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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439086

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality is mainly caused by patient refractoriness to common anti-cancer therapies and consequent metastasis formation. Besides, the notorious toxic side effects of chemotherapy are a concurrent obstacle to be tackled. Thus, new treatment approaches are needed to effectively improve patient outcomes. Compelling evidence demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for treatment failure and relapse. New natural treatment approaches showed capabilities to selectively target the CSC subpopulation by rendering them targetable by standard cytotoxic compounds. Herein we show the anti-cancer properties of the polymethoxyflavones and prenylflavonoids extracted from Citrus sinensis and Humulus lupulus, respectively. The natural biofunctional fractions, singularly and in combination, reduced the cell viability of CRC stem cells (CR-CSCs) and synergized with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOX) chemotherapy. These phenomena were accompanied by a reduced S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle and upregulation of cell death-related genes. Notably, both phytoextracts in combination with FOX thwarted stemness features in CR-CSCs as demonstrated by the impaired clonogenic potential and decreased Wnt pathway activation. Extracts lowered the expression of CD44v6 and affected the expansion of metastatic CR-CSCs in patients refractory to chemotherapy. Together, this study highlights the importance of polymethoxyflavones and prenylflavonoids as natural remedies to aid oncological therapies.

2.
iScience ; 24(6): 102664, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169240

RESUMO

Limited therapeutic options are available for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Herein, we report that exposure to a neo-synthetic bis(indolyl)thiazole alkaloid analog, nortopsentin 234 (NORA234), leads to an initial reduction of proliferative and clonogenic potential of CRC sphere cells (CR-CSphCs), followed by an adaptive response selecting the CR-CSphC-resistant compartment. Cells spared by the treatment with NORA234 express high levels of CD44v6, associated with a constitutive activation of Wnt pathway. In CR-CSphC-based organoids, NORA234 causes a genotoxic stress paralleled by G2-M cell cycle arrest and activation of CHK1, driving the DNA damage repair of CR-CSphCs, regardless of the mutational background, microsatellite stability, and consensus molecular subtype. Synergistic combination of NORA234 and CHK1 (rabusertib) targeting is synthetic lethal inducing death of both CD44v6-negative and CD44v6-positive CRC stem cell fractions, aside from Wnt pathway activity. These data could provide a rational basis to develop an effective strategy for the treatment of patients with CRC.

3.
Gut ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumour spreading and relapse. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression is a negative prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) and a potential target in tumours carrying the gene amplification. Our aim was to define the expression of HER2 in colorectal cancer stem cells (CR-CSCs) and its possible role as therapeutic target in CRC resistant to anti- epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. DESIGN: A collection of primary sphere cell cultures obtained from 60 CRC specimens was used to generate CR-CSC mouse avatars to preclinically validate therapeutic options. We also made use of the ChIP-seq analysis for transcriptional evaluation of HER2 activation and global RNA-seq to identify the mechanisms underlying therapy resistance. RESULTS: Here we show that in CD44v6-positive CR-CSCs, high HER2 expression levels are associated with an activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which promotes the acetylation at the regulatory elements of the Erbb2 gene. HER2 targeting in combination with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors induces CR-CSC death and regression of tumour xenografts, including those carrying Kras and Pik3ca mutation. Requirement for the triple targeting is due to the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which release cytokines able to confer CR-CSC resistance to PI3K/AKT inhibitors. In contrast, targeting of PI3K/AKT as monotherapy is sufficient to kill liver-disseminating CR-CSCs in a model of adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: While PI3K targeting kills liver-colonising CR-CSCs, the concomitant inhibition of PI3K, HER2 and MEK is required to induce regression of tumours resistant to anti-EGFR therapies. These data may provide a rationale for designing clinical trials in the adjuvant and metastatic setting.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiomic features are increasingly utilized to evaluate tumor heterogeneity in PET imaging but to date its role has not been investigated for Cho-PET in prostate cancer. The potential application of radiomics features analysis using a machine-learning radiomics algorithm was evaluated to select 18F-Cho PET/CT imaging features to predict disease progression in PCa. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed high-risk PCa patients who underwent restaging 18F-Cho PET/CT from November 2013 to May 2018. 18F-Cho PET/CT studies and related structures containing volumetric segmentations were imported in the "CGITA" toolbox to extract imaging features from each lesion. A Machine-learning model has been adapted using NCA for feature selection, while DA was used as a method for feature classification and performance analysis. RESULTS: 106 imaging features were extracted for 46 lesions for a total of 4876 features analyzed. No significant differences between the training and validating sets in terms of age, sex, PSA values, lesion location and size (p > 0.05) were demonstrated by the machine-learning model. Thirteen features were able to discriminate FU disease status after NCA selection. Best performance in DA classification was obtained using the combination of the 13 selected features (sensitivity 74%, specificity 58% and accuracy 66%) compared to the use of all features (sensitivity 40%, specificity 52%, and accuracy 51%). Per-site performance of the 13 selected features in DA classification were as follow: T= sensitivity 63%, specificity 83%, accuracy 71%; N= sensitivity 87%, specificity 91% of and accuracy 90%; bone-M= sensitivity 33%, specificity 77% and accuracy 66%. CONCLUSIONS: An artificial intelligence model demonstrated to be feasible and able to select a panel of 18F-Cho PET/CT features with valuable association with PCa patients' outcome.

5.
Curr Radiopharm ; 13(1): 42-47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies on 18F-FDG-PET/CT have investigated the prognostic role of this imaging modality in different tumors after treatment. Nevertheless, its role in restaging patients with recurrent CM still needs to be defined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to evaluate the clinical and prognostic impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT on the restaging process of cutaneous melanoma (CM) after surgery in patients with suspected distant recurrent disease or suspected metastatic progression disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 74 patients surgically treated for CM underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT for suspected distant recurrent disease or suspected metastatic progression disease. The diagnostic accuracy of visually interpreted 18F-FDG-PET/CT was obtained by considering histology (n=21 patients), other diagnostic imaging modalities performed within 2 months of PET/CT (CT in 52/74 patients and Whole-Body MRI in 18/74 patients) and clinical follow-up (n=74 patients) for at least 24 months containing all the clinical and diagnostic information useful for the PET performance assessment and outcome. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by using the Kaplan- Meier method. The risk of progression (Hazard Ratio-HR) was computed by the Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Suspicion of recurrent CM was confirmed in 24/27 patients with a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT were 82%, 93%, 88%, 89%, and 89%, respectively, with area under the curve being 0.87 (95%IC 0.78-0.97; p<0.05). 18F-FDG-PET/CT findings significantly influenced the therapeutic management in 18 patients (modifying therapy in 10 patients; guiding surgery in 8 patients). After 2 years of follow-up, PFS was significantly longer in patients with a negative vs. a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan (90% vs 46%, p<0.05; Fig. 1). Moreover, a negative scan was associated with a significantly longer OS than a positive one (76% vs 39% after 2 years, p<0.05; Fig. 2). In addition, a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (HR=8.2; p<0,05). CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed a valuable diagnostic performance in patients with suspicion of recurrent CM. This imaging modality might have an important prognostic value in predicting the survival outcomes, assessing the risk of disease progression, and guiding treatment decision making.


Assuntos
Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514479

RESUMO

Trans-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic-acid (anti-[18F]-FACBC) has been approved for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with elevated prostate-specific-antigen following prior treatment. This review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of 18F-FACBC positron emission tomography/computed-tomography (PET/CT) in the detection of primary/recurrent PCa. A bibliographic search was performed including several databases, using the following terms: "FACBC"/"fluciclovine" AND "prostate cancer"/"prostate" AND "PET"/"Positron Emission Tomography". Fifteen and 9 studies were included in the systematic reviews and meta-analysis, respectively. At patient-based analysis, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FACBC-PET/CT for the assessment of PCa were 86.3% and 75.9%, respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds-ratio value was 16.453, with heterogeneity of 30%. At the regional-based-analysis, the pooled sensitivity of 18F-FACBC-PET/CT for the evaluation of primary/recurrent disease in the prostatic bed was higher than in the extra-prostatic regions (90.4% vs. 76.5%, respectively); conversely, the pooled specificity was higher for the evaluation of extra-prostatic region than the prostatic bed (89% vs. 45%, respectively). 18F-FACBC-PET/CT seems to be promising in recurrent PCa, particularly for the evaluation of the prostatic bed. Additional studies to evaluate its utility in clinical routine are mandatory.

8.
Nucl Med Commun ; 40(10): 1060-1065, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the clinical relevance of incidentally detected lesions (IDLs) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with 18F-FDG PET/CT and to assess the potential benefit of using semiquantitative PET measures to discern malignant from benign lesions. METHODS: Forty-one patients who underwent F-FDG PET/CT scans during the oncologic follow-up, revealing abnormal incidental 18F-FDG accumulations in the GIT were included in this retrospective analysis. Incidental PET/CT findings were correlated with endoscopic and histological findings. Semiquantitative PET values (SUVmax, SUVmean, SULpeak, and TLG) were evaluated by using a new graph-based method. Two sample t-test analysis has been performed to evaluate the differences of PET parameters between precancerous or cancerous lesions and inflammatory disease. RESULTS: Nine of the 41 patients had an IDL of the GIT on F-FDG PET/CT (detection rate 22%). Endoscopic examination and biopsy have confirmed the presence of precancerous or cancerous lesions as follow: colonic adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (N = 2), colonic adenoma with low-grade dysplasia (N =3), colonic metastatic lesion from primary breast cancer (N =1), gastric carcinoma (N=3). Precancerous or cancerous lesions showed a higher SUVmax, SUVmean, SULpeak, and TLG with a mean value of 10.6 (range, 5.3- 16.7), 6.2 (range, 2.1-10.6), 5.2 (2.7-11), and 66.6 (range, 7.4-164), than patients with inflammatory and endoscopically negative lesions. Two sample t-test analysis showed that SUVmean (P = 0.03), SULpeak (P = 0.05) were statistically different between the two subgroups. CONCLUSION: The use of new semiquantitative PET parameters may increase the diagnostic yield of FDG PET in the case of abnormal incidental F-FDG accumulations.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Achados Incidentais , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Adulto , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Glicólise , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral
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