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1.
Biol Res ; 54(1): 15, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water stress is one of the serious abiotic stresses that negatively influences the growth, development and production of sugarcane in arid and semi-arid regions. However, silicon (Si) has been applied as an alleviation strategy subjected to environmental stresses. METHODS: In this experiment, Si was applied as soil irrigation in sugarcane plants to understand the mitigation effect of Si against harmful impact of water stress on photosynthetic leaf gas exchange. RESULTS: In the present study we primarily revealed the consequences of low soil moisture content, which affect overall plant performance of sugarcane significantly. Silicon application reduced the adverse effects of water stress by improving the net photosynthetic assimilation rate (Anet) 1.35-18.75%, stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) 3.26-21.57% and rate of transpiration (E) 1.16-17.83%. The mathematical models developed from the proposed hypothesis explained the functional relationships between photosynthetic responses of Si application and water stress mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: Silicon application showed high ameliorative effects on photosynthetic responses of sugarcane to water stress and could be used for mitigating environmental stresses in other crops, too, in future.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Silício , Desidratação , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Água
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 262: 117949, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838826

RESUMO

Uniaxially assembling cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can induce strong solid-state emission based on optical inelastic scattering, whereas the CNC assembly membranes are not flexible enough for further applications. Thus, we introduced CNC into flexible sodium alginate (SA) and further controlled the assembly structure of CNC to increase the membrane toughness and maintain the emission properties. The results indicated that the stretchability increased from 0.027 % to 37 % when 33-37% when 33 % SA was introduced. The assembly achirality was controlled by tuning CNC concentration in suspension, and the co-assembly could further control the wavelength of the assembly-induced emission from 420 nm to 440 nm. Furthermore, the improved stretchability made assembly membrane an optical sensor, whose excitation wavelength blue-shifted about 30 nm under a 30 % strain. The emission of the co-assembly membrane could also respond to humidity, and this cellulose-based material should have great potential in biosensor and wearable devices.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(15): 5826-5835, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848163

RESUMO

Parastichy, the spiral arrangement of plant organs, is an example of the long-range apparent order seen in biological systems. These ordered arrangements provide scientists with both an aesthetic challenge and a mathematical inspiration. Synthetic efforts to replicate the regularity of parastichy may allow for molecular-scale control over particle arrangement processes. Here we report the packing of a supramolecular truncated cuboctahedron (TCO) into double-helical (DH) nanowires on a graphite surface with a non-natural parastichy pattern ascribed to the symmetry of the TCOs and interactions between TCOs. Such a study is expected to advance our understanding of the design inputs needed to create complex, but precisely controlled, hierarchical materials. It is also one of the few reported helical packing structures based on Platonic or Archimedean solids since the discovery of the Boerdijk-Coxeter helix. As such, it may provide experimental support for studies of packing theory at the molecular level.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. One of the pathologies of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-ß (Aß) to form senile plaques, leading to a decline in cognitive ability and a lack of learning and memory. However, the cause leading to Aß aggregation is not well understood. Dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) shows a high expression in the entorhinal cortex neurons and neurofibrillary tangles in AD patients. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to investigate the effect of Dcf1 on Aß aggregation and memory deficits in AD development. METHODS: The mouse and Drosophila AD model were used to test the expression and aggregation of Aß, senile plaque formation, and pathological changes in cognitive behavior during dcf1 knockout and expression. We finally explored possible drug target effects through intracerebroventricular delivery of Dcf1 antibodies. RESULTS: Deletion of Dcf1 resulted in decreased Aß42 level and deposition, and rescued AMPA Receptor (GluA2) levels in the hippocampus of APP-PS1-AD mice. In Aß42 AD Drosophila, the expression of Dcf1 in Aß42 AD flies aggravated the formation and accumulation of senile plaques, significantly reduced its climbing ability and learning-memory. Data analysis from all 20 donors with and without AD patients aged between 80 and 90 indicated a high-level expression of Dcf1 in the temporal neocortex. Dcf1 contributed to Aß aggregation by UV spectroscopy assay. Intracerebroventricular delivery of Dcf1 antibodies in the hippocampus reduced the area of senile plaques and reversed learning and memory deficits in APP-PS1-AD mice. CONCLUSION: Dcf1 causes Aß-plaque accumulation, inhibiting dcf1 expression could potentially offer therapeutic avenues.

6.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 54, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several measures have been taken to control hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA), these two diseases have been prevalent in China for 10 years with high incidence. We suspected that adults' inapparent infection might be the cause of the continued prevalence of HFMD/HA infection in mainland China. METHODS: To explore the role of adults (especially caregivers) in the transmission process of HFMD/HA among children, 330 HFMD/HA cases and 330 healthy children (controls) were selected for a case-control study. Then, data were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Single-variable analyses revealed that caregivers who tested positive for enterovirus was a significant risk factor of HFMD/HA transmission to children (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 9.22; 95% CI, 1.16 to 73.23). In the final multivariable model, caregiver behavior, such as cooling children's food with mouth (OR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.08) and feeding children with their own tableware (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.45), significantly increased the risk of transmitting HFMD/HA to children. On the contrary, washing hands before feeding children reduced such risk. CONCLUSIONS: These results implied that the caregivers might be the infectious source or carriers of enterovirus. Therefore, preventing or treating the caregivers' enterovirus infection and improving their hygiene habits, especially when they are in contact with children, could provide a breakthrough for the effective control of HFMD/HA.

7.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924987

RESUMO

This study aims at characterizing the role of the putative tumor suppressor ITIH5 in basal-type bladder cancers (BLCA). By sub-classifying TCGA BLCA data, we revealed predominant loss of ITIH5 expression in the basal/squamous-like (BASQ) subtype. ITIH5 expression inversely correlated with basal-type makers such as KRT6A and CD44. Interestingly, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed longer recurrence-free survival in combination with strong CD44 expression, which is thought to mediate ITIH-hyaluronan (HA) binding functions. In vitro, stable ITIH5 overexpression in two basal-type BLCA cell lines showing differential CD44 expression levels, i.e., with (SCaBER) and without squamous features (HT1376), demonstrated clear inhibition of cell and colony growth of BASQ-type SCaBER cells. ITIH5 further enhanced HA-associated cell-matrix attachment, indicated by altered size and number of focal adhesion sites resulting in reduced cell migration capacities. Transcriptomic analyses revealed enrichment of pathways and processes involved in ECM organization, differentiation and cell signaling. Finally, we provide evidence that ITIH5 increase sensitivity of SCaBER cells to chemotherapeutical agents (cisplatin and gemcitabine), whereas responsiveness of HT1376 cells was not affected by ITIH5 expression. Thus, we gain further insights into the putative role of ITIH5 as tumor suppressor highlighting an impact on drug response potentially via the HA-CD44 axis in BASQ-type BLCA.

8.
Mol Ther ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775910

RESUMO

Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the deficient activity of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), is characterized by cardiac, renal, and/or cerebrovascular disease due to progressive accumulation of the enzyme's substrates, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3). We report here the preclinical evaluation of liver-targeted in vivo genome editing using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to insert the human α-galactosidase A (hGLA) cDNA into the albumin "safe harbor" locus of Fabry mice, thereby generating an albumin-α-Gal A fusion protein. The mature α-Gal A protein is secreted into the circulation for subsequent mannose-6-phosphate receptor-mediated tissue uptake. Donor vector optimization studies showed that replacing the hGLA cDNA signal peptide sequence with that of human iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) achieved higher transgene expression. Intravenous adeno-associated virus (AAV) 2/8-mediated co-delivery of the IDS-hGLA donor and ZFNs targeting the albumin locus resulted in continuous, supraphysiological plasma and tissue α-Gal A activities, which essentially normalized Gb3 and Lyso-Gb3 levels in key tissues of pathology. Notably, this was achieved with <10% of hepatocytes being edited to express hGLA, occurring mostly via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) rather than homology-directed repair (HDR). These studies indicate that ZFN-mediated in vivo genome editing has the potential to be an effective one-time therapy for Fabry disease.

9.
Intern Med J ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is related to adverse outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). AIM: To compare the predictive ability of admission blood glucose (ABG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with acute large vessel occlusion (ALVO) stroke undergoing MT. METHODS: The study retrospectively analyzed the data of 329 consecutive acute stroke patients treated by MT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the predictors of poor functional outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to identify the predictive ability of ABG, FBG, and HbA1c for poor functional independence in patients with ALVO stroke undergoing MT. In addition, subgroup analyses were performed for both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ABG and FBG were independent predictors of 3-month poor functional outcome; however, HbA1c could not predict poor functional outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that FBG has a higher predictive ability than ABG (areas under the ROC curve [AUCs]: 0.689 vs. 0.624, P = 0.037) and HbA1c (AUCs: 0.689 vs. 0.541, P<0.001) for poor function outcome. CONCLUSIONS: ABG and FBG are independent predictors of poor functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing MT, and FBG has a higher predictive ability than ABG and HbA1c. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670821

RESUMO

Vaccination is a key strategy to prevent the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate the willingness of Chinese adults to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and further explore the factors that may affect their willingness. We used a self-design anonymous questionnaire to conduct an online survey via the Sojump. A total of 1009 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 74. Among them, 609 (60.4%, 95%CI: 57.4-63.4%) were willing to receive the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. Logistic regression analysis results showed that the age of 30-49 (OR = 2.042, 95%CI: 1.098-3.799), universities and colleges education (OR = 1.873, 95% CI = 1.016-3.451), master degree or above education (OR = 1.885, 95%CI = 1.367-2.599), previous influenza vaccination history (OR = 2.176, 95%CI: 1.474-3.211), trust in the effectiveness of the vaccine (OR = 6.419, 95%CI: 3.717-11.086), and close attention to the latest news of the vaccine (OR = 1.601, 95%CI: 1.046-2.449) were facilitative factors that affected their willingness to be vaccinated. More than half of the adults in China would be willing to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Middle-aged people with higher education, those who had been vaccinated against influenza, and those who believed that COVID-19 vaccine was effective and paid close attention to it were more willing to be vaccinated. Our findings can provide reference for the implementation of vaccination and the prevention of COVID-19 in China. More studies are needed after the vaccine is launched.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Biol Open ; 10(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579692

RESUMO

LIM homeobox 9 (Lhx9) is a member of the LIM homeodomain transcription factor family, which expresses and functions in various vertebrate tissues, such as the gonads and pineal gland. Previous studies on lhx9 in zebrafish have mainly focused on the brain. However, little is known about the expression pattern of lhx9 during embryogenesis. Here, we detected lhx9 expression in zebrafish embryos using whole-mount in situ hybridization and found lhx9 expressed in heart, pectoral fin, and retina during their development in zebrafish. We then detailed the expression of lhx9 in retinal development. To further investigate the function of Lhx9 in retinogenesis, we performed morpholino (MO) knockdown experiments and found that upon lhx9 knockdown by MO, larvae presented normal eye development, retinal neural development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and responses to light stimulus. We not only elaborated the expression pattern of lhx9 in zebrafish embryogenesis, but we also demonstrated that lhx9 knockdown by morpholino does not affect the zebrafish retinal development, and our study provides data for further understanding of the role of Lhx9 in zebrafish retinal development.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1977, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479361

RESUMO

LIM homeobox 4 (LHX4) is expressed in the photoreceptors (PRs) of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and bipolar cells (BCs) of the inner nuclear layer (INL) in mouse and chicken retina. It regulates the subtype-specific development of rod BCs and cone BCs in the mouse retina. However, no report has been published on its expression and function in the zebrafish retina. In this study, we assessed the expression of Lhx4 using in situ hybridization (ISH) technique and explored its role in zebrafish (Danio rerio) retinal development via morpholino (MO) technology. We found that the expression of lhx4 in the zebrafish retina begins 48 h post-fertilization (hpf) and is continuously expressed in the ONL and INL. A zebrafish model constructed with lhx4 knockdown in the eyes through vivo-MO revealed that: lhx4 knockdown inhibits the differentiation of Parvalbumin+ amacrine cells (ACs) and Rhodopsin+ rod photoreceptors (RPs), enhances the expression of visual system homeobox 2 (vsx2); and damages the responses of zebrafish to light stimulus, without affecting the differentiation of OFF-BCs and rod BCs, and apoptosis in the retina. These findings reveal that lhx4 regulates neural differentiation in the retina and visual function during zebrafish embryonic development.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470809

RESUMO

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters with a spiral donor show tremendous potential toward high-level efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the underlying design strategy of the spiral donor used for blue TADF emitters remains unclear. As a consequence, researchers often do "try and error" work in the development of new functional spiral donor fragments, making it slow and inefficient. Herein, we demonstrate that the energy level relationships between the spiral donor and the luminophore lead to a significant effect on the photoluminescent quantum yields (PLQYs) of the target materials. In addition, a method involving quantum chemistry simulations that can accurately predict the aforementioned energy level relationships by simulating the spin density distributions of the triplet excited states of the spiral donor and corresponding TADF emitters and the triplet excited natural transition orbitals of the TADF emitters is established. Moreover, it also revealed that the steric hindrance in this series of molecules can form a nearly unchanged singlet (S1) state geometry, leading to a reduced nonradiative decay and high PLQY, while a moderated donor-acceptor (D-A) torsion in the triplet (T1) state can induce a strong vibronic coupling between the charge-transfer triplet (3CT) state and the local triplet (3LE) state, achieving an effective reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process. Furthermore, an electric-magnetic coupling is formed between the high-lying 3LE state and the charge-transfer singlet (1CT) state, which may open another RISC channel. Remarkably, in company with the optimized molecular structure and energy alignment, the pivotal TADF emitter DspiroS-TRZ achieved 99.9% PLQY, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 38.4%, which is the highest among all blue TADF emitters reported to date.

14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 253: 117260, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278942

RESUMO

Assembling cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can induce photonic emission. It is free of photobleaching and aggregation-induced quenching, which has great potential in the application of information security. However, the emission suffers a low emission quantum yield (EQY), and the assembly mediate (solvents) can affect the assembly or the emission. Herein, we established a strategy of nanoscale assembly to integrate emission enhancement methods and improve the assembly induced emission. Via controlling the CNC assembly in the nanoscale space of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the EQY of CNC array primarily increased by 50 %. When carbon nanodots were further incorporated in MOF, their plasmonic resonance could enhance the emission coupling rate and offset the loss in emission intensity from the extinction of MOF particles, leading to a 6.9-time increase in EQY (to 64.84 %). Such a high EQY from two emission enhancement mechanisms make this nanomaterial able to hide and present photonic information effectively.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113430, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011366

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus mongholicus, Solanum nigrum Linn, Lotus plumule, Ligusticum are widely used traditional herbal medicines for cancer treatment in China. They were typical drugs selected from Gubenyiliu II and series of formula (GYII), which were developed on the foundation of YIQIHUOXUEJIEDU theory. In the present study, four active ingredients (Astragaloside IV, α-solanine, neferine, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine) derived from medicines above were applied in combination as SANT. AIM OF THE STUDY: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a serious threat to women's health worldwide. Heparanase (HPSE) is often up-regulated in breast cancer with the properties of facilitating tumorigenesis and influencing the autophagy process in cancer cells. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-tumor potential of SANT in treating HPSE related TNBC both in-vitro and in-vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we explored the correlation between HPSE expression and survival of breast cancer patients in databases. We performed MTS, trans-well and wound scratch assays to assess the impact of SANT on cell proliferation and migration. Confocal microscopy observation and western blots were applied to verify the autophagy flux induced by SANT. Mice models were employed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SANT in-vivo by tumor weights and volumes or serum index, respectively. To analyze the underlying mechanisms of SANT, we conducted human autophagy PCR array and angiogenesis proteome profiler on tumor tissues. RESULTS: Patients with elevated HPSE expression were associated with a poor outcome in both RFS (P = 1.7e-12) and OS (P = 0.00016). SANT administration significantly inhibited cancer cells' proliferation and migration, enhanced autophagy flux, and slightly reduced the active form of HPSE in-vitro. SANT also suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis in-vivo. Human autophagy PCR array results indicated that SANT increased the ATG16L1, ATG9B, ATG4D gene expressions while decreased TMEM74 and TNF gene expressions.Angiogenesis proteome profiler results showed SANT reduced protein level of HB-EGF, thrombospondin-2, amphiregulin, leptin, IGFBP-9, EGF, coagulation factor III, and MMP-9 (pro and active form) in tumor, raised the protein expression of serpin E1 and platelet factor 4. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that herbal compounds SANT may be a promising candidate in anti-cancer drug discovery. It also provides novel strategies for using natural compounds to achieve optimized effect.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronidase/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 395-401, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the risk of infection of children with that of adults and to explore risk factors of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by following up close contacts of COVID-19 patients. METHOD: The retrospective cohort study was performed among close contacts of index cases diagnosed with COVID-19 in Guangzhou, China. Demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and exposure information were extracted. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the risk factors. The restricted cubic spline was conducted to examine to the dose-response relationship between age and SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The secondary attack rate (SAR) was 4.4% in 1,344 close contacts. The group of household contacts (17.2%) had the highest SAR. The rare-frequency contact (p < 0.001) and moderate-frequency contact (p < 0.001) were associated with lower risk of infection. Exposure to index cases with dry cough symptoms was associated with infection in close contacts (p = 0.004). Compared with children, adults had a significantly increased risk of infection (p = 0.014). There is a linear positive correlation between age and infection (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Children are probably less susceptible to COVID-19. Close contacts with frequent contact with patients and those exposed to patients with cough symptoms are associated with an increased risk of infection.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 231: 105719, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360234

RESUMO

Numerous environmental pollutants have the potential to accumulate in sediments, and among them are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). It is well documented that water-borne exposure concentrations of some potent EDCs, more specifically estrogenic- active compounds (ECs), can impair the reproduction of fish. In contrast, little is known about the bioavailability and effects of sediment-associated ECs on fish. Particularly, when sediments are disturbed, e.g., during flood events, chemicals may be released from the sediment and become bioavailable. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate a) whether ECs from the sediment become bioavailable to fish when the sediment is suspended, and b) whether such exposure leads to endocrine responses in fish. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed over 21 days to constantly suspended sediments in the following treatments: i) a contaminated sediment from the Luppe River, representing a "hotspot" for EC accumulation, ii) a reference sediment (exhibiting only background contamination), iii) three dilutions, 2-, 4- and 8-fold of Luppe sediment diluted with the reference sediment, and iv) a water-only control. Measured estrogenic activity using in vitro bioassays as well as target analysis of nonylphenol and estrone via LC-MS/MS in sediment, water, fish plasma, as well as bile samples, confirmed that ECs became bioavailable from the sediment during suspension. ECs were dissolved in the water phase, as indicated by passive samplers, and were readily taken up by the exposed trout. An estrogenic response of fish to Luppe sediment was indicated by increased abundance of transcripts of typical estrogen responsive genes, i.e. vitelline envelope protein α in the liver and vitellogenin induction in the skin mucus. Altered gene expression profiles of trout in response to suspended sediment from the Luppe River suggest that in addition to ECs a number of other contaminants such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals were remobilized during suspension. The results of the present study demonstrated that sediments not only function as a sink for ECs but can turn into a significant source of pollution when sediments are resuspended as during flood-events. This highlights the need for sediment quality criteria considering bioavailability sediment-bound contaminants in context of flood events.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/toxicidade , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
ACS Omega ; 5(47): 30587-30595, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283107

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the dynamic variations in the phenolic and volatile organic compounds of sugarcane vinegar subjected to different production processes. The determination of phenolic and volatile organic compounds was performed by UPLC-MS and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The complete fermentation process of sugarcane lasted nine days, and production of vinegar of up to 3.04% (w/v), total acids, and 4.1° alcoholicity was accomplished. Various phenolic compounds of sugarcane juice (non-sterilized) and those of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation were obtained after nine days of fermentation. These were benzoic acid (2.024, 1.002, and 1.027 mg L-1), ferulic acid (0.060, 0.205, and 1.124 mg L-1), quinic acid (0.019, 0.074, and 0.031 mg L-1), chlorogenic acid (0.349, 1.635, and 1.217 mg L-1), apigenin (0.002, 0.099, and 0.004 mg L-1), kaempferol (0.003, 0.336, and 0.003 mg L-1), caffeic acid (-, 0.005, and 0.005 mg L-1), luteolin (0.003, 0.323, and 0.005 mg L-1), and p-coumaric acid (0.018, 0.015, and 0.027 mg L-1). Forty-five volatile organic compounds were also identified. The sugarcane juice can be commercialized as an alternative to wine as it presents characteristics of an alcoholic fermented beverage.

19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(11): 3925-3934, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300744

RESUMO

As an important concept connecting urban green space (UGS) with the residents' demands, supply and demand of UGS is an important part of UGS research and planning. Identifying the difference and connection between UGS supply and demand contributes to proper configuration of UGS, human well-being improvement and urban sustainability. We reviewed literature on UGS supply and demand from 2016 to 2020, summarized common research topics and paradigms, examined associations among these topics, and proposed suggestions for future studies. We found that most studies focused on either USG supply or demand, and rarely analyzed match between UGS supply and demand. The studies of UGS supply mainly focused on the spatial and temporal patterns and the ecosystem services they provided, while the studies of demand focused on residents' subjective preference and behavior. Studies on supply and demand often differ in research objects, scales, and indicators, which was a major obstacle to construct relationships between them. We proposed that future studies should focus on the match of supply and demand. A possible way to achieve this goal is to measure UGS demand by both objective indicators and subjective preference.

20.
Science ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273064

RESUMO

Quantum computers promises to perform certain tasks that are believed to be intractable to classical computers. Boson sampling is such a task and is considered as a strong candidate to demonstrate the quantum computational advantage. We perform Gaussian boson sampling by sending 50 indistinguishable single-mode squeezed states into a 100-mode ultralow-loss interferometer with full connectivity and random matrix-the whole optical setup is phase-locked-and sampling the output using 100 high-efficiency single-photon detectors. The obtained samples are validated against plausible hypotheses exploiting thermal states, distinguishable photons, and uniform distribution. The photonic quantum computer generates up to 76 output photon clicks, which yields an output state-space dimension of 1030 and a sampling rate that is ~1014 faster than using the state-of-the-art simulation strategy and supercomputers.

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