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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of the novel positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical 1-((2-fluoro-6-[[18F]]fluorophenyl)sulfonyl)-4-((4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl)piperazine ([18F]DASA-23) in healthy volunteers. METHODS: We recruited 5 healthy volunteers who provided a written informed consent. Volunteers were injected with 295.0 ± 8.2 MBq of [18F]DASA-23 intravenously. Immediately following injection, a dynamic scan of the brain was acquired for 15 min. This was followed by serial whole-body PET/MRI scans acquired up to 3 h post-injection. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals, and vital signs monitored pre- and post-radiotracer administration. Regions of interest were drawn around multiple organs, time-activity curves were calculated, and organ uptake and dosimetry were estimated with OLINDA/EXM (version 1.1) software. RESULTS: All subjects tolerated the PET/MRI examination, without adverse reactions to [18F]DASA-23. [18F]DASA-23 passively crossed the blood-brain barrier, followed by rapid clearance from the brain. High accumulation of [18F]DASA-23 was noted in organs such as the gallbladder, liver, small intestine, and urinary bladder, suggesting hepatobiliary and urinary clearance. The effective dose of [18F]DASA-23 was 23.5 ± 5.8 µSv/MBq. CONCLUSION: We successfully completed a pilot first-in-human study of [18F]DASA-23. Our results indicate that [18F]DASA-23 can be used safely in humans to evaluate pyruvate kinase M2 levels. Ongoing studies are evaluating the ability of [18F]DASA-23 to visualize intracranial malignancies, NCT03539731. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03539731 (registered 28 May 2018).

2.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 51(1): 183-194, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: H2 15 O-positron emission tomography (PET) is considered the reference standard for absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, this technique requires an arterial input function measured through continuous sampling of arterial blood, which is invasive and has limitations with tracer delay and dispersion. PURPOSE: To demonstrate a new noninvasive method to quantify absolute CBF with a PET/MRI hybrid scanner. This blood-free approach, called PC-PET, takes the spatial CBF distribution from a static H2 15 O-PET scan, and scales it to the whole-brain average CBF value measured by simultaneous phase-contrast MRI. STUDY TYPE: Observational. SUBJECTS: Twelve healthy controls (HC) and 13 patients with Moyamoya disease (MM) as a model of chronic ischemic disease. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCES: 3T/2D cardiac-gated phase-contrast MRI and H2 15 O-PET. ASSESSMENT: PC-PET CBF values from whole brain (WB), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) in HCs were compared with literature values since 2000. CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which is defined as the percent CBF change between baseline and post-acetazolamide (vasodilator) scans, were measured by PC-PET in MM patients and HCs within cortical regions corresponding to major vascular territories. Statistical Tests: Linear, mixed effects models were created to compare CBF and CVR, respectively, between patients and controls, and between different degrees of stenosis. RESULTS: The mean CBF values in WB, GM, and WM in HC were 42 ± 7 ml/100 g/min, 50 ± 7 ml/100 g/min, and 23 ± 3 ml/100 g/min, respectively, which agree well with literature values. Compared with normal regions (57 ± 23%), patients showed significantly decreased CVR in areas with mild/moderate stenosis (47 ± 17%, P = 0.011) and in severe/occluded areas (40 ± 16%, P = 0.016). Data Conclusion: PC-PET identifies differences in cerebrovascular reactivity between healthy controls and cerebrovascular patients. PC-PET is suitable for CBF measurement when arterial blood sampling is not accessible, and warrants comparison to fully quantitative H2 15 O-PET in future studies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;51:183-194.

3.
Opt Lett ; 44(12): 3022-3025, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199371

RESUMO

We study optical pulse propagation through a linear, dispersive, gain-loss-assisted bulk medium whose refractive index is time-varying. To analyze the dynamics, we have used a novel technique of time transformation that provides universal formulas of pulse propagation. Our analytical and numerical investigations reveal that optical pulses show asymmetric behavior while propagating in opposite direction through such a medium, in both the temporal and spectral domains. Moreover, the wavelength shift during this process is the most interesting outcome which is limited in range, but could be tuned by varying the refractive index with time. Phenomena that are observed in this Letter are novel and realizable in practical devices such as coupled waveguides where the refractive index is a function of time.

4.
Stroke ; 50(2): 373-380, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636572

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Noninvasive imaging of brain perfusion has the potential to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Moyamoya disease and enable clinical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to select revascularization therapies for patients. We used hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to characterize the distribution of hypoperfusion in Moyamoya disease and its relationship to vessel stenosis severity, through comparisons with a normative perfusion database of healthy controls. Methods- To image CBF, we acquired [15O]-water PET as a reference and simultaneously acquired arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI scans in 20 Moyamoya patients and 15 age-matched, healthy controls on a PET/MRI scanner. The ASL MRI scans included a standard single-delay ASL scan with postlabel delay of 2.0 s and a multidelay scan with 5 postlabel delays (0.7-3.0s) to estimate and account for arterial transit time in CBF quantification. The percent volume of hypoperfusion in patients (determined as the fifth percentile of CBF values in the healthy control database) was the outcome measure in a logistic regression model that included stenosis grade and location. Results- Logistic regression showed that anterior ( P<0.0001) and middle cerebral artery territory regions ( P=0.003) in Moyamoya patients were susceptible to hypoperfusion, whereas posterior regions were not. Cortical regions supplied by arteries with stenosis on MR angiography showed more hypoperfusion than normal arteries ( P=0.001), but the extent of hypoperfusion was not different between mild-moderate versus severe stenosis. Multidelay ASL did not perform differently from [15O]-water PET in detecting perfusion abnormalities, but standard ASL overestimated the extent of hypoperfusion in patients ( P=0.003). Conclusions- This simultaneous PET/MRI study supports the use of multidelay ASL MRI in clinical evaluation of Moyamoya disease in settings where nuclear medicine imaging is not available and application of a normative perfusion database to automatically identify abnormal CBF in patients.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Artéria Cerebral Média , Doença de Moyamoya , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Marcadores de Spin
5.
Appl Opt ; 57(25): 7167-7171, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182976

RESUMO

We report an asymmetric behavior of optical pulses during their propagation through a time-varying linear optical medium. The refractive index of the medium is considered to be varying with time and complex, such that a sufficient amount of gain and loss is present to realize their effect on pulse propagation. We have exploited the universal formula for optical fields in time-varying media. Numerically simulated results reveal that pulses undergo opposite temporal shifts around their initial center position during their bi-directional propagation through the medium along with corresponding spectral shifts. Moreover, the peak power and accumulated chirp (time derivative of accumulated phase) of the output pulse in both propagation directions are also opposite in nature, irrespective of their initial state. Numerically simulated behavior of the pulses agrees well with the analytical solutions.

6.
J Nucl Med ; 59(6): 967-972, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097408

RESUMO

Chronic sciatica is a major cause of disability worldwide, but accurate diagnosis of the causative pathology remains challenging. In this report, the feasibility of an 18F-FDG PET/MRI approach for improved diagnosis of chronic sciatica is presented. Methods:18F-FDG PET/MRI was performed on 9 chronic sciatica patients and 5 healthy volunteers (healthy controls). Region-of-interest analysis using SUVmax was performed, and 18F-FDG uptake in lesions was compared with that in the corresponding areas in healthy controls. Results: Significantly increased 18F-FDG uptake was observed in detected lesions in all patients and was correlated with pain symptoms. 18F-FDG-avid lesions not only were found in impinged spinal nerves but also were associated with nonspinal causes of pain, such as facet joint degeneration, pars defect, or presumed scar neuroma. Conclusion: The feasibility of 18F-FDG PET/MRI for diagnosing pain generators in chronic sciatica was demonstrated, revealing various possible etiologies.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Ciática/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/complicações , Ciática/complicações , Adulto Jovem
7.
Stroke ; 48(9): 2441-2449, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI is a promising, noninvasive technique to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) but is difficult to use in cerebrovascular patients with abnormal, long arterial transit times through collateral pathways. To be clinically adopted, ASL must first be optimized and validated against a reference standard in these challenging patient cases. METHODS: We compared standard-delay ASL (post-label delay=2.025 seconds), multidelay ASL (post-label delay=0.7-3.0 seconds), and long-label long-delay ASL acquisitions (post-label delay=4.0 seconds) against simultaneous [15O]-positron emission tomography (PET) CBF maps in 15 Moyamoya patients on a hybrid PET/MRI scanner. Dynamic susceptibility contrast was performed in each patient to identify areas of mild, moderate, and severe time-to-maximum (Tmax) delays. Relative CBF measurements by each ASL scan in 20 cortical regions were compared with the PET reference standard, and correlations were calculated for areas with moderate and severe Tmax delays. RESULTS: Standard-delay ASL underestimated relative CBF by 20% in areas of severe Tmax delays, particularly in anterior and middle territories commonly affected by Moyamoya disease (P<0.001). Arterial transit times correction by multidelay acquisitions led to improved consistency with PET, but still underestimated CBF in the presence of long transit delays (P=0.02). Long-label long-delay ASL scans showed the strongest correlation relative to PET, and there was no difference in mean relative CBF between the modalities, even in areas of severe delays. CONCLUSIONS: Post-label delay times of ≥4 seconds are needed and may be combined with multidelay strategies for robust ASL assessment of CBF in Moyamoya disease.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Colateral , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Radioisótopos de Oxigênio , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Marcadores de Spin
8.
J Nucl Med ; 58(12): 2004-2009, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572487

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry in humans for the highly selective σ-1 receptor PET agent 18F-6-(3-fluoropropyl)-3-(2-(azepan-1-yl)ethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one (18F-FTC-146). Methods: Ten healthy volunteers (5 women, 5 men; age ± SD, 34.3 ± 6.5 y) were recruited, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Series of whole-body PET/MRI examinations were acquired for up to 3 h after injection (357.2 ± 48.8 MBq). Blood samples were collected, and standard vital signs (heart rate, pulse oximetry, and body temperature) were monitored at regular intervals. Regions of interest were delineated, time-activity curves were calculated, and organ uptake and dosimetry were estimated. Results: All subjects tolerated the PET/MRI examination well, and no adverse reactions to 18F-FTC-146 were reported. High accumulation of 18F-FTC-146 was observed in σ-1 receptor-dense organs such as the pancreas and spleen, moderate uptake in the brain and myocardium, and low uptake in bone and muscle. High uptake was also observed in the kidneys and bladder, indicating renal tracer clearance. The effective dose of 18F-FTC-146 was 0.0259 ± 0.0034 mSv/MBq (range, 0.0215-0.0301 mSv/MBq). Conclusion: First-in-human studies with clinical-grade 18F-FTC-146 were successful. Injection of 18F-FTC-146 is safe, and absorbed doses are acceptable. The potential of 18F-FTC-146 as an imaging agent for a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases is currently under investigation.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacocinética , Benzotiazóis/farmacocinética , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Adulto , Azepinas/efeitos adversos , Azepinas/síntese química , Benzotiazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzotiazóis/síntese química , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Radiometria , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Receptores sigma/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores sigma/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Imagem Corporal Total
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