will affect the population dynamics of many species, yet the consequences for the long-term persistence of populations are poorly understood. A major reason for this is that density-dependent feedback effects caused by fluctuations in population size are considered independent of stochastic variation in the environment. We show that an interplay between winter temperature and population density can influence the persistence of a small passerine population under global warming. Although warmer winters favor an increased mean population size, density-dependent feedback can cause the local population to be less buffered against occasional poor environmental conditions (cold winters). This shows that it is essential to go beyond the population size and explore climate effects on the full dynamics to elaborate targeted management actions.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Humanos
15.
Ecology ; 97(9): 2479-2490, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859080

RESUMO

Classical approaches for the analyses of density dependence assume that all the individuals in a population equally respond and equally contribute to density dependence. However, in age-structured populations, individuals of different ages may differ in their responses to changes in population size and how they contribute to density dependence affecting the growth rate of the whole population. Here we apply the concept of critical age classes, i.e., a specific scalar function that describes how one or a combination of several age classes affect the demographic rates negatively, in order to examine how total density dependence acting on the population growth rate depends on the age-specific population sizes. In a 38-yr dataset of an age-structured great tit (Parus major) population, we find that the age classes, including the youngest breeding females, were the critical age classes for density regulation. These age classes correspond to new breeders that attempt to take a territory and that have the strongest competitive effect on other breeding females. They strongly affected population growth rate and reduced recruitment and survival rates of all breeding females. We also show that depending on their age class, females may differently respond to varying density. In particular, the negative effect of the number of breeding females was stronger on recruitment rate of the youngest breeding females. These findings question the classical assumptions that all the individuals of a population can be treated as having an equal contribution to density regulation and that the effect of the number of individuals is age independent. Our results improve our understanding of density regulation in natural populations.


Assuntos
Passeriformes/fisiologia , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Crescimento Demográfico
16.
Evolution ; 70(6): 1386-97, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27166953

RESUMO

Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation, and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter at one reproductive event, may be associated with the retention of high genetic diversity and an increase of litter size. We tested these hypotheses by estimating the number of sires per litter based on a six-year long monitoring of a wild boar population subject to particularly high harvesting pressure. Our results show a high and stable genetic diversity and high rates of multiple paternity compared to other populations, thus depicting a promiscuous/polyandrous mating system in this population. We also show that litter size is positively linked to the number of sires, suggesting that multiple paternity increases fecundity. We finally discuss that multiple paternity may be one of the factors allowing rapid evolution of this population by maintaining both genetic and phenotypic diversity.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , França , Masculino
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 283(1823)2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26791619

RESUMO

Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Aves/classificação , Metabolismo Energético , Masculino
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 282(1806): 20150209, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25833848

RESUMO

Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Evolução Biológica , Aves/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Répteis/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Am Nat ; 184(5): 673-83, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25325750

RESUMO

Most mammalian populations suffer from natural or human-induced disturbances; populations are no longer at the equilibrium (i.e., at stable [st]age distribution) and exhibit transient dynamics. From a literature survey, we studied patterns of transient dynamics for mammalian species spanning a large range of life-history tactics and population growth rates. For each population, we built an age-structured matrix and calculated six metrics of transient dynamics. After controlling for possible confounding effects of the phylogenetic relatedness among species using a phylogenetic principal component analysis and phylogenetic generalized least squares models, we found that short-term demographic responses of mammalian populations to disturbance are shaped by generation time and growth rate. Species with a slow pace of life (i.e., species with a late maturity, a low fecundity, and a long life span) displayed decreases in population size after a disturbance, whereas fast-living species increased in population size. The magnitude of short-term variation in population size increased with asymptotic population growth, being buffered in slow-growing species (i.e., species with a low population growth rate) but large in fast-growing species. By demonstrating direct links between transient dynamics, life history (generation time), and ecology (demographic regime), our comparative analysis of transient dynamics clearly improves our understanding of population dynamics in variable environments and has clear implications for future studies of the interplay between evolutionary and ecological dynamics. As most populations in the wild are not at equilibrium, we recommend that analyses of transient dynamics be performed when studying population dynamics in variable environments.


Assuntos
Mamíferos/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Ecossistema , Fertilidade , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Filogenia , Crescimento Demográfico , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Evolution ; 68(12): 3636-43, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25180915

RESUMO

Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Longevidade/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Sus scrofa/fisiologia
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