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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional annuloplasty repair of secondary (functional) ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is associated with a 60% recurrence of moderate or greater mitral regurgitation at 2 years. We developed a novel repair technique for IMR that addresses the underlying geometric alterations of the mitral valve apparatus and compared outcomes with those of conventional repair in a swine model. METHODS: Chronic IMR was induced by percutaneous embolization of the circumflex artery. Swine with severe IMR (median 9 weeks after infarction) underwent undersized rigid annuloplasty (n = 5) or translocation repair (n = 6). Translocation repair consisted of detaching the mitral valve en bloc at the annulus, creating a 1 cm wide frustum-shaped pericardial patch, and suturing the outer circumference of the patch to the annulus and inner circumference to the mitral valve. RESULTS: Operative survival was 92% (11 of 12). All animals had none/trace residual central mitral regurgitation, and mean inflow gradients were similar (1 mm Hg [interquartile range, 1 to 2] vs 2 mm Hg [interquartile range, 1 to 2]; P = .75) in the annuloplasty and translocation groups, respectively. Median coaptation length marginally improved in conventional swine (3 to 4 mm, P = .05), but dramatically improved in translocation swine (3 to 8 mm, P = .003). Posterior leaflet angle increased from 39 to 80 degrees (P = .05) in annuloplasty swine but decreased from 50 to 31 degrees (P = .03) in translocation swine. The posterior leaflet was immobile after annuloplasty but had preserved motion after translocation (excursion, 1 degree vs 24 degrees; P = .045). CONCLUSIONS: Mitral valve translocation effectively treats mitral regurgitation by relieving leaflet tethering. Compared with annuloplasty, mitral valve translocation creates a larger surface of coaptation and preserves leaflet mobility without compromising diastolic function.

2.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3040-3051, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on health care and cardiac surgery. We report cardiac surgeons' concerns, perceptions, and responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A detailed survey was sent to recruit participating adult cardiac surgery centers in North America. Data regarding cardiac surgeons' perceptions and changes in practice were analyzed. RESULTS: Our study comprises 67 institutions with diverse geographic distribution across North America. Nurses were most likely to be redeployed (88%), followed by advanced care practitioners (69%), trainees (28%), and surgeons (25%). Examining surgeon concerns in regard to COVID-19, they were most worried with exposing their family to COVID-19 (81%), followed by contracting COVID-19 (68%), running out of personal protective equipment (PPE) (28%), and hospital resources (28%). In terms of PPE conservation strategies among users of N95 respirators, nearly half were recycling via decontamination with ultraviolet light (49%), followed by sterilization with heat (13%) and at home or with other modalities (13%). Reuse of N95 respirators for 1 day (22%), 1 week (21%) or 1 month (6%) was reported. There were differences in adoption of methods to conserve N95 respirators based on institutional pandemic phase and COVID-19 burden, with higher COVID-19 burden institutions more likely to resort to PPE conservation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates the impact of COVID-19 on North American cardiac surgeons. Our study should stimulate further discussions to identify optimal solutions to improve workforce preparedness for subsequent surges, as well as facilitate the navigation of future healthcare crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cirurgiões , Adulto , Descontaminação , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(6): 1382-1390, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Catheter-based intervention (CBI) has become an increasingly popular option for treating pulmonary embolism (PE); however, the real benefits are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to compare the outcomes of patients treated with CBI with the outcomes of those treated with medical or surgical approaches. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted from October 2015 to December 2017 with a diagnosis of acute PE. We compared patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of acute PE treated with CBI against a control group identified by propensity score matching. The control group was divided into those who had undergone surgical pulmonary embolectomy (SPE) as the surgical group and those who had not undergone SPE as the medical group. The primary outcome was mortality (in-hospital and overall mortality). The secondary outcomes were major bleeding, length of hospital stay, thrombus resolution, right ventricle improvement in systolic function and dilatation, and recurrent PE. RESULTS: Of the 108 patients, 30 were in the CBI group and 78 were in the control group (62 in the medical group and 16 in the surgical group). The patient characteristics on admission were similar, except for the body mass index, which was greater in the CBI group (P = .03). No difference was found in clinical severity, clot burden, right ventricle function, or biomarkers. Recurrent PE was less frequent in the CBI group than in the medical group (0% vs 6.4%). Otherwise, no significant differences were found in the outcomes between the CBI and medical groups. When CBI was compared with the surgical group, SPE was associated with improved mortality (0% vs 16.6%) but a longer median length of hospital stay (median, 7 days; interquartile range, 3-12 days; vs median, 8 days; interquartile range, 6.5-17 days). CONCLUSIONS: The use of CBI reduced the number of recurrent PE events compared with the medically treated patients; however, the mortality was higher than that in the surgical group.

6.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211018129, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for refractory cardiac arrest has improved mortality in post-cardiac surgery patients; however, loss of neurologic function remains one of the main and devastating complications. We reviewed our experience with ECPR and investigated the effect of cannulation strategy on neurologic outcome in adult patients who experienced cardiac arrest following cardiac surgery that was managed with ECPR. METHODS: Patients were categorized by central versus percutaneous peripheral VA-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannulation strategy. We reviewed patient records and evaluated in-hospital mortality, cause of death, and neurologic status 72 hours after cannulation. RESULTS: From January 2010 to September 2019, 44 patients underwent post-cardiac surgery ECPR for cardiac arrest. Twenty-six patients received central cannulation; 18 patients received peripheral cannulation. Mean post-operative day of the cardiac arrest was 3 and 9 days (p = 0.006), and mean time between initiation of CPR and ECMO was 40 ± 24 and 28 ± 22 minutes for central and peripheral cannulation, respectively. After 72 hours of VA-ECMO support, 30% of centrally cannulated patients versus 72% of peripherally cannulated patients attained cerebral performance status 1-2 (p = 0.01). Anoxic brain injury was the cause of death in 26.9% of centrally cannulated and 11.1% of peripherally cannulated patients. Survival to discharge was 31% and 39% for central and peripheral cannulation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral VA-ECMO allows for continuous CPR and systemic perfusion while obtaining vascular access. Compared to central cannulation, a peripheral cannulation strategy is associated with improved neurologic outcomes and decreased likelihood of anoxic brain death.

7.
J Card Surg ; 36(8): 2685-2691, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death. For patients who are hemodynamically unstable, veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support has been shown to provide hemodynamic stability, and allow time for definitive treatment and recovery. Ultrasound-assisted catheter directed thrombolysis (USAT) has the potential to be a safe adjunct and expedite right ventricular (RV) recovery for patients requiring VA-ECMO for PE. METHODS: A review of all VA-ECMO patients from January 2017 to September 2019 was performed. A total of 49 of these patients were cannulated due to a PE. USAT therapy was used as an adjunct in 6 (12%) of these patients. These 6 patients were given standardized USAT therapy with EKOs catheters at 1 mg/h of tissue plasminogen activator with an unfractionated heparin infusion for additional systemic anticoagulation. Outcomes, including in-hospital death, 90-day survival, RV recovery, and complications, were examined in the cohort of patients that received USAT as an adjunct to ECMO. RESULTS: Median age was 54 years old. Five of the six patients presented with a massive PE and had a PE severity score of Class V. One patient presented with a submassive PE with a Bova score of 2, but was cannulated to VA-ECMO in the setting of worsening RV function. All patients demonstrated recovery of RV function, were free from in-hospital death, and were alive at 90-day follow-up. CONCLUSION: Ekosonic endovascular system therapy may be a safe and feasible adjunct for patients on VA-ECMO for PE, and allow for survival with RV recovery with minimal complications.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Embolia Pulmonar , Cateteres , Heparina , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 1-9, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter edge-to-edge (TEER) mitral repair may be complicated by residual or recurrent mitral regurgitation. An increasing need for surgical reintervention has been reported, but operative outcomes are ill defined. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated national outcomes of mitral surgery after TEER. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was used to identify 524 adults who underwent mitral surgery after TEER between July 2014 and June 2020. Emergencies (5.0%; n = 26), previous mitral surgery (5.3%; n = 28), or open implantation of transcatheter prostheses (1.5%; n = 8) were excluded. The primary outcome was 30-day or in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In the study cohort of 463 patients, the median age was 76 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67 to 81 years), median left ventricular ejection fraction was 57% (IQR: 48% to 62%), and 177 (38.2%) patients had degenerative disease. Major concomitant cardiac surgery was performed in 137 (29.4%) patients: in patients undergoing isolated mitral surgery, the median STS-predicted mortality was 6.5% (IQR: 3.9% to 10.5%), the observed mortality was 10.2% (n = 23 of 225), and the ratio of observed to expected mortality was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8 to 1.9). Predictors of mortality included urgent surgery (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.6), nondegenerative/unknown etiology (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.5), creatinine of >2.0 mg/dl (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9 to 7.9) and age of >80 years (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.4). In a volume outcomes analysis in an expanded cohort of 591 patients at 227 hospitals, operative mortality was 2.6% (n = 2 of 76) in 4 centers that performed >10 cases versus 12.4% (n = 64 of 515) in centers performing fewer (p = 0.01). The surgical repair rate after failed TEER was 4.8% (n = 22) and was 6.8% (n = 12) in degenerative disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that mitral repair is infrequently achieved after failed TEER, which may have implications for treatment choice in lower-risk and younger patients with degenerative disease. These findings should inform patient consent for TEER, clinical trial design, and clinical performance measures.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Reoperação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an established relationship between the degree of mitral regurgitation (MR) and prognosis. Quantitation of MR severity guides therapeutic approaches. Inconsistent definitions and categorization of MR severity in clinical studies limit meaningful comparisons between trials and compromise development of an effective evidence base. The purpose of this study was to quantify heterogeneity in grading systems for MR severity in the contemporary literature. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomized (RCT) and propensity score (PS) adjusted clinical studies of MV interventions (surgical or percutaneous). A total of 35 articles from 2015-2020 were included (15 RCT, 20 PS). RESULTS: There were 22 studies that reported MR severity in numerical categories, either values from the historical "plus" system or numerical MR grades, while 9 studies reported MR severity using text-only descriptive categories. Among the studies that used numerical categories, 2+ MR was defined as moderate in 64% of studies, mild in 27%, and mild-moderate in 9% and 3+ MR was defined as moderate in 14%, moderate-severe in 52%, and severe in 14%. CONCLUSIONS: There was substantial variability in MR severity definition and reporting in contemporary clinical studies of MV interventions. We recommend the historical "plus" numerical grading system be abandoned and that inclusion and outcome criteria in MR clinical trials be based on American and European guideline-recommended categories as none/trace, mild, moderate, and severe. Adoption of these simple recommendations will improve the consistency and quality of MR clinical trial design and reporting.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with significant interhospital variability in charges. Drivers of hospital charge variability remain elusive. We identified modifiable factors associated with statewide interhospital variability in hospital charges for coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Charge data were used as a surrogate for cost. Society of Thoracic Surgeons data from Maryland institutions and charge data from the Maryland Health Care Commission were linked to characterize interhospital charge variability for coronary artery bypass grafting. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify perioperative factors independently related to coronary artery bypass grafting charges. Of the factors independently associated with charges, we analyzed which factors varied between hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 10,337 patients underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting at 9 Maryland hospitals from 2012 to 2016, of whom 7532 patients were available for analyses. Mean normalized charges for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting varied significantly among hospitals, ranging from $30,000 to $57,000 (P < .001). Longer preoperative length of stay, operating room time, and major postoperative morbidity including stroke, renal failure, prolonged ventilation, reoperation, and deep sternal wound infection were associated with greater hospital charges. Incidence of major postoperative events, except stroke and deep sternal wound infection, was variable between hospitals. In a univariate linear regression model, patient risk profile only accounted for approximately 10% of statistical variance in charges. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant charge variability for coronary artery bypass grafting among hospitals within the same state. By targeting variation in preoperative length of stay, operating room time, postoperative renal failure, prolonged ventilation, and reoperation, cardiac surgery programs can realize cost savings while improving quality of care for this resource-intense patient population.

11.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may require advanced support modalities, such as veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). A systematic, methodical approach to a respiratory pandemic on a state and institutional level is critical. METHODS: We conducted retrospective review of our institutional response to the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the creation of a dedicated airlock biocontainment unit (BCU) to treat patients with refractory COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS). Data were collected through conversations with staff on varying levels in the BCU, those leading the effort to make the BCU and hospital incident command system, email communications regarding logistic changes being implemented, and a review of COVID-19 patient census at our institution from March through June 2020. RESULTS: Over 2100 patients were successfully admitted to system hospitals; 29% of these patients required critical care. The response to this respiratory pandemic augmented intensive care physician staffing, created a 70-member nursing team, and increased the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) capability by nearly 200%. During this time period, 40 COVID-19 patients on VV-ECMO were managed in the BCU. Challenges in an airlock unit included communication, scarcity of resources, double-bunking, and maintaining routine care. CONCLUSIONS: Preparing for a surge of critically ill patients during a pandemic can be a daunting task. The implementation of a coordinated, system-level approach can help with the allocation of resources as needed. Focusing on established strengths of hospitals within the system can guide triage based on individual patient needs. The management of ECMO patients is still a specialty care, and a systematic and hospital based approach requiring an ECMO team composed of multiple experienced individuals is paramount during a respiratory viral pandemic.

12.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919390

RESUMO

(1) Background: COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) has several distinctions from traditional acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, patients with refractory respiratory failure may still benefit from veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) support. We report our challenges caring for CARDS patients on VV-ECMO and alterations to traditional management strategies. (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of our institutional strategies for managing patients with COVID-19 who required VV-ECMO in a dedicated airlock biocontainment unit (BCU), from March to June 2020. The data collected included the time course of admission, VV-ECMO run, ventilator length, hospital length of stay, and major events related to bleeding, such as pneumothorax and tracheostomy. The dispensation of sedation agents and trial therapies were obtained from institutional pharmacy tracking. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. (3) Results: Forty COVID-19 patients on VV-ECMO were managed in the BCU during this period, from which 21 survived to discharge and 19 died. The criteria for ECMO initiation was altered for age, body mass index, and neurologic status/cardiac arrest. All cannulations were performed with a bedside ultrasound-guided percutaneous technique. Ventilator and ECMO management were routed in an ultra-lung protective approach, though varied based on clinical setting and provider experience. There was a high incidence of pneumothorax (n = 19). Thirty patients had bedside percutaneous tracheostomy, with more procedural-related bleeding complications than expected. A higher use of sedation was noted. The timing of decannulation was also altered, given the system constraints. A variety of trial therapies were utilized, and their effectiveness is yet to be determined. (4) Conclusions: Even in a high-volume ECMO center, there are challenges in caring for an expanded capacity of patients during a viral respiratory pandemic. Though institutional resources and expertise may vary, it is paramount to proceed with insightful planning, the recognition of challenges, and the dynamic application of lessons learned when facing a surge of critically ill patients.

13.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 60(4): 1003-1004, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668051
14.
ASAIO J ; 67(4): 423-429, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769997

RESUMO

Significant residual mitral regurgitation (MR) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The effect of cannula position on improvement of preexisting MR has yet to be evaluated. Consecutive patients who underwent centrifugal LVAD implantation with >mild preoperative MR and without concomitant mitral repair were reviewed. Left ventricular assist device position was determined by the angle between actual and ideal inflow cannula on computed tomography. The magnitudes of angles (anterior and lateral angle) were added to form an LVAD position assessment (LVADpa). Mitral regurgitation was numerically classified, and improvement in MR was determined by difference in MR preoperatively to MR >1 month postoperatively with a median of 162 (interquartile range: 78-218) days. The primary analysis examined the relationship between LVADpa and postoperative MR. Forty-one patients were identified with >mild preoperative functional MR. Mean age was 51 ± 13 years with an ejection fraction of 16 ± 4%. Overall, MR improved from moderate-severe preoperatively to mild postoperatively (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, higher LVADpa deviation was associated with greater postoperative MR (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, p = 0.005) and higher 1-month pulsatility index was associated with lower postoperative MR (OR = 0.47, p = 0.011). Inflow cannula position during centrifugal LVAD implantation is an important determinant of postoperative MR.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Adulto , Cânula , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(6): 713-724, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether to repair nonsevere tricuspid regurgitation (TR) during surgery for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation (IMR) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence, predictors, and clinical significance of TR progression and presence of ≥moderate TR after IMR surgery. METHODS: Patients (n = 492) with untreated nonsevere TR within 2 prospectively randomized IMR trials were included. Key outcomes were TR progression (either progression by ≥2 grades, surgery for TR, or severe TR at 2 years) and presence of ≥moderate TR at 2 years. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 66 ± 10 years (67% male), and TR distribution was 60% ≤trace, 31% mild, and 9% moderate. Among 2-year survivors, TR progression occurred in 20 (6%) of 325 patients. Baseline tricuspid annular diameter (TAD) was not predictive of TR progression. At 2 years, 37 (11%) of 323 patients had ≥moderate TR. Baseline TR grade, indexed TAD, and surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation were independent predictors of ≥moderate TR. However, TAD alone had poor discrimination (area under the curve, ≤0.65). Presence of ≥moderate TR at 2 years was higher in patients with MR recurrence (20% vs. 9%; p = 0.02) and a permanent pacemaker/defibrillator (19% vs. 9%; p = 0.01). Clinical event rates (composite of ≥1 New York Heart Association functional class increase, heart failure hospitalization, mitral valve surgery, and stroke) were higher in patients with TR progression (55% vs. 23%; p = 0.003) and ≥moderate TR at 2 years (38% vs. 22%; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: After IMR surgery, progression of unrepaired nonsevere TR is uncommon. Baseline TAD is not predictive of TR progression and is poorly discriminative of ≥moderate TR at 2 years. TR progression and presence of ≥moderate TR are associated with clinical events. (Comparing the Effectiveness of a Mitral Valve Repair Procedure in Combination With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting [CABG] Versus CABG Alone in People With Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation, NCT00806988; Comparing the Effectiveness of Repairing Versus Replacing the Heart's Mitral Valve in People With Severe Chronic Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation, NCT00807040).


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Idoso , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Marca-Passo Artificial , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Innovations (Phila) ; 16(3): 288-292, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the learning curve for transseptal puncture (TSP) during transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TEER) performed by a dedicated mitral valve structural heart team. Effective TSP is mandatory for TEER but can be time-consuming and associated with complications including pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. METHODS: TSP was performed on 107 consecutive patients (76 ± 1 years, 52% male) undergoing TEER between 2014 and 2019. TSP was performed by each structural heart team member (1 cardiologist, 2 cardiac surgeons) on a rotating case-by-case basis. No team member had prior independent TSP experience. Data collected included total procedure time, TSP time (time elapsed between procedure start and septal crossing), and number of TSP attempts before successful puncture. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) of deviations from the mean across sequential cases were used to examine learning curves. RESULTS: Median total procedure time was 107 min, and the median TSP time was 14 min. Greater case number was significantly associated with both lower TSP time (r s = -0.22, P = 0.022) and lower total procedure time (r s = -0.29, P = 0.003). The majority of patients required only 1 TSP attempt (79%). There was a significant quadratic relationship between case number and the CUSUM for TSP time, with the learning curve peaking at 49 cases. CONCLUSIONS: TSP for TEER has a substantial learning curve, requiring >50 cases to achieve acceptable efficiency. Even once proficiency is demonstrated, TSP remains a time-consuming component of TEER. Improvements in transseptal access technology may significantly decrease the time needed to master TSP and may improve the safety and precision of the procedure.

17.
Transfusion ; 61(3): 788-798, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute normovolemic hemodilution is recommended as a technique to reduce allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in cardiac surgery, but its efficacy to reduce non-RBC transfusion has not been consistently demonstrated. We hypothesized that intraoperative large-volume autologous whole blood (AWB) collection and reinfusion improves viscoelastic coagulation parameters. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective observational study of cardiac surgery patients at the University of Maryland Medical Center between December 2017 and August 2019. Rotational thromboelastometry parameters were compared between AWB and control groups (n = 25 in each group) at three time points: T1, baseline; T2, on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after the cross-clamp removal; and T3, 30-60 minutes after protamine administration. The study's primary outcomes were whole blood viscoelastic coagulation parameters that included EXTEM clotting time (CT), FIBTEM amplitude at 10 minutes, and EXTEM amplitude at 10 minutes (EXTEM-A10 ). Chest tube drainage and allogeneic transfusion were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Reinfusion of AWB after CPB resulted in a significantly shorter EXTEM CT; mean difference, -11.4 seconds (-21.4 to -1.4; P = .03). It also resulted in a greater percentage increase in EXTEM A10 from T2 to T3; mean difference, 7.8% (95% CI, 1.1%-14.5%; P = .02). Statistical significance was not found in 24-hour chest tube drainage. CONCLUSION: Large-volume AWB collection and reinfusion are feasible in selected cardiac surgical patients, and may be associated with prohemostatic effects according to thromboelastometry, warranting further investigation with a prospective randomized study.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Recuperação de Sangue Operatório , Idoso , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Hematócrito , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Tromboelastografia
18.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A life-threatening complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refractory to conventional management. Venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (VV-ECMO) is used to support patients with ARDS in whom conventional management fails. Scoring systems to predict mortality in VV-ECMO remain unvalidated in COVID-19 ARDS. This report describes a large single-center experience with VV-ECMO in COVID-19 and assesses the utility of standard risk calculators. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospective database of all patients with COVID-19 who underwent VV-ECMO cannulation between March 15 and June 27, 2020 at a single academic center was performed. Demographic, clinical, and ECMO characteristics were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; survivor and nonsurvivor cohorts were compared by using univariate and bivariate analyses. RESULTS: Forty patients who had COVID-19 and underwent ECMO were identified. Of the 33 patients (82.5%) in whom ECMO had been discontinued at the time of analysis, 18 patients (54.5%) survived to hospital discharge, and 15 (45.5%) died during ECMO. Nonsurvivors presented with a statistically significant higher Prediction of Survival on ECMO Therapy (PRESET)-Score (mean ± SD, 8.33 ± 0.8 vs 6.17 ± 1.8; P = .001). The PRESET score demonstrated accurate mortality prediction. All patients with a PRESET-Score of 6 or lowers survived, and a score of 7 or higher was associated with a dramatic increase in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that favorable outcomes are possible in patients with COVID-19 who undergo ECMO at high-volume centers. This study demonstrated an association between the PRESET-Score and survival in patients with COVID-19 who underwent VV-ECMO. Standard risk calculators may aid in appropriate selection of patients with COVID-19 ARDS for ECMO.

19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional (secondary) mitral regurgitation (FMR) results from altered geometry of the mitral valve apparatus. Repair with restrictive mitral annuloplasty is associated with high rates of recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). We developed a novel operative repair for FMR that translocates the intact mitral valve towards the apex. METHODS: The mitral valve was detached circumferentially and translocated into the ventricle with a frustum-shaped glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardial patch. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was performed. RESULTS: Fifteen consecutive patients with FMR (mean age, 59 years; 67% female) had mitral valve translocation between 2018 and 2020. Preoperative mean ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were 40% ± 11%, 59 ± 8 mm, and 49 ± 21 mm Hg, respectively; 33% had atrial fibrillation. Cardiomyopathy was ischemic in 4 and nonischemic in 11. Concomitant procedures included tricuspid valve operation (n = 8), coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 4), and atrial fibrillation ablation (n = 5). Post bypass transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated none/trace MR in all patients and mean gradient of 3 mm Hg (interquartile range, 2-4 mm Hg). Mean leaflet extent of coaptation was 14 ± 2 mm (range, 11-17 mm). There was no postoperative mortality, stroke, or renal failure. Predismissal echocardiography showed none/trace MR in 14 patients and mild MR in 1. One patient underwent successful late rerepair of a suture line leak. Twelve patients were alive at latest follow-up and MR at 1 and 6 months was mild or less in all patients with mean leaflet extent of coaptation of 14 ± 2 mm (range, 12-16 mm) at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Mitral valve translocation creates a large surface of coaptation and effectively corrects FMR. Further study is needed to demonstrate the long-term durability and clinical utility of this operation.

20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(2): 406-417, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA) regimen designed for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN: Prospective observational study requiring blood sampling to measure EACA concentrations and fibrinolysis markers (fibrinogen, D-dimer, α2-antiplasmin, and tissue plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor [tPA-PAI-1] complex). SETTING: Single-center, tertiary medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB between 2018 and 2019 for aortic or mitral valve replacement/repair or coronary artery bypass grafting. Previous sternotomy patients were included. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics of EACA, during CPB, were described by a 3-compartment disposition model. EACA concentrations were greater than 130 mg/L in all patients after CPB and in most patients during CPB. The D-dimer level trended up and reached a peak median level of 1.35 mg/L of fibrinogen equivalence units (FEU) at 15 minutes after protamine administration. The median change in D-dimer (ΔD-dimer) from baseline to 15 minutes after protamine was 0.34 (-0.48 to 3.81) mg/L FEU. ΔD-dimer did not correlate with EACA concentration intraoperatively, urine output, body weight, glomerular filtration rate, cell salvage volume, and ultrafiltration volume. The median 24-hour chest tube output was 445 (180-1,011) mL. CONCLUSION: This regimen provided maximum EACA concentrations near the time of protamine administration, with a total perioperative dose of 15 g. Most patients had EACA concentrations greater than the target during CPB. ΔD-dimer did not correlate with EACA concentration. The median 24-hour chest tube output compared well to similar studies that used higher doses of EACA.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ácido Aminocaproico , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Humanos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual
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