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1.
Retina ; 39(3): 502-513, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324592

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the potential ocular toxicity of a combined BRAF inhibition (BRAFi) + MEK inhibition (MEKi) + hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) regime used to treat metastatic BRAF mutant melanoma. METHODS: Patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma and BRAF V600E mutations (n = 11, 31-68 years of age) were included. Treatment was with oral dabrafenib, 150 mg bid, trametinib, 2 mg/day, and HCQ, 400 mg to 600 mg bid. An ophthalmic examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, near-infrared and short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence, and static perimetry were performed at baseline, 1 month, and q/6 months after treatment. RESULTS: There were no clinically significant ocular events; there was no ocular inflammation. The only medication-related change was a separation of the photoreceptor outer segment tip from the apical retinal pigment epithelium that could be traced from the fovea to the perifoveal retina noted in 9/11 (82%) of the patients. There were no changes in retinal pigment epithelium melanization or lipofuscin content by near-infrared fundus autofluorescence and short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence, respectively. There were no inner retinal or outer nuclear layer changes. Visual acuities and sensitivities were unchanged. CONCLUSION: BRAFi (trametinib) + MEKi (dabrafenib) + HCQ causes very frequent, subclinical separation of the photoreceptor outer segment from the apical retinal pigment epithelium without inner retinal changes or signs of inflammation. The changes suggest interference with the maintenance of the outer retinal barrier and/or phagocytic/pump functions of the retinal pigment epithelium by effective MEK inhibition.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Macula Lutea/patologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinonas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Retinianas , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Células Fotorreceptoras/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia
3.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(10): e1468956, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288340

RESUMO

We report long-term clinical outcomes and immune responses observed from a phase 1 trial of agonist CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and blocking CTLA-4 mAb in patients with metastatic melanoma. Twenty-four patients previously untreated with checkpoint blockade were enrolled. The agonistic CD40 mAb CP-870,893 and the CTLA-4 blocking mAb tremelimumab were dosed concomitantly every 3 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively, across four dose combinations. Two patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 immune-mediated colitis that led to the definition of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Other immune-mediated toxicity included uveitis (n = 1), hypophysitis (n = 1), hypothyroidism (n = 2), and grade 3 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) (n = 1). The estimated MTD was 0.2 mg/kg of CP-870,893 and 10 mg/kg of tremelimumab. In 22 evaluable patients, the objective response rate (ORR) was 27.3%: two patients (9.1%) had complete responses (CR) and four (18.2%) patients had partial responses (PR). With a median follow-up of 45 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.2 months (95% CI, 1.3-5.1 months) and median overall survival (OS) was 23.6 months (95% CI, 11.7-35.5 months). Nine patients are long-term survivors (> 3 years), 8 of whom subsequently received other therapy including PD-1 mAb, surgery, or radiation therapy. Elevated baseline soluble CD25 was associated with shorter OS. Immunologically, treatment was associated with evidence of T cell activation and increased tumor T cell infiltration that was accomplished without therapeutic PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. These results suggest opportunities for immune activation and cancer immunotherapy beyond PD-1.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(20): 4960-4967, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685882

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association of baseline tumor size (BTS) with other baseline clinical factors and outcomes in pembrolizumab-treated patients with advanced melanoma in KEYNOTE-001 (NCT01295827).Experimental Design: BTS was quantified by adding the sum of the longest dimensions of all measurable baseline target lesions. BTS as a dichotomous and continuous variable was evaluated with other baseline factors using logistic regression for objective response rate (ORR) and Cox regression for overall survival (OS). Nominal P values with no multiplicity adjustment describe the strength of observed associations.Results: Per central review by RECIST v1.1, 583 of 655 patients had baseline measurable disease and were included in this post hoc analysis. Median BTS was 10.2 cm (range, 1-89.5). Larger median BTS was associated with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 1, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), stage M1c disease, and liver metastases (with or without any other sites; all P ≤ 0.001). In univariate analyses, BTS below the median was associated with higher ORR (44% vs. 23%; P < 0.001) and improved OS (HR, 0.38; P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, BTS below the median remained an independent prognostic marker of OS (P < 0.001) but not ORR. In 459 patients with available tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, BTS below the median and PD-L1-positive tumors were independently associated with higher ORR and longer OS.Conclusions: BTS is associated with many other baseline clinical factors but is also independently prognostic of survival in pembrolizumab-treated patients with advanced melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 24(20); 4960-7. ©2018 AACR See related commentary by Warner and Postow, p. 4915.

5.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 31(1): 73-81, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786531

RESUMO

To determine the feasibility of liquid biopsy for monitoring of patients with advanced melanoma, cell-free DNA was extracted from plasma for 25 Stage III/IV patients, most (84.0%) having received previous therapy. DNA concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 390.0 ng/ml (median = 7.8 ng/ml) and were positively correlated with tumor burden as measured by imaging (Spearman rho = 0.5435, p = .0363). Using ultra-deep sequencing for a 61-gene panel, one or more mutations were detected in 12 of 25 samples (48.0%), and this proportion did not vary significantly for patients on or off therapy at the time of blood draw (52.9% and 37.5% respectively; p = .673). Sixteen mutations were detected in eight different genes, with the most frequent mutations detected in BRAF, NRAS, and KIT. Allele fractions ranged from 1.1% to 63.2% (median = 29.1%). Among patients with tissue next-generation sequencing, nine of 11 plasma mutations were also detected in matched tissue, for a concordance of 81.8%.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Mutação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/sangue , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/sangue , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(1): 22-32, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051322

RESUMO

Purpose: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the safety of daily oral PX-866 in combination with twice daily vemurafenib and to identify potential predictive biomarkers for this novel combination.Experimental Design: We conducted a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study in patients with advanced BRAF V600-mutant solid tumors. PX-866 was administered on a continuous schedule in combination with vemurafenib. Patients underwent a baseline and on-treatment biopsy after 1-week of PX-866 monotherapy for biomarker assessment.Results: Twenty-four patients were enrolled. The most common treatment-related adverse events were gastrointestinal side effects. One dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of grade 3 rash and one DLT of grade 3 pancreatitis were observed in cohort 2 (PX-866 6 mg daily; vemurafenib 960 mg twice daily) and cohort 3 (PX-866 8 mg daily; vemurafenib 960 mg twice daily), respectively. Of 23 response-evaluable patients, seven had confirmed partial responses (PR), 10 had stable disease, and six had disease progression. Decreases in intratumoral pAKT expression were observed following treatment with PX-866. Patients who achieved PRs had higher rates of PTEN loss by IHC (80% vs. 58%) and pathogenic PTEN mutations and/or deletions (57% vs. 25%). Two patients with durable PRs had an increase in intratumoral CD8+ T-cell infiltration following treatment with PX-866.Conclusions: PX-866 was well tolerated at its maximum tolerated single-agent dose when given in combination with a modified dose of vemurafenib (720 mg twice daily). Response to treatment appeared to be associated with PTEN loss and treatment with PX-866 seemed to increase CD8+ T-cell infiltration in some patients. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 22-32. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gonanos/administração & dosagem , Gonanos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento , Vemurafenib/administração & dosagem , Vemurafenib/farmacocinética
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(17): 1668-1674, 2018 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283791

RESUMO

Purpose Pembrolizumab provides durable antitumor activity in metastatic melanoma, including complete response (CR) in about 15% of patients. Data are limited on potential predictors of CR and patient disposition after pembrolizumab discontinuation after CR. We describe baseline characteristics and long-term follow-up in patients who experienced CR with pembrolizumab in the KEYNOTE-001 study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01295827). Patients and Methods Patients with ipilimumab-naive or -treated advanced/metastatic melanoma received one of three dose regimens of pembrolizumab. Eligible patients who received pembrolizumab for ≥ 6 months and at least two treatments beyond confirmed CR could discontinue therapy. Response was assessed every 12 weeks by central Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. For this analysis, CR was defined per investigator assessment, immune-related response criteria, and potential predictors of CR were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of 655 treated patients, 105 (16.0%) achieved CR after median follow-up of 43 months. At data cutoff, 92 patients (87.6%) had CR, with median follow-up of 30 months from first CR. Fourteen (13.3%) patients continued to receive treatment for a median of ≥ 40 months. Pembrolizumab was discontinued by 91 patients (86.7%), including 67 (63.8%) who proceeded to observation without additional anticancer therapy. The 24-month disease-free survival rate from time of CR was 90.9% in all 105 patients with CR and 89.9% in the 67 patients who discontinued pembrolizumab after CR for observation. Tumor size and programmed death-ligand 1 status were among the baseline factors independently associated with CR by univariate analysis. Conclusion Patients with metastatic melanoma can have durable complete remission after discontinuation of pembrolizumab, and the low incidence of relapse after median follow-up of approximately 2 years from discontinuation provides hope for a cure for some patients. The mechanisms underlying durable CR require further investigation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
9.
Cell Rep ; 21(7): 1936-1952, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141224

RESUMO

Tumor-sequencing studies have revealed the widespread genetic diversity of melanoma. Sequencing of 108 genes previously implicated in melanomagenesis was performed on 462 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), cell lines, and tumors to identify mutational and copy number aberrations. Samples came from 371 unique individuals: 263 were naive to treatment, and 108 were previously treated with targeted therapy (34), immunotherapy (54), or both (20). Models of all previously reported major melanoma subtypes (BRAF, NRAS, NF1, KIT, and WT/WT/WT) were identified. Multiple minor melanoma subtypes were also recapitulated, including melanomas with multiple activating mutations in the MAPK-signaling pathway and chromatin-remodeling gene mutations. These well-characterized melanoma PDXs and cell lines can be used not only as reagents for a large array of biological studies but also as pre-clinical models to facilitate drug development.


Assuntos
Genoma , Melanoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Xenoenxertos/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oncogenes , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
10.
Cell Rep ; 21(7): 1953-1967, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141225

RESUMO

Therapy of advanced melanoma is changing dramatically. Following mutational and biological subclassification of this heterogeneous cancer, several targeted and immune therapies were approved and increased survival significantly. To facilitate further advancements through pre-clinical in vivo modeling, we have established 459 patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and live tissue samples from 384 patients representing the full spectrum of clinical, therapeutic, mutational, and biological heterogeneity of melanoma. PDX have been characterized using targeted sequencing and protein arrays and are clinically annotated. This exhaustive live tissue resource includes PDX from 57 samples resistant to targeted therapy, 61 samples from responders and non-responders to immune checkpoint blockade, and 31 samples from brain metastasis. Uveal, mucosal, and acral subtypes are represented as well. We show examples of pre-clinical trials that highlight how the PDX collection can be used to develop and optimize precision therapies, biomarkers of response, and the targeting of rare genetic subgroups.


Assuntos
Xenoenxertos/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Xenoenxertos/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/classificação , Melanoma/genética , Camundongos
11.
J Immunother ; 40(9): 334-340, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028788

RESUMO

KEYNOTE-030 (ClinicalTrials.gov ID, NCT02083484) was a global expanded access program that allowed access to pembrolizumab, an antiprogrammed death 1 antibody, for patients with advanced melanoma before its regulatory approval. Patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma that progressed after standard-of-care therapy, including ipilimumab and, if BRAF mutant, a BRAF inhibitor, were eligible to receive pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Response was assessed by immune-related response criteria by investigator review. Adverse events (AEs) were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. In the United States, 979 patients enrolled between April and September 2014. Of the 947 evaluable patients, 621 (65.6%) remained on treatment and transitioned to receive commercial pembrolizumab following approval by the Food and Drug Administration, whereas 326 (34.4%) discontinued, most commonly for disease progression (39.6%) or death (26.4%). Objective response rate was 14.5% (95% confidence interval, 12.2%-16.8%) in the treated population (n=947) and 22.1% (95% confidence interval, 18.8%-25.5%) in patients who had ≥1 response assessment reported (n=619). Twelve patients achieved complete response. One hundred eighty-one (19.1%) patients experienced ≥1 treatment-related AE, most commonly general disorders (8.0%), skin/subcutaneous tissue disorders (7.3%), and gastrointestinal disorders (6.4%); 29 (3.1%) patients experienced ≥1 grade 3/4 treatment-related AE. Immune-mediated AEs were also reported. There were no treatment-related deaths. The safety and efficacy observed in this expanded access program were consistent with those previously reported for similar populations and support the use of pembrolizumab for patients with advanced melanoma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Exantema/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Cancer ; 86: 37-45, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961465

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the protocol-specified final analysis of overall survival (OS) in the KEYNOTE-002 study (NCT01704287) of pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy in patients with ipilimumab-refractory, advanced melanoma. METHODS: In this randomised, phase II study, eligible patients had advanced melanoma with documented progression after two or more ipilimumab doses, previous BRAF or MEK inhibitor or both, if BRAFV600 mutant-positive. Patients were randomised to pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks or investigator-choice chemotherapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab was allowed following progression on chemotherapy. The protocol-specified final OS was performed in the intent-to-treat population. Survival was positive if p < 0.01 in one pembrolizumab arm. RESULTS: A total of 180 patients were randomised to pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg, 181 to pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg and 179 to chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 28 months (range 24.1-35.5), 368 patients died and 98 (55%) crossed over to pembrolizumab. Pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-1.10, p = 0.117) and 10 mg/kg (0.74, 0.57-0.96, p = 0.011) resulted in a non-statistically significant improvement in OS versus chemotherapy; median OS was 13.4 (95% CI 11.0-16.4) and 14.7 (95% CI 11.3-19.5), respectively, versus 11.0 months (95% CI 8.9-13.8), with limited improvement after censoring for crossover. Two-year survival rates were 36% and 38%, versus 30%. Progression-free survival, objective response rate and duration of response improved with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy, regardless of dose. Grade III-V treatment-related adverse events occurred in 24 (13.5%), 30 (16.8%) and 45 (26.3%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Improvement in OS with pembrolizumab was not statistically significant at either dose versus chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nature ; 545(7652): 60-65, 2017 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397821

RESUMO

Despite the success of monotherapies based on blockade of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in human melanoma, most patients do not experience durable clinical benefit. Pre-existing T-cell infiltration and/or the presence of PD-L1 in tumours may be used as indicators of clinical response; however, blood-based profiling to understand the mechanisms of PD-1 blockade has not been widely explored. Here we use immune profiling of peripheral blood from patients with stage IV melanoma before and after treatment with the PD-1-targeting antibody pembrolizumab and identify pharmacodynamic changes in circulating exhausted-phenotype CD8 T cells (Tex cells). Most of the patients demonstrated an immunological response to pembrolizumab. Clinical failure in many patients was not solely due to an inability to induce immune reinvigoration, but rather resulted from an imbalance between T-cell reinvigoration and tumour burden. The magnitude of reinvigoration of circulating Tex cells determined in relation to pretreatment tumour burden correlated with clinical response. By focused profiling of a mechanistically relevant circulating T-cell subpopulation calibrated to pretreatment disease burden, we identify a clinically accessible potential on-treatment predictor of response to PD-1 blockade.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Carga Tumoral/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(8): 1929-1936, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27756788

RESUMO

Purpose: Urelumab is an agonist antibody to CD137 with potential application as an immuno-oncology therapeutic. Data were analyzed to assess safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamic activity of urelumab, including the dose selected for ongoing development in patients with advanced solid tumors and lymphoma.Experimental Design: A total of 346 patients with advanced cancers who had progressed after standard treatment received at least one dose of urelumab in one of three dose-escalation, monotherapy studies. Urelumab was administered at doses ranging from 0.1 to 15 mg/kg. Safety analyses included treatment-related and serious adverse events (AEs), as well as treatment-related AEs leading to discontinuation and death, with a focus on liver function test abnormalities and hepatic AEs.Results: Urelumab doses between 1 and 15 mg/kg given every 3 weeks resulted in a higher frequency of treatment-related AEs than 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Dose was the single most important factor contributing to transaminitis development, which was more frequent and severe at doses ≥1 mg/kg. At the MTD of 0.1 mg/kg every 3 weeks, urelumab was relatively well tolerated, with fatigue (16%) and nausea (13%) being the most common treatment-related AEs, and was associated with immunologic and pharmacodynamic activity demonstrated by the induction of IFN-inducible genes and cytokines.Conclusions: Integrated evaluation of urelumab safety data showed significant transaminitis was strongly associated with doses of ≥1 mg/kg. However, urelumab 0.1 mg/kg every 3 weeks was demonstrated to be safe, with pharmacodynamic activity supporting continued clinical evaluation of this dose as monotherapy and in combination with other immuno-oncology agents. Clin Cancer Res; 23(8); 1929-36. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Ligante 4-1BB/agonistas , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Cell ; 167(6): 1540-1554.e12, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27912061

RESUMO

Therapeutic blocking of the PD1 pathway results in significant tumor responses, but resistance is common. We demonstrate that prolonged interferon signaling orchestrates PDL1-dependent and PDL1-independent resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and to combinations such as radiation plus anti-CTLA4. Persistent type II interferon signaling allows tumors to acquire STAT1-related epigenomic changes and augments expression of interferon-stimulated genes and ligands for multiple T cell inhibitory receptors. Both type I and II interferons maintain this resistance program. Crippling the program genetically or pharmacologically interferes with multiple inhibitory pathways and expands distinct T cell populations with improved function despite expressing markers of severe exhaustion. Consequently, tumors resistant to multi-agent ICB are rendered responsive to ICB monotherapy. Finally, we observe that biomarkers for interferon-driven resistance associate with clinical progression after anti-PD1 therapy. Thus, the duration of tumor interferon signaling augments adaptive resistance and inhibition of the interferon response bypasses requirements for combinatorial ICB therapies.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Radioimunoterapia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Interferons/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/radioterapia , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Fator de Transcrição STAT1 , Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(34): 4102-4109, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27863197

RESUMO

Purpose Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a potential predictive marker for response and outcome after treatment with anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1). This study explored the relationship between anti-PD-1 activity and PD-L1 expression in patients with advanced melanoma who were treated with pembrolizumab in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-001 study (clinical trial information: NCT01295827). Patients and Methods Six hundred fifty-five patients received pembrolizumab10 mg/kg once every 2 weeks or once every 3 weeks, or 2 mg/kg once every 3 weeks. Tumor response was assessed every 12 weeks per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 by independent central review. Primary outcome was objective response rate. Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Membranous PD-L1 expression in tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was assessed by a clinical trial immunohistochemistry assay (22C3 antibody) and scored on a unique melanoma (MEL) scale of 0 to 5 by one of three pathologists who were blinded to clinical outcome; a score ≥ 2 (membranous staining in ≥ 1% of cells) was considered positive. Results Of 451 patients with evaluable PD-L1 expression, 344 (76%) had PD-L1-positive tumors. Demographic and staging variables were equally distributed among PD-L1-positive and -negative patients. An association between higher MEL score and higher response rate and longer PFS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.82) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.83) was observed ( P < .001 for each). Objective response rate was 8%, 12%, 22%, 43%, 57%, and 53% for MEL 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Conclusion PD-L1 expression in pretreatment tumor biopsy samples was correlated with response rate, PFS, and OS; however, patients with PD-L1-negative tumors may also achieve durable responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cancer ; 122(21): 3354-3362, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27533633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibodies against programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) are considered front-line therapy in metastatic melanoma. The efficacy of PD-1 blockade for patients with biologically distinct melanomas arising from acral and mucosal surfaces has not been well described. METHODS: A multi-institutional, retrospective cohort analysis identified adults with advanced acral and mucosal melanoma who received treatment with nivolumab or pembrolizumab as standard clinical practice through expanded access programs or published prospective trials. Objective responses were determined using investigator-assessed Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. Progression-free survival and overall survival were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Sixty individuals were identified, including 25 (42%) with acral melanoma and 35 (58%) with mucosal melanoma. Fifty-one patients (85%) had received previous therapy, including 77% who had previously received ipilimumab. Forty patients (67%) received pembrolizumab at a dose of 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, and 20 (33%) received nivolumab at a doses ranging from 0.3 to 10 mg/kg every 2 to 3 weeks. The objective response rate was 32% (95% confidence interval, 15%-54%) in patients with acral melanoma and 23% (95% confidence interval, 10%-40%) in those with mucosal melanoma. After a median follow-up of 20 months in the acral melanoma group and 10.6 months in the mucosal melanoma group, the median progression-free survival was 4.1 months and 3.9 months, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) discontinued treatment because of toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Response rates to PD-1 blockade in patients with acral and mucosal melanomas were comparable to the published rates in patients with cutaneous melanoma and support the routine use of PD-1 blockade in clinical practice. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanisms of response and resistance to therapy in these subtypes. Cancer 2016;122:3354-3362. © 2016 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Melanoma/patologia , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
J Cutan Pathol ; 43(9): 787-91, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27161449

RESUMO

Therapeutic immune checkpoint blockade for metastatic melanoma has been associated with vitiligo, pruritus and morbilliform eruptions. Reports of other autoimmune skin disease in this setting are rare. We sought to expand the spectrum of cutaneous immune-mediated effects related to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. In this report, we describe two unusual cutaneous reactions related to checkpoint inhibitor therapy, namely bullous pemphigoid (BP) and dermatitis herpetiformis. The development of BP and dermatitis herpetiformis in the context of checkpoint inhibitor therapy is consistent with previous investigations supporting the importance of effector and regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis of these diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Herpetiforme/induzido quimicamente , Erupção por Droga/patologia , Penfigoide Bolhoso/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Dermatite Herpetiforme/patologia , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penfigoide Bolhoso/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário
19.
J Clin Invest ; 126(5): 1834-56, 2016 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27043285

RESUMO

Targeting multiple components of the MAPK pathway can prolong the survival of patients with BRAFV600E melanoma. This approach is not curative, as some BRAF-mutated melanoma cells are intrinsically resistant to MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi). At the systemic level, our knowledge of how signaling pathways underlie drug resistance needs to be further expanded. Here, we have shown that intrinsically resistant BRAF-mutated melanoma cells with a low basal level of mitochondrial biogenesis depend on this process to survive MAPKi. Intrinsically resistant cells exploited an integrated stress response, exhibited an increase in mitochondrial DNA content, and required oxidative phosphorylation to meet their bioenergetic needs. We determined that intrinsically resistant cells rely on the genes encoding TFAM, which controls mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, and TRAP1, which regulates mitochondrial protein folding. Therefore, we targeted mitochondrial biogenesis with a mitochondrium-targeted, small-molecule HSP90 inhibitor (Gamitrinib), which eradicated intrinsically resistant cells and augmented the efficacy of MAPKi by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting tumor bioenergetics. A subset of tumor biopsies from patients with disease progression despite MAPKi treatment showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and tumor bioenergetics. A subset of acquired drug-resistant melanoma cell lines was sensitive to Gamitrinib. Our study establishes mitochondrial biogenesis, coupled with aberrant tumor bioenergetics, as a potential therapy escape mechanism and paves the way for a rationale-based combinatorial strategy to improve the efficacy of MAPKi.


Assuntos
MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
JAMA ; 315(15): 1600-9, 2016 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092830

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway limits immune responses to melanoma and can be blocked with the humanized anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association of pembrolizumab with tumor response and overall survival among patients with advanced melanoma. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: Open-label, multicohort, phase 1b clinical trials (enrollment, December 2011-September 2013). Median duration of follow-up was 21 months. The study was performed in academic medical centers in Australia, Canada, France, and the United States. Eligible patients were aged 18 years and older and had advanced or metastatic melanoma. Data were pooled from 655 enrolled patients (135 from a nonrandomized cohort [n = 87 ipilimumab naive; n = 48 ipilimumab treated] and 520 from randomized cohorts [n = 226 ipilimumab naive; n = 294 ipilimumab treated]). Cutoff dates were April 18, 2014, for safety analyses and October 18, 2014, for efficacy analyses. EXPOSURES: Pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks, 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks, or 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks continued until disease progression, intolerable toxicity, or investigator decision. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was confirmed objective response rate (best overall response of complete response or partial response) in patients with measurable disease at baseline per independent central review. Secondary end points included toxicity, duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival. RESULTS: Among the 655 patients (median [range] age, 61 [18-94] years; 405 [62%] men), 581 had measurable disease at baseline. An objective response was reported in 194 of 581 patients (33% [95% CI, 30%-37%]) and in 60 of 133 treatment-naive patients (45% [95% CI, 36% to 54%]). Overall, 74% (152/205) of responses were ongoing at the time of data cutoff; 44% (90/205) of patients had response duration for at least 1 year and 79% (162/205) had response duration for at least 6 months. Twelve-month progression-free survival rates were 35% (95% CI, 31%-39%) in the total population and 52% (95% CI, 43%-60%) among treatment-naive patients. Median overall survival in the total population was 23 months (95% CI, 20-29) with a 12-month survival rate of 66% (95% CI, 62%-69%) and a 24-month survival rate of 49% (95% CI, 44%-53%). In treatment-naive patients, median overall survival was 31 months (95% CI, 24 to not reached) with a 12-month survival rate of 73% (95% CI, 65%-79%) and a 24-month survival rate of 60% (95% CI, 51%-68%). Ninety-two of 655 patients (14%) experienced at least 1 treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse event (AE) and 27 of 655 (4%) patients discontinued treatment because of a treatment-related AE. Treatment-related serious AEs were reported in 59 patients (9%). There were no drug-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with advanced melanoma, pembrolizumab administration was associated with an overall objective response rate of 33%, 12-month progression-free survival rate of 35%, and median overall survival of 23 months; grade 3 or 4 treatment-related AEs occurred in 14%. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01295827.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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