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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5758, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238872

RESUMO

There has been substantial interest in research aimed at conductive carbon-based supports since the discovery that the electrical stimulus can have dramatic effect on cell behavior. Among these carbon-aerogels decorated with biocompatible polymers were suggested as future materials for tissue engineering. However, high reaction temperatures required for the synthesis of the aerogels tend to impair the stability of the polymeric networks. Herein, we report a synthetic route towards carbon-aerogel scaffolds decorated with biocompatible ceramic nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate. The composites can be prepared at temperature as high as 1100 °C without significant effect on the morphology of the composite which is comparable with the original aerogel framework. Although the conductivity of the composites tends to decrease with the increasing ceramic content the measured conductivity values are similar to those previously reported on polymer-functionalized carbon-aerogels. The cell culture study revealed that the developed constructs support cell proliferation and provide good cell attachment suggesting them as potentially good candidates for tissue-engineering applications.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5336, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748540

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4916, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664018

RESUMO

The electrochemical generation of hydrogen is a key enabling technology for the production of sustainable fuels. Transition metal chalcogenides show considerable promise as catalysts for this reaction, but to date there are very few reports of tellurides in this context, and none of these transition metal telluride catalysts are especially active. Here, we show that the catalytic performance of metallic 1T'-MoTe2 is improved dramatically when the electrode is held at cathodic bias. As a result, the overpotential required to maintain a current density of 10 mA cm-2 decreases from 320 mV to just 178 mV. We show that this rapid and reversible activation process has its origins in adsorption of H onto Te sites on the surface of 1T'-MoTe2. This activation process highlights the importance of subtle changes in the electronic structure of an electrode material and how these can influence the subsequent electrocatalytic activity that is displayed.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 370, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670694

RESUMO

The production of hydrogen through water splitting using earth-abundant metal catalysts is a promising pathway for converting solar energy into chemical fuels. However, existing approaches for fine stoichiometric control, structural and catalytic modification of materials by appropriate choice of earth abundant elements are either limited or challenging. Here we explore the tuning of redox active immobilised molecular metal-chalcoxide electrocatalysts by controlling the chalcogen or metal stoichiometry and explore critical aspects of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) shows that stoichiometric and structural control leads to the evolution of hydrogen at low overpotential with no catalyst degradation over 1000 cycles. Density functional calculations reveal the effect of the electronic and structural features and confer plausibility to the existence of a unimolecular mechanism in the HER process based on the tested hypotheses. We anticipate these findings to be a starting point for further exploration of molecular catalytic systems.

5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3342, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463823

RESUMO

We report on optimisation of the environmental stability and high temperature operation of surface transfer doping in hydrogen-terminated diamond using MoO3 and V2O5 surface acceptor layers. In-situ annealing of the hydrogenated diamond surface at 400 °C was found to be crucial to enhance long-term doping stability. High temperature sheet resistance measurements up to 300 °C were performed to examine doping thermal stability. Exposure of MoO3 and V2O5 transfer-doped hydrogen-terminated diamond samples up to a temperature of 300 °C in ambient air showed significant and irreversible loss in surface conductivity. Thermal stability was found to improve dramatically however when similar thermal treatment was performed in vacuum or in ambient air when the oxide layers were encapsulated with a protective layer of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ). Inspection of the films by X-ray diffraction revealed greater crystallisation of the MoO3 layers following thermal treatment in ambient air compared to the V2O5 films which appeared to remain amorphous. These results suggest that proper encapsulation and passivation of these oxide materials as surface acceptor layers on hydrogen-terminated diamond is essential to maximise their environmental and thermal stability.

6.
Sci Adv ; 1(3): e1500059, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601168

RESUMO

Understanding the relationship between the superconducting, the neighboring insulating, and the normal metallic state above T c is a major challenge for all unconventional superconductors. The molecular A3C60 fulleride superconductors have a parent antiferromagnetic insulator in common with the atom-based cuprates, but here, the C60 (3-) electronic structure controls the geometry and spin state of the structural building unit via the on-molecule Jahn-Teller effect. We identify the Jahn-Teller metal as a fluctuating microscopically heterogeneous coexistence of both localized Jahn-Teller-active and itinerant electrons that connects the insulating and superconducting states of fullerides. The balance between these molecular and extended lattice features of the electrons at the Fermi level gives a dome-shaped variation of T c with interfulleride separation, demonstrating molecular electronic structure control of superconductivity.

7.
Faraday Discuss ; 173: 95-103, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25324044

RESUMO

A solution chemistry synthetic route yields Cs(3)C(60) with a face-centred cubic structure. The described method uses well-established Schlenk techniques and THF as a solvent. The controlled addition of an organo-metallic salt reducing agent prevents the formation of C(60)(4-) salts. The final product can be precipitated from the solution using hexane as an anti-solvent.

8.
Sci Rep ; 4: 4265, 2014 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24584087

RESUMO

The alkali fullerides, A(3)C(60) (A = alkali metal) are molecular superconductors that undergo a transition to a magnetic Mott-insulating state at large lattice parameters. However, although the size and the symmetry of the superconducting gap, Δ, are both crucial for the understanding of the pairing mechanism, they are currently unknown for superconducting fullerides close to the correlation-driven magnetic insulator. Here we report a comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of face-centred-cubic (f.c.c.) Cs(3)C(60) polymorph, which can be tuned continuously through the bandwidth-controlled Mott insulator-metal/superconductor transition by pressure. When superconductivity emerges from the insulating state at large interfullerene separations upon compression, we observe an isotropic (s-wave) Δ with a large gap-to-superconducting transition temperature ratio, 2Δ0/k(B)T(c) = 5.3(2) [Δ0 = Δ(0 K)]. 2Δ0/k(B)T(c) decreases continuously upon pressurization until it approaches a value of ~3.5, characteristic of weak-coupling BCS theory of superconductivity despite the dome-shaped dependence of Tc on interfullerene separation. The results indicate the importance of the electronic correlations for the pairing interaction as the metal/superconductor-insulator boundary is approached.

9.
Nat Commun ; 3: 912, 2012 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22713754

RESUMO

The 'expanded fulleride' Cs(3)C(60) is an antiferromagnetic insulator in its normal state and becomes a molecular superconductor with T(c) as high as 38 K under pressure. There is mounting evidence that superconductivity is not of the conventional BCS type and electron-electron interactions are essential for its explanation. Here we present evidence for the dynamic Jahn-Teller effect as the source of the dramatic change in electronic structure occurring during the transition from the metallic to the localized state. We apply infrared spectroscopy, which can detect subtle changes in the shape of the C(60)3- ion due to the Jahn-Teller distortion. The temperature dependence of the spectra in the insulating phase can be explained by the gradual transformation from two temperature-dependent solid-state conformers to a single one, typical and unique for Jahn-Teller systems. These results unequivocally establish the relevance of the dynamic Jahn-Teller effect to overcoming Hund's rule and forming a low-spin state, leading to a magnetic Mott-Jahn-Teller insulator.

10.
Nature ; 466(7303): 221-5, 2010 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20485340

RESUMO

The crystal structure of a solid controls the interactions between the electronically active units and thus its electronic properties. In the high-temperature superconducting copper oxides, only one spatial arrangement of the electronically active Cu(2+) units-a two-dimensional square lattice-is available to study the competition between the cooperative electronic states of magnetic order and superconductivity. Crystals of the spherical molecular C(60)(3-) anion support both superconductivity and magnetism but can consist of fundamentally distinct three-dimensional arrangements of the anions. Superconductivity in the A(3)C(60) (A = alkali metal) fullerides has been exclusively associated with face-centred cubic (f.c.c.) packing of C(60)(3-) (refs 2, 3), but recently the most expanded (and thus having the highest superconducting transition temperature, T(c); ref. 4) composition Cs(3)C(60) has been isolated as a body-centred cubic (b.c.c.) packing, which supports both superconductivity and magnetic order. Here we isolate the f.c.c. polymorph of Cs(3)C(60) to show how the spatial arrangement of the electronically active units controls the competing superconducting and magnetic electronic ground states. Unlike all the other f.c.c. A(3)C(60) fullerides, f.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) is not a superconductor but a magnetic insulator at ambient pressure, and becomes superconducting under pressure. The magnetic ordering occurs at an order of magnitude lower temperature in the geometrically frustrated f.c.c. polymorph (Néel temperature T(N) = 2.2 K) than in the b.c.c.-based packing (T(N) = 46 K). The different lattice packings of C(60)(3-) change T(c) from 38 K in b.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) to 35 K in f.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) (the highest found in the f.c.c. A(3)C(60) family). The existence of two superconducting packings of the same electronically active unit reveals that T(c) scales universally in a structure-independent dome-like relationship with proximity to the Mott metal-insulator transition, which is governed by the role of electron correlations characteristic of high-temperature superconducting materials other than fullerides.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(46): 16944-52, 2009 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19863098

RESUMO

The ternary iron chalcogenide, Fe(1.03)Se(0.57)Te(0.43) is a member of the recently discovered family of Fe-based superconductors with an ambient pressure T(c) of 13.9 K and a simple structure comprising layers of edge-sharing distorted Fe(Se/Te)(4) tetrahedra separated by a van der Waals gap. Here we study the relationship between its structural and electronic responses to the application of pressure. T(c) depends sensitively on applied pressure attaining a broad maximum of 23.3 K at approximately 3 GPa. Further compression to 12 GPa leads to a metallic but nonsuperconducting ground state. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction shows that the superconducting phase is metrically orthorhombic at ambient pressure but pressurization to approximately 3 GPa leads to a structural transformation to a more distorted structure with monoclinic symmetry. The exact coincidence of the crystal symmetry crossover pressure with that at which T(c) is maximum reveals an intimate link between crystal and electronic structures of the iron chalcogenide superconductors.

12.
Science ; 323(5921): 1585-90, 2009 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19299615

RESUMO

The body-centered cubic A15-structured cesium fulleride Cs3C60 is not superconducting at ambient pressure and is free from disorder, unlike the well-studied face-centered cubic A3C60 alkali metal fulleride superconductors. We found that in Cs3C60, where the molecular valences are precisely assigned, the superconducting state at 38 kelvin emerges directly from a localized electron antiferromagnetic insulating state with the application of pressure. This transition maintains the threefold degeneracy of the active orbitals in both competing electronic states; it is thus a purely electronic transition to a superconducting state, with a dependence of the transition temperature on pressure-induced changes of anion packing density that is not explicable by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory.

13.
Nat Mater ; 7(5): 367-71, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18425134

RESUMO

C(60)-based solids are archetypal molecular superconductors with transition temperatures (Tc) as high as 33 K (refs 2-4). Tc of face-centred-cubic (f.c.c.) A(3)C(60) (A=alkali metal) increases monotonically with inter C(60) separation, which is controlled by the A(+) cation size. As Cs(+) is the largest such ion, Cs(3)C(60) is a key material in this family. Previous studies revealing trace superconductivity in Cs(x)C(60) materials have not identified the structure or composition of the superconducting phase owing to extremely small shielding fractions and low crystallinity. Here, we show that superconducting Cs(3)C(60) can be reproducibly isolated by solvent-controlled synthesis and has the highest Tc of any molecular material at 38 K. In contrast to other A(3)C(60) materials, two distinct cubic Cs(3)C(60) structures are accessible. Although f.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) can be synthesized, the superconducting phase has the A15 structure based uniquely among fullerides on body-centred-cubic packing. Application of hydrostatic pressure controllably tunes A15 Cs(3)C(60) from insulating at ambient pressure to superconducting without crystal structure change and reveals a broad maximum in Tc at approximately 7 kbar. We attribute the observed Tc maximum as a function of inter C(60)separation--unprecedented in fullerides but reminiscent of the atom-based cuprate superconductors--to the role of strong electronic correlations near the metal-insulator transition onset.

14.
Chemistry ; 14(15): 4521-32, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18381717

RESUMO

Substitution of the pillaring ligand in the homochiral open-framework [Ni(2)(L-asp)(2)(bipy)] by extended bipy-type ligands leads to a family of layer-structured, homochiral metal-organic frameworks. The 1D channel topology can be modified by the nature of the organic linker, with shape, cross-section and the chemical functionality tuneable. In addition, the volume of these channels can be increased by up to 36 % compared to the parent [Ni(2)(L-asp)(2)(bipy)]. The linker 1,4-dipyridylbenzene (3rbp) gives access to a new layered homochiral framework [Ni(2)(L-asp)(2)(3rbp)] with channels of a different shape. In specific cases, non-porous analogues with the linker also present as a guest can be activated to give porous materials after sublimation. Their CO(2) uptake shows an increase of up to 30 % with respect to the parent [Ni(2)(L-asp)(2)(bipy)] framework.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , 2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Níquel/química , Transição de Fase , Porosidade , Difração de Pó , Propriedades de Superfície
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