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2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401672

RESUMO

AIMS: In the placebo-controlled, double-blind BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) 2 trial, intracoronary autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) transfer did not improve recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 months in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and moderately reduced LVEF. Regional myocardial perfusion as determined by adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (S-CMR) may be more sensitive than global LVEF in detecting BMC treatment effects. Here, we sought to evaluate (i) the changes of myocardial perfusion in the infarct area over time (ii) the effects of BMC therapy on infarct perfusion, and (iii) the relation of infarct perfusion to LVEF recovery at 6 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 patients from BOOST-2 (placebo, n = 10; BMC, n = 41), S-CMR was performed 5.1 ± 2.9 days after PCI (before placebo/BMC treatment) and after 6 months. Infarct perfusion improved from baseline to 6 months in the overall patient cohort as reflected by the semi-quantitative parameters, perfusion defect-infarct size ratio (change from 0.54 ± 0.20 to 0.43 ± 0.22; P = 0.006) and perfusion defect-upslope ratio (0.54 ± 0.23 to 0.68 ± 0.22; P < 0.001), irrespective of randomised treatment. Perfusion defect-upslope ratio at baseline correlated with LVEF recovery (r = 0.62; P < 0.001) after 6 months, with a threshold of 0.54 providing the best sensitivity (79%) and specificity (74%) (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.92). CONCLUSION: Infarct perfusion improves from baseline to 6 months and predicts LVEF recovery in STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Intracoronary BMC therapy did not enhance infarct perfusion in the BOOST-2 trial.

3.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413090

RESUMO

Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL/KMT2A) rearrangements (MLL-r) are one of the most frequent chromosomal aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia. We evaluated the function of Meningioma 1 (MN1), a cofactor of HOXA9 and MEIS1, in human and murine MLL-rearranged leukemia by CRISPR-Cas9 mediated deletion of MN1. MN1 was required for in vivo leukemogenicity of MLL positive murine and human leukemia cells. Loss of MN1 inhibited cell cycle and proliferation, promoted apoptosis and induced differentiation of MLL-rearranged cells. Expression analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing from previously reported data sets demonstrated that MN1 primarily maintains active transcription of HOXA9 and HOXA10, which are critical downstream genes of MLL, and their target genes like BCL2, MCL1 and Survivin. Treatment of MLL-rearranged primary leukemia cells with anti-MN1 siRNA significantly reduced their clonogenic potential in contrast to normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, suggesting a therapeutic window for MN1 targeting. In summary, our findings demonstrate that MN1 plays an essential role in MLL fusion leukemias and serve as a therapeutic target in MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia.

4.
Blood ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270102

RESUMO

The use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has represented the standard of care in graft-versus-host (GVHD) prophylaxis in patients undergoing mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) transplant. The safety and feasibility of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) in this setting has recently been reported, but no studies have compared to date the outcomes of PTCY versus ATG in a 9/10 MMUD transplant. Using the registry data of the ALWP of the EBMT we performed a matched-pair analysis comparing those two strategies in a 9/10 MMUD setting. Ninety-three patients receiving PTCY were matched with 179 patients receiving ATG. A significantly lower incidence of severe acute GVHD was observed with PTCY as compared to ATG. Recipients of the former also showed higher leukemia-free and GVHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS). When performing a subgroup analysis including patients receiving peripheral blood stem cells, or being in complete remission (CR), or receiving the same associated immunosuppressive agents, superiority of PTCY over ATG was confirmed. Similarly to the haploidentical setting, use of PTCY is an effective anti GVHD prophylaxis also in the 9/10 MMUD transplant. Use of PTCY may also provide better outcomes in long-term disease control. These results need confirmation in large prospective randomized trials.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271887

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is potentially curative therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Marked improvement has been achieved with SCT from matched unrelated donors (MUDs) in recent years. However, there are limited data comparing the long-term outcomes (beyond 10 years) after SCT from sibling donors and MUDs in older patients with AML. We analyzed these outcomes in a large cohort of patients with AML (n = 1134), age ≥50 years, who were alive and leukemia-free 2 years after SCT from matched siblings (n = 848) or MUDs (n = 286), with a median follow-up of 8.9 years. The median age was 56 and 58 years after SCT from siblings and MUDs, respectively (P = .005). In the sibling group, 77%, 12%, and 11% were in first complete remission (CR1), second complete remission (CR2), and active leukemia at SCT compared with 50%, 25%, and 25% in the MUD group, respectively (P < .001). Sixty-one percent of siblings and 62% of MUDs had reduced-intensity conditioning (P = .78). The 10-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) of patients surviving leukemia-free 2 years after SCT was 72% and 62%, respectively (P = .30). Multivariate analysis identified active leukemia at SCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; P = .0001) or CR2 (HR, 1.51; P = .02) compared with CR1, female recipients (HR, 0.71; P = .006), adverse cytogenetics (HR, 2.52; P = .01), and prior graft-versus-host disease (HR, 1.31; P = .04) as independent factors predicting LFS. Donor and conditioning type were not significant. The cumulative incidence was 15% and 17% (P = .97) for late relapse mortality and 13% and 21% for late nonrelapse mortality, respectively (P = .15). In conclusion, long-term LFS is similar, and patients who are leukemia-free 2 years after SCT can expect favorable outcomes with both donor types.

6.
Blood ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292112

RESUMO

Combining the analysis of mutations with aberrant expression of genes previously related to poorer prognosis in both acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and acute myeloid leukemia, we propose an integrative score in APL (ISAPL) and demonstrate its relationship with clinical outcomes of patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Based on FLT3-ITD mutational status, ΔNp73/TAp73 expression ratio, ID1, BAALC, ERG, and KMT2E gene expression levels, we modeled ISAPL in 159 patients (median ISAPL score: 3, range: 0-10). ISAPL modeling identified two distinct groups of patients, with significant differences in early mortality (P<0.001), remission (P=0.004), overall survival (P<0.001), cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.028), disease-free survival (P=0.03), and event-free survival (P<0.001). These data were internally validated using a bootstrap resampling procedure. At least for patients treated with ATRA and anthracycline-based chemotherapy, ISAPL modeling may identify those who need to be treated differently to maximize their chances of cure.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181255

RESUMO

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allows for the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in older patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We compared outcomes between 713 patients age ≥70 years and 16,161 patients age 50 to 69 years who underwent HSCT between 2004 and 2014. A higher proportion of the older patients were male and had secondary AML, active disease, a peripheral blood stem cell graft, a matched unrelated donor, an RIC regimen, and a lower Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score (P< .001). In multivariate analysis, the incidences of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease and relapse were similar in the 2 age groups. Nonrelapse mortality at 2 years was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31% to 38%) in patients age ≥70 years and 24% (95% CI, 25% to 32%) in those age 50 to 69 years (P< .001). Survival at 2 years in the 2 groups was 38% (95% CI, 34% to 42%) and 50% (95% CI, 49% to 50%), respectively (P< .001). In patients with active disease, the corresponding percentages were 35% (95% CI, 29% to 41%) in those age ≥70 years and 33% (95% CI, 31% to 34%) in those age <70 years (P = .36). In patients age ≥70 years, a KPS score of ≥80% was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.06; P = .003). In summary, patients age ≥70 years had worse outcomes, except for those with active AML.

8.
Haematologica ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048355

RESUMO

Deletion 5q or monosomy 5 (-5/5q-) in acute myeloid leukemia is a common high-risk feature referred to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, -5/5q- is frequently associated with other high-risk cytogenetic aberrations such as complex karyotype, monosomal karyotype, monosomy 7 (-7), or 17p abnormalities (abn (17p)), the significance of which is unknown. In order to address this question, we studied adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia harboring -5/5q- having their first allogeneic transplantation between 2000 and 2015. Five hundred and one patients with -5/5q- have been analyzed. Three hundred thirty-eight patients (67%) were in first remission and 142 (28%) had an active disease at time of allogeneic transplantation. The 2-year probabilities of overall survival and leukemia-free survival were 27% and 20%, respectively. The 2-year probability of treatment-related mortality was 20%. We identified 4 different cytogenetic groups according to additional abnormalities with prognostic impact: -5/5q- without complex karyotype, monosomal karyotype or abn(17p), -5/5q- within a complex karyotype, -5/5q- within a monosomal karyotype and the combination of -5/5q- with abn(17p). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with worse overall survival and leukemia-free survival across the 4 groups were active disease, age, monosomal karyotype and abn(17p). The presence of -5/5q- without monosomal karyotype or abn(17p) was associated with a significantly better survival rate while -5/5q- in conjunction with monosomal karyotype or abn(17p) translated into a worse outcome. The patients harboring the combination of -5/5q- with abn(17p) showed very limited benefit from allogeneic transplantation.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2031, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048683

RESUMO

Mutations in the nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) gene are considered founder mutations in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To characterize the genetic composition of NPM1 mutated (NPM1mut) AML, we assess mutation status of five recurrently mutated oncogenes in 129 paired NPM1mut samples obtained at diagnosis and relapse. We find a substantial shift in the genetic pattern from diagnosis to relapse including NPM1mut loss (n = 11). To better understand these NPM1mut loss cases, we perform whole exome sequencing (WES) and RNA-Seq. At the time of relapse, NPM1mut loss patients (pts) feature distinct mutational patterns that share almost no somatic mutation with the corresponding diagnosis sample and impact different signaling pathways. In contrast, profiles of pts with persistent NPM1mut are reflected by a high overlap of mutations between diagnosis and relapse. Our findings confirm that relapse often originates from persistent leukemic clones, though NPM1mut loss cases suggest a second "de novo" or treatment-associated AML (tAML) as alternative cause of relapse.


Assuntos
Evolução Clonal , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Ann Hematol ; 98(8): 1905-1918, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104089

RESUMO

Efficient and safe delivery of siRNA in vivo is the biggest roadblock to clinical translation of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics. To date, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have shown efficient delivery of siRNA to the liver; however, delivery to other organs, especially hematopoietic tissues still remains a challenge. We developed DLin-MC3-DMA lipid-based LNP-siRNA formulations for systemic delivery against a driver oncogene to target human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells in vivo. A microfluidic mixing technology was used to obtain reproducible ionizable cationic LNPs loaded with siRNA molecules targeting the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene found in CML. We show a highly efficient and non-toxic delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo with nearly 100% uptake of LNP-siRNA formulations in bone marrow of a leukemic model. By targeting the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene, we show a reduction of leukemic burden in our myeloid leukemia mouse model and demonstrate reduced disease burden in mice treated with LNP-BCR-ABL siRNA as compared with LNP-CTRL siRNA. Our study provides proof-of-principle that fusion oncogene specific RNAi therapeutics can be exploited against leukemic cells and promise novel treatment options for leukemia patients.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/terapia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Animais , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Marcação de Genes/métodos , Humanos , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacocinética , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(4): 46, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979868

RESUMO

The role of umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with active disease at allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains poorly investigated. In this study, we compared transplantation outcomes of 2963 patients with primary refractory or relapsed AML given CBT, 10/10 HLA-matched UD, or 9/10 HLA-matched UD allo-HCT from 2004 to 2015 at EBMT-affiliated centers. Neutrophil engraftment and complete remission rates in CBT, UD 10/10, and UD 9/10 recipients were 75 and 48%, 93 and 69%, and 93 and 70%, respectively. In multivariate Cox analyses, in comparison with CBT (n = 285), UD 10/10 recipients (n = 2001) had a lower incidence of relapse (HR = 0.7, P = 0.001), a lower incidence of non relapse mortality (HR = 0.6, P < 0.001), better GVHD-free and leukemia-free survival (GRFS, HR = 0.8, P < 0.001) and better survival (HR = 0.6, P < 0.001). Further, in comparison with CBT, 9/10 UD recipients (n = 677) also had a lower incidence of relapse (HR = 0.8, P = 0.02), a lower incidence of nonrelapse mortality (HR = 0.7, P = 0.008), better GRFS (HR = 0.8, P = 0.01) and better survival (HR = 0.7, P < 0.001). In summary, these data suggest that in AML patients with active disease at transplantation, allo-HCT with UD results in better transplantation outcomes than CBT.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889204

RESUMO

Leukemia relapse is the main cause for mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Donor-derived allo-immune responses eliminate the residual host hematopoiesis and protect against relapse. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation (CMV-R) after allo-SCT may trigger anti-leukemic effects. The impact of CMV-specific CD8+ T-cells (CMV-CTLs) on the outcome after allo-SCT is currently unknown. Here, we studied the relationship between CMV-CTLs, overall T-cell reconstitution and relapse incidence in 103 patients with acute leukemia (n = 91) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 12) following CMV-seropositive recipient/donor (R+/D+) allo-SCT. Patients were subdivided based on the presence or absence of CMV-CTLs at 3 months after allo-SCT. Presence of CMV-CTLs was associated with preceding CMV-R and a fast T-cell reconstitution. Univariate analysis showed a significantly lower 1-, 2- and 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) in patients with CMV-CTLs compared to those without CMV-CTLs. Multivariable regression analysis of the outcome performed with other relevant parameters chosen from univariate analysis revealed that presence of CMV-CTLs and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) were the only independent factors associated with a low CIR. Onset of relapse was significantly later in patients with CMV-CTLs (median 489 days) than in in those without (median 152 days, p = 0.041) during a five-year follow-up. Presence of CMV-CTLs was associated with a lower incidence of early relapses (1 and 2-years), while cGvHD lead to a lower incidence of late relapses (2 to 5-years). In conclusion, our data show that CMV-CTLs indicate a functional immune-reconstitution protective against early relapse.

14.
Ann Hematol ; 98(4): 897-907, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610279

RESUMO

Standard first-line treatment of aggressive B cell lymphoma comprises six or eight cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) plus eight doses of rituximab (R). Whether adding two doses of rituximab to six cycles of R-CHOP is of therapeutic benefit has not been systematically investigated. The Positron Emission Tomography-Guided Therapy of Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (PETAL) trial investigated the ability of [18F]-fluorodesoxyglucose PET scanning to guide treatment in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Patients with B cell lymphomas and a negative interim scan received six cycles of R-CHOP with or without two extra doses of rituximab. For reasons related to trial design, only about a third underwent randomization between the two options. Combining randomized and non-randomized patients enabled subgroup analyses for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL; n = 544), primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL; n = 37), and follicular lymphoma (FL) grade 3 (n = 35). With a median follow-up of 52 months, increasing the number of rituximab administrations failed to improve outcome. A non-significant trend for improved event-free survival was seen in DLBCL high-risk patients, as defined by the International Prognostic Index, while inferior survival was observed in female patients below the age of 60 years. Long-term outcome in PMBCL was excellent. Differences between FL grade 3a and FL grade 3b were not apparent. The results were confirmed in a Cox proportional hazard regression model and a propensity score matching analysis. In conclusion, adding two doses of rituximab to six cycles of R-CHOP did not improve outcome in patients with aggressive B cell lymphomas and a fast metabolic treatment response.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Linfoma de Células B , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
15.
Blood ; 133(10): 1140-1151, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610028

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22) is characterized by considerable clinical and biological heterogeneity leading to relapse in up to 40% of patients. We sequenced coding regions or hotspot areas of 66 recurrently mutated genes in a cohort of 331 t(8;21) patients. At least 1 mutation, in addition to t(8;21), was identified in 95%, with a mean of 2.2 driver mutations per patient. Recurrent mutations occurred in genes related to RAS/RTK signaling (63.4%), epigenetic regulators (45%), cohesin complex (13.6%), MYC signaling (10.3%), and the spliceosome (7.9%). Our study identified mutations in previously unappreciated genes: GIGYF2, DHX15, and G2E3 Based on high mutant levels, pairwise precedence, and stability at relapse, epigenetic regulator mutations were likely to occur before signaling mutations. In 34% of RAS/RTKmutated patients, we identified multiple mutations in the same pathway. Deep sequencing (∼42 000×) of 126 mutations in 62 complete remission samples from 56 patients identified 16 persisting mutations in 12 patients, of whom 5 lacked RUNX1-RUNX1T1 in quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. KIT high mutations defined by a mutant level ≥25% were associated with inferior relapse-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.15; P = .005). Together with age and white blood cell counts, JAK2, FLT3-internal tandem duplicationhigh, and KIT high mutations were identified as significant prognostic factors for overall survival in multivariate analysis. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 19 paired diagnosis, remission, and relapse trios. Exome-wide analysis showed an average of 16 mutations with signs of substantial clonal evolution. Based on the resemblance of diagnosis and relapse pairs, genetically stable (n = 13) and unstable (n = 6) subgroups could be identified.

16.
Am J Hematol ; 94(4): 431-438, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597620

RESUMO

Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) arises as a late complication following antecedent solid tumors or hematologic diseases and their associated treatments. There are limited data regarding risk factors and outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for t-AML following a prior solid tumor, and furthermore, the impact of myeloablative (MAC) vs reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) on survival is unknown. The acute leukemia working party (ALWP) of the European society for blood and bone marrow transplantation (EBMT) performed a large registry study that included 535 patients with t-AML and prior solid tumor who underwent first MAC or RIC allogeneic HCT from 2000-2016. The primary endpoints of the study were OS and LFS. Patients receiving RIC regimens had an increase in relapse incidence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.26; P = 0.04), lower LFS (HR, 1.52; 95% CI 1.12-2.05, P = 0.007), and OS (HR, 1.51; CI 1.09-2.09; P = 0.012). There were no differences in NRM and GRFS. Importantly, LFS and OS were superior in patients receiving ablative regimens due to a decrease in relapse. As NRM continues to decline in the current era, it is conceivable that outcomes of HCT for t-AML with prior solid tumor may be improved by careful patient selection for myeloablative regimens.

17.
Leukemia ; 33(3): 686-695, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573777

RESUMO

The causes and rates of late patient-mortality following alloHCT for myelodysplastic syndromes or secondary acute myeloid leukemia were studied, to assess the contribution of relapse-related, treatment-related, and population factors. Data from EBMT on 6434 adults, who received a first alloHCT from January 2000 to December 2012, were retrospectively studied using combined land-marking, relative-survival methods and multi-state modeling techniques. Median age at alloHCT increased from 49 to 58 years, and the number of patients aged ≥65 years at alloHCT increased from 5 to 17%. Overall survival probability was 53% at 2 years and 35% at 10 years post-alloHCT. Survival probability at 5 years from the 2-year landmark was 88% for patients <45-year old and 63% for patients ≥65-year old at alloHCT. Cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for patients <45-year old at transplant was 7% rising to 25% for patients aged ≥65. For older patients, 31% of NRM-deaths could be attributed to population mortality. Favorable post-alloHCT long-term survival was seen; however, excess mortality-risk for all age groups was shown compared to the general population. A substantial part of total NRM for older patients was attributable to population mortality, information which aids the balanced explanation of post-HCT risk and helps improve long-term care.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/mortalidade , Transplante Homólogo/mortalidade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/mortalidade
18.
Leukemia ; 33(6): 1313-1323, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546081

RESUMO

BCR-ABL+acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults has a poor prognosis with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) considered the best curative option for suitable patients. We here characterize the curative potential of BH3-mimetics differentially targeting mitochondrial BCL2-family members using a combination therapy approach with dexamethasone and tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BCR-ABL. In BCR-ABL + ALL BH3-mimetics act by redistribution of mitochondrial activator BIM, which is strongly required for cytotoxicity of the BCL2-specific BH3-mimetic ABT-199, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and dexamethasone. BIM expression is enhanced by dexamethasone and TKIs and both synergize with ABT-199 in BCR-ABL + ALL. Triple combinations with ABT-199, dexamethasone and TKIs efficiently attenuate leukemia progression both in tissue culture and in primary cell xenotransplantation models. Notably, the dasatinib-containing combination led to treatment- and leukemia-free long-term survival in a BCR-ABL + mouse model. Finally, response to BH3-mimetics can be predicted for individual patients in a clinically relevant setting. These data demonstrate curative targeted and chemotherapy-free pharmacotherapy for BCR-ABL + ALL in a preclinical model. Clinical evaluation, in particular for patients not suitable for allogeneic SCT, is warranted.

19.
Blood ; 133(8): 840-851, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563875

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) have poor outcomes to current treatment. A phase 2 hypothesis-generating trial was conducted to determine whether the addition of the multitargeted kinase inhibitor midostaurin to intensive chemotherapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) and single-agent maintenance therapy of 12 months is feasible and favorably influences event-free survival (EFS) compared with historical controls. Patients 18 to 70 years of age with newly diagnosed AML and centrally confirmed FLT3-ITD were eligible: 284 patients were treated, including 198 younger (18-60 years) and 86 older (61-70 years) patients. Complete remission (CR) rate, including CR with incomplete hematological recovery (CRi) after induction therapy, was 76.4% (younger, 75.8%; older, 77.9%). The majority of patients in CR/CRi proceeded to alloHCT (72.4%). Maintenance therapy was started in 97 patients (34%): 75 after alloHCT and 22 after consolidation with high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC). Median time receiving maintenance therapy was 9 months after alloHCT and 10.5 months after HiDAC; premature termination was mainly a result of nonrelapse causes (gastrointestinal toxicity and infections). EFS and overall survival at 2 years were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33%-47%) and 34% (95% CI, 24%-47%) and 53% (95% CI, 46%-61%) and 46% (95% CI, 35%-59%) in younger and older patients, respectively. EFS was evaluated in comparison with 415 historical controls treated within 5 prospective trials. Propensity score-weighted analysis revealed a significant improvement of EFS by midostaurin (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48-0.70; P < .001) overall and in older patients (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.29-0.61). The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01477606.

20.
Am J Pathol ; 189(3): 521-539, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593822

RESUMO

Humanized mice developing functional human T cells endogenously and capable of recognizing cognate human leukocyte antigen-matched tumors are emerging as relevant models for studying human immuno-oncology in vivo. Herein, mice transplanted with human CD34+ stem cells and bearing endogenously developed human T cells for >15 weeks were infected with an oncogenic recombinant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), encoding enhanced firefly luciferase and green fluorescent protein. EBV-firefly luciferase was detectable 1 week after infection by noninvasive optical imaging in the spleen, from where it spread rapidly and systemically. EBV infection resulted into a pronounced immunologic skewing regarding the expansion of CD8+ T cells in the blood outnumbering the CD4+ T and CD19+ B cells. Furthermore, within 10 weeks of infections, mice developing EBV-induced tumors had significantly higher absolute numbers of CD8+ T cells in lymphatic tissues than mice controlling tumor development. Tumor outgrowth was paralleled by an up-regulation of the programmed cell death receptor 1 on CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, indicative for T-cell dysfunction. Histopathological examinations and in situ hybridizations for EBV in tumors, spleen, liver, and kidney revealed foci of EBV-infected cells in perivascular regions in close association with programmed cell death receptor 1-positive infiltrating lymphocytes. The strong spatiotemporal correlation between tumor development and the T-cell dysfunctional status seen in this viral oncogenesis humanized model replicates observations obtained in the clinical setting.

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