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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan is prescribed to patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to slow disease progression. Tolvaptan may alter BP via various acute and chronic effects. METHODS: To investigate the magnitude and time course of the effect of tolvaptan use on BP, we conducted a post hoc study of the TEMPO 3:4 trial, which included 1445 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease randomized 2:1 to tolvaptan or placebo for 3 years. We evaluated systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, hypertension status, and use and dosing of antihypertensive drugs over the course of the trial. RESULTS: At baseline, BP did not differ between study arms. After 3 weeks of tolvaptan use, mean body weight had decreased from 79.7 to 78.8 kg, and mean plasma sodium increased from 140.4 to 142.6 mmol/L (both P<0.001), suggesting a decrease in circulating volume. We observed none of these changes in the placebo arm. Nonetheless, BP remained similar in the study arms. After 3 years of treatment, however, mean systolic BP was significantly lower in participants receiving tolvaptan versus placebo (126 versus 129 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.002), as was mean diastolic BP (81.2 versus 82.6 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.01). These differences leveled off at follow-up 3 weeks after discontinuation of the study medication. Use of antihypertensive drugs remained similar in both study arms during the entire study. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment with tolvaptan gradually lowered BP compared with placebo, which may be attributed to a beneficial effect on disease progression, a continued natriuretic effect, or both. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: TEMPO 3:4, NCT00428948.

2.
Drugs R D ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779943

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gallstones are a known adverse effect of somatostatin analogs, but the exact incidence and clinical implications are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of gallstones on imaging and related complications in unbiased trial data. METHODS: Data from the DIPAK 1 trial, in which 305 polycystic kidney disease patients were randomized to standard of care (SoC) or lanreotide for 120 weeks, were used. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at baseline and end of treatment and was assessed for the presence, number, and size of gallstones. For all patients who had gallstones at the end of the trial, we obtained follow-up after the trial. RESULTS: Of 249 patients with data available, 11 patients randomized to lanreotide and four randomized to SoC had gallstones at baseline. During the study, new gallstones were formed in 19/124 patients using lanreotide (15%) and 1/125 patients receiving SoC (1%). The odds ratio for gallstone formation with lanreotide use was 25.9 (95% confidence interval 3.37-198.8; p < 0.001). Gallstones during lanreotide treatment were multiple (> 20 stones in 69% of patients) and small (≤ 3 mm in 63% of patients). Of the 19 patients with incident gallstones during lanreotide treatment, 9 experienced gallstone-associated complications, 8 of whom experienced gallstone-associated complications after discontinuation of treatment (median time after discontinuation 2.5 years). In patients with gallstones at baseline and in patients receiving SoC, no complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a somatostatin analog leads to the formation of multiple, small gallstones that are associated with severe complications, especially after discontinuation of therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY WEBSITE AND TRIAL NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov ( https://clinicaltrials.gov ); NCT01616927.

3.
BMJ ; 372: n461, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess age differences in risk factors for incident heart failure in the general population. DESIGN: Pooled population based cohort study. SETTING: Framingham Heart Study, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. PARTICIPANTS: 24 675 participants without a history of heart failure stratified by age into young (<55 years; n=11 599), middle aged (55-64 years; n=5587), old (65-74 years; n=5190), and elderly (≥75 years; n=2299) individuals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident heart failure. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 138/11 599 (1%), 293/5587 (5%), 538/5190 (10%), and 412/2299 (18%) of young, middle aged, old, and elderly participants, respectively, developed heart failure. In young participants, 32% (n=44) of heart failure cases were classified as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared with 43% (n=179) in elderly participants. Risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, current smoking history, and previous myocardial infarction conferred greater relative risk in younger compared with older participants (P for interaction <0.05 for all). For example, hypertension was associated with a threefold increase in risk of future heart failure in young participants (hazard ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 2.10 to 4.34; P<0.001) compared with a 1.4-fold risk in elderly participants (1.43, 1.13 to 1.81; P=0.003). The absolute risk for developing heart failure was lower in younger than in older participants with and without risk factors. Importantly, known risk factors explained a greater proportion of overall population attributable risk for heart failure in young participants (75% v 53% in elderly participants), with better model performance (C index 0.79 v 0.64). Similarly, the population attributable risks of obesity (21% v 13%), hypertension (35% v 23%), diabetes (14% v 7%), and current smoking (32% v 1%) were higher in young compared with elderly participants. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a lower incidence and absolute risk of heart failure among younger compared with older people, the stronger association and greater attributable risk of modifiable risk factors among young participants highlight the importance of preventive efforts across the adult life course.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 60(4): 517-525, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitor, was originally developed as an oral glucose-lowering drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Emerging data suggest that cardiovascular and kidney benefits extend to patients without diabetes. Limited pharmacological data are, however, available in patients without diabetes. We aimed to characterise the pharmacokinetic profile of dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial (DIAMOND, NCT03190694, n = 53) that assessed the effects of 10 mg of dapagliflozin in patients with a glomerular filtration rate ≥ 25 mL/min/1.73 m2 and proteinuria > 500 mg/day. Mixed-effects models were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model and to evaluate the association between plasma exposure and response. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations (n = 430 observations) from 48 patients (mean age 50.8 years, mean glomerular filtration rate 57.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, median proteinuria 1115 mg/24 h) were best described using a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution were 11.7 (95% confidence interval 10.7-12.7) L/h and 44.9 (95% confidence interval 39.0-50.9) L, respectively. Median dapagliflozin plasma exposure was 740.9 ng h/mL (2.5th-97.5th percentiles: 434.0-1615.3). Plasma exposure increased with decreasing kidney function. Every 100-ng h/mL increment in dapagliflozin plasma exposure was associated with a decrease in the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ß = - 2.8%, p = 0.01), glomerular filtration rate (ß = - 0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.4 mmHg, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The dapagliflozin plasma concentration-time profile in patients with non-diabetic kidney disease appears similar to the profile of patients with diabetic kidney disease described in the literature. Furthermore, the plasma exposure was associated with changes in risk markers for kidney disease.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(3): 396-402, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443299

RESUMO

AIMS: There are limited data examining whether body mass index (BMI) influences the association between cardiovascular biomarkers and incident heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen biomarkers representing key HF domains were measured: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), mid-regional pro-A-type natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, galectin-3, C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, copeptin, renin, aldosterone, and cystatin-C. Associations of biomarkers with BMI were examined using linear regression models, and with incident HF using Cox regression models. We selected biomarkers significantly associated with incident HF, and evaluated whether BMI modified these associations. Among 8202 individuals, 41% were overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2 ), and 16% were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ). Mean age of the cohort was 49 years (range 28-75), and 50% were women. All biomarkers except renin were associated with BMI: inverse associations were observed with NT-proBNP, MR-proANP, CT-proET-1 and aldosterone whereas positive associations were observed with the remaining biomarkers (all P ≤ 0.001). During 11.3 ± 3.1 years of follow-up, 357 HF events were recorded. Only NT-proBNP, MR-proANP and cTnT remained associated with incident HF (P < 0.001), and a significant biomarker*BMI interaction was not observed (interaction P > 0.1). Combined NT-proBNP and cTnT measurements modestly improved performance metrics of the clinical HF model in overweight (ΔC-statistic = 0.024; likelihood ratio χ2  = 38; P < 0.001) and obese (ΔC-statistic = 0.020; likelihood ratio χ2  = 32; P < 0.001) individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentrations of several cardiovascular biomarkers are influenced by obesity. Only NT-proBNP, MR-proANP and cTnT were associated with incident HF, and BMI did not modify these associations. A combination of NT-proBNP and cTnT improves HF risk prediction in overweight and obese individuals.

6.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(2): 204-212, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Predicting disease progression in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) poses a challenge, especially in early-stage disease when kidney function is not yet affected. Ongoing growth of cysts causes maximal urine-concentrating capacity to decrease from early on. We therefore hypothesized that the urine-to-plasma urea ratio, as a reflection of the urine-concentrating capacity, can be used as a marker to predict ADPKD progression. DESIGN: The urine-to-plasma urea ratio was calculated by dividing concentrations of early morning fasting spot urine urea by plasma urea. First, this ratio was validated as surrogate marker in 30 patients with ADPKD who underwent a prolonged water deprivation test. Thereafter, association with kidney outcome was evaluated in 583 patients with ADPKD with a broad range of kidney function. Multivariable mixed-model regression was used to assess association with eGFR slope, and logarithmic regression to identify patients with rapidly progressive disease, using a cutoff of -3.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year. The urine-to-plasma urea ratio was compared with established predictors, namely, sex, age, baseline eGFR, Mayo Clinic height-adjusted total kidney volume class, and PKD gene mutation. RESULTS: The maximal urine-concentrating capacity and urine-to-plasma urea ratio correlated strongly (R=0.90; P<0.001). Next, the urine-to-plasma urea ratio was significantly associated with rate of eGFR decline during a median follow-up of 4.0 (interquartile range, 2.6-5.0) years, both crude and after correction for established predictors (ß=0.58; P=0.02). The odds ratio of rapidly progressive disease was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.52; P<0.001) for every 10 units decrease in urine-to-plasma urea ratio, with adjustment for predictors. A combined risk score of the urine-to-plasma urea ratio, Mayo Clinic height-adjusted total kidney volume class, and PKD mutation predicted rapidly progressive disease better than each of the predictors separately. CONCLUSIONS: The urine-to-plasma urea ratio, which is calculated from routine laboratory measurements, predicts disease progression in ADPKD in addition to other risk markers. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2021_01_27_CJN10470620_final.mp3.

7.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359149

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a heritable component. We aimed to quantify familial aggregation of CKD in the general population and assess the extent to which kidney traits could be explained by genetic and environmental factors. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional 3-generation family study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected at entry into the Lifelines Cohort Study from a sample of the general population of the northern Netherlands, composed predominantly of individuals of European ancestry. EXPOSURE: Family history of CKD. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60mL/min/1.73m2, where GFR was estimated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. Among a subsample for which urinary albumin concentration was available (n=59,943), urinary albumin excretion was expressed as the rate of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) per 24 hours or urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR). ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Familial aggregation of CKD was assessed by calculating the recurrence risk ratio (RRR), using adapted Cox proportional hazards models. Heritability of continuous kidney-related traits was estimated using linear mixed models and defined as the ratio of the additive genetic variance to total phenotypic variance. All models were adjusted for age, sex, and known risk factors for kidney disease. RESULTS: Among 155,911 participants with available eGFR data, the prevalence of CKD was 1.19% (1,862 cases per 155,911). The risk of CKD in those with an affected first-degree relative was 3 timeshigher than the risk in the total sample (RRR, 3.04 [95% CI, 2.26-4.09). In those with an affected spouse, risk of CKD was also higher (RRR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.20-1.96]), indicative of shared environmental factors and/or assortative mating. Heritability estimates of eGFR, UAE, and UACR were 44%, 20%, and 18%, respectively. For serum urea, creatinine, and uric acid, estimates were 31%, 37%, and 48%, respectively, whereas estimates for serum electrolytes ranged from 22% to 28%. LIMITATIONS: Use of estimated rather than measured GFR. UAE data only available in a subsample. CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based family study, a positive family history was strongly associated with increased risk of CKD. We observed moderate to high heritability of kidney traits and related biomarkers. These results indicate an important role of genetic factors in CKD risk.

8.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(1): 48-58, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tolvaptan slows kidney function decline in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) at risk of rapid progression. In the 3-year Tolvaptan Efficacy and Safety in Management of ADPKD and Its Outcomes (TEMPO) 3:4, 2-year extension to TEMPO 3:4 (TEMPO 4:4), and 1-year Replicating Evidence of Preserved Renal Function: An Investigation of Tolvaptan Safety and Efficacy in ADPKD (REPRISE) trials, aquaretic adverse events were common. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations occurred in all three studies. Three patients met Hy Law criteria (ALT or AST more than three times and total bilirubin more than two times the upper limit of normal) for severe drug-induced liver injury (two in TEMPO 3:4 and one in TEMPO 4:4). In REPRISE, liver enzyme monitoring frequency was increased to monthly, with no Hy Law cases. A long-term, phase 3 safety study has further characterized tolvaptan safety. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Subjects who completed TEMPO 4:4, REPRISE, or other tolvaptan trials could enroll in this prospective, multinational, open-label safety study. Assessments included monthly liver enzyme testing during the first 18 months of tolvaptan exposure and every 3 months thereafter. RESULTS: Among 1803 subjects, median tolvaptan exposure during the extension was 651 days (interquartile range, 538-924), and cumulative exposure (extension and previous trials) was ≤11 years. Subjects entering from REPRISE placebo experienced more aquaretic adverse events compared with subjects from TEMPO 4:4 or REPRISE tolvaptan (i.e., patients with prior long-term tolvaptan exposure). Liver enzyme elevations also occurred more frequently in subjects from REPRISE placebo. Percentages experiencing ALT ≥3/≥5/ ≥10/≥20 times the upper limit of normal were 3.2%/2.1%/0.9%/0.7%, respectively, in subjects from REPRISE placebo and 0.6%-1.1%/0.0%-0.1%/0%/0%, respectively, in those from REPRISE tolvaptan and TEMPO 4:4. Percentages experiencing AST ≥3/ ≥5/≥10/≥20 times the upper limit of normal were 6.9%/3.8%/2.3%/0.8%, respectively, in subjects from REPRISE placebo and 0.9%-2.0%/0.0%-1.0%/0%/0%, respectively, in those from REPRISE tolvaptan and TEMPO 4:4. No Hy Law cases occurred. CONCLUSIONS: No new safety signals emerged during this long-term extension. Monthly liver function testing for the first 18 months of treatment appeared to enable effective detection and management of transaminase elevations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open Label Extension of TEMPO 3:4, NCT02251275.

9.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are treated with a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (V2RA) to slow disease progression. This drug increases vasopressin considerably in these patients with already elevated baseline levels. Vasopressin is known to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through V1 and V3 receptor activation. It is unknown whether this increase in vasopressin during V2RA treatment affects glucocorticoid production. METHODS: Twenty-seven ADPKD patients were studied on and off treatment with a V2RA and compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls and IgA nephropathy patients, the latter also matched for kidney function. Vasopressin was measured by its surrogate copeptin. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretions of cortisol, cortisone, tetrahydrocortisone, tetrahydrocortisol, allotetrahydrocortisol, and the total glucocorticoid pool were measured. RESULTS: At baseline, ADPKD patients demonstrated a higher copeptin concentration in comparison with healthy controls, while urinary excretion of cortisol and cortisone was lower (medians of 0.23 vs. 0.34 µmol/24 h, p = 0.007, and 0.29 vs. 0.53 µmol/24 h, p < 0.001, respectively). There were no differences in cortisol and cortisone excretion compared to IgA nephropathy patients. Cortisol, cortisone, and total glucocorticoid excretions correlated with kidney function (R = 0.37, 0.58, and 0.19, respectively; all p < 0.05). Despite that V2RA treatment resulted in a 3-fold increase in copeptin, only cortisone excretion increased (median of 0.44 vs. baseline 0.29 µmol/24 h, p < 0.001), whereas no changes in cortisol or total glucocorticoid excretion were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Increased concentration of vasopressin in ADPKD patients at baseline and during V2RA treatment does not result in activation of the HPA axis. The impaired glucocorticoid production in these patients is related to their degree of kidney function impairment.

10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100552, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150324

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and albuminuria) are frequently assessed in clinical practice and improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet most major clinical guidelines do not have a standardized approach for incorporating these measures into CVD risk prediction. "CKD Patch" is a validated method to calibrate and improve the predicted risk from established equations according to CKD measures. Methods: Utilizing data from 4,143,535 adults from 35 datasets, we developed several "CKD Patches" incorporating eGFR and albuminuria, to enhance prediction of risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) by the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) and CVD mortality by Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The risk enhancement by CKD Patch was determined by the deviation between individual CKD measures and the values expected from their traditional CVD risk factors and the hazard ratios for eGFR and albuminuria. We then validated this approach among 4,932,824 adults from 37 independent datasets, comparing the original PCE and SCORE equations (recalibrated in each dataset) to those with addition of CKD Patch. Findings: We confirmed the prediction improvement with the CKD Patch for CVD mortality beyond SCORE and ASCVD beyond PCE in validation datasets (Δc-statistic 0.027 [95% CI 0.018-0.036] and 0.010 [0.007-0.013] and categorical net reclassification improvement 0.080 [0.032-0.127] and 0.056 [0.044-0.067], respectively). The median (IQI) of the ratio of predicted risk for CVD mortality with CKD Patch vs. the original prediction with SCORE was 2.64 (1.89-3.40) in very high-risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 30-44 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria ≥30 mg/g), 1.86 (1.48-2.44) in high-risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria 30-299 mg/g), and 1.37 (1.14-1.69) in moderate risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria 30-299 mg/g), indicating considerable risk underestimation in CKD with SCORE. The corresponding estimates for ASCVD with PCE were 1.55 (1.37-1.81), 1.24 (1.10-1.54), and 1.21 (0.98-1.46). Interpretation: The "CKD Patch" can be used to quantitatively enhance ASCVD and CVD mortality risk prediction equations recommended in major US and European guidelines according to CKD measures, when available. Funding: US National Kidney Foundation and the NIDDK.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), hypertension is prevalent and cardiovascular events are the main cause of death. Thiazide diuretics are often prescribed as second-line antihypertensives, on top of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade. There is a concern, however, that diuretics may increase vasopressin concentration and RAAS activity, thereby worsening disease progression in ADPKD. We aimed to investigate the validity of these suggestions. METHODS: We analysed an observational cohort of 533 ADPKD patients. Plasma copeptin (surrogate for vasopressin), aldosterone and renin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Linear mixed models were used to assess the association of thiazide use with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline and Cox proportional hazards models for the association with the composite kidney endpoint of incident end-stage kidney disease, 40% eGFR decline or death. RESULTS: A total of 23% of participants (n = 125) used thiazide diuretics at baseline. Compared with non-users, thiazide users were older, a larger proportion was male, they had lower eGFRs and similar blood pressure under more antihypertensives. Plasma copeptin was higher, but this difference disappeared after adjustment for age and sex. Both renin and aldosterone were higher in thiazide users. There was no difference between thiazide users and non-users in the rate of eGFR decline {difference -0.35 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.83 to -0.14], P = 0.2} during 3.9 years of follow-up (interquartile range 2.5-4.9). This did not change after adjustment for potential confounders [difference final model: 0.08 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year [95% CI -0.46 to -0.62], P = 0.8). In the crude model, thiazide use was associated with a higher incidence of the composite kidney endpoint [hazard ratio (HR) 1.53 (95% CI 1.05-2.23), P = 0.03]. However, this association lost significance after adjustment for age and sex and remained unassociated after adjustment for additional confounders [final model: HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.50-1.29), P = 0.4]. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not show that thiazide diuretics have a detrimental effect on the rate of disease progression in ADPKD and suggest that these drugs can be prescribed as second-line antihypertensives.

12.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(11): 1973-1983, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients on kidney replacement therapy comprise a vulnerable population and may be at increased risk of death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, only limited data are available on outcomes in this patient population. METHODS: We set up the ERACODA (European Renal Association COVID-19 Database) database, which is specifically designed to prospectively collect detailed data on kidney transplant and dialysis patients with COVID-19. For this analysis, patients were included who presented between 1 February and 1 May 2020 and had complete information available on the primary outcome parameter, 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1073 patients enrolled, 305 (28%) were kidney transplant and 768 (72%) dialysis patients with a mean age of 60 ± 13 and 67 ± 14 years, respectively. The 28-day probability of death was 21.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 14.3-30.2%] in kidney transplant and 25.0% (95% CI 20.2-30.0%) in dialysis patients. Mortality was primarily associated with advanced age in kidney transplant patients, and with age and frailty in dialysis patients. After adjusting for sex, age and frailty, in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between transplant and dialysis patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.59-1.10, P = 0.18]. In the subset of dialysis patients who were a candidate for transplantation (n = 148), 8 patients died within 28 days, as compared with 7 deaths in 23 patients who underwent a kidney transplantation <1 year before presentation (HR adjusted for sex, age and frailty 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.56, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The 28-day case-fatality rate is high in patients on kidney replacement therapy with COVID-19 and is primarily driven by the risk factors age and frailty. Furthermore, in the first year after kidney transplantation, patients may be at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality as compared with dialysis patients on the waiting list for transplantation. This information is important in guiding clinical decision-making, and for informing the public and healthcare authorities on the COVID-19-related mortality risk in kidney transplant and dialysis patients.

13.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0258, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134948

RESUMO

Objectives: Optimizing continuous renal replacement therapy circuit survival in coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to the ICU. Design: Single-center prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Tertiary academic teaching ICU. Patients: Between March 19, 2020, and May 18, 2020, 11 out of 101 coronavirus disease 2019 patients were treated with continuous renal replacement therapy comprising 127 continuous renal replacement therapy days. Interventions: A nonrandomized observational comparison of circuit anticoagulation modalities using standard regional citrate anticoagulation, continuous IV heparin anticoagulation, or the combination of regional citrate anticoagulation with either continuous IV heparin or therapeutic dose nadroparin. Measurements and Main Results: Circuit patency was shorter than 24 hours using standard regional citrate anticoagulation or continuous IV heparin anticoagulation. Median circuit survival increased with at least 165% when the combination of regional citrate anticoagulation with either continuous IV heparin or therapeutic dose nadroparin was applied. Conclusions: Continuous renal replacement therapy circuit patency is diminished in coronavirus disease 2019 ICU patients. Combining regional citrate anticoagulation with either continuous IV heparin or therapeutic dose nadroparin increases filter survival as compared with regional citrate anticoagulation alone in this nonrandomized observational study.

14.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137338

RESUMO

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m2/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower urinary excretion of the kidney tubule-specific biomarker epidermal growth factor (uEGF) is associated with increased risk of renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)] loss in diabetes and in patients with established chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated whether uEGF is associated with rapid GFR decline or incident CKD in the general population. METHODS: Subjects without CKD or diabetes were recruited from the general population in Tromso, Norway [Renal Iohexol Clearance Survey (RENIS); N = 1249] and Groningen, the Netherlands [Prevention of REnal and Vascular END-stage disease (PREVEND); N = 4534], with a median follow-up of 5.6 and 7.4 years, respectively. GFR was measured by iohexol clearance in the RENIS and estimated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine-cystatin C equation in the PREVEND study. Rapid GFR decline was defined as an annual GFR loss >3.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 and in sensitivity analyses as subjects with the 10% steepest GFR slope within each cohort. RESULTS: Lower baseline uEGF excretion was associated with rapid GFR loss in both cohorts {RENIS, odds ratio [OR] per 1 µg/mmol lower uEGF 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.91], P = 0.02; PREVEND, OR 1.29 [95% CI 1.10-1.53], P < 0.01}, adjusted for baseline GFR, albumin:creatinine ratio and conventional CKD risk factors. Similar results were obtained using the outcome of the 10% steepest GFR slope in each cohort. Lower uEGF levels were associated with incident CKD in the combined analysis of both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Lower uEGF levels are associated with increased risk of rapid GFR loss and incident CKD in the general population. This finding, together with previous findings in CKD and high-risk populations, supports that uEGF may serve as a broadly applicable biomarker representing the tubular component of the current glomerulus-centric clinical risk assessment system.

17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089864

RESUMO

Both genetic predisposition and low educational attainment (EA) are associated with higher risk of chronic kidney disease. We examined the interaction of EA and genetic risk in kidney function outcomes. We included 3,597 participants from the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd stage Disease Cohort Study, a longitudinal study in a community-based sample from Groningen, the Netherlands (median follow-up 11 years, 1997-2012). Kidney function was approximated by estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from serum creatinine and cystatin C. Individual longitudinal linear eGFR trajectories were derived from linear mixed models. Genotype data on 63 single nucleotide polymorphisms, with known associations to eGFR, were used to calculate an allele-weighted genetic score (WGS). EA was categorized into high, medium, and low. In ordinary least squares analysis, higher WGS and lower EA showed additive effects on reduced baseline eGFR; the interaction term was non-significant. In analysis of eGFR decline, the significant interaction term suggested amplification of genetic risk by low EA. Adjustment for known renal risk factors did not affect our results. This study presents the first evidence of gene-environment interaction between EA and a WGS on eGFR decline, and provides population-level insights into the mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in chronic kidney disease.

18.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038005, 2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Presymptomatic testing is available for early diagnosis of hereditary autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, the complex ethical and psychosocial implications can make decision-making challenging and require an understanding of patients' values, goals and priorities. This study aims to describe patient and caregiver beliefs and expectations regarding presymptomatic testing for ADPKD. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 154 participants (120 patients and 34 caregivers) aged 18 years and over from eight centres in Australia, France and Korea participated in 17 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. RESULTS: We identified five themes: avoiding financial disadvantage (insecurity in the inability to obtain life insurance, limited work opportunities, financial burden); futility in uncertainty (erratic and diverse manifestations of disease limiting utility, taking preventive actions in vain, daunted by perplexity of results, unaware of risk of inheriting ADPKD); lacking autonomy and support in decisions (overwhelmed by ambiguous information, medicalising family planning, family pressures); seizing control of well-being (gaining confidence in early detection, allowing preparation for the future, reassurance in family resilience); and anticipating impact on quality of life (reassured by lack of symptoms, judging value of life with ADPKD). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with ADPKD, presymptomatic testing provides an opportunity to take ownership of their health through family planning and preventive measures. However, these decisions can be wrought with tensions and uncertainty about prognostic implications, and the psychosocial and financial burden of testing. Healthcare professionals should focus on genetic counselling, mental health and providing education to patients' families to support informed decision-making. Policymakers should consider the cost burden and risk of discrimination when informing government policies. Finally, patients are recommended to focus on self-care from an early age.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1455-1465, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and biomarkers associate differentially with heart failure (HF) risk in men and women is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex-specific associations of CV risk factors and biomarkers with incident HF. METHODS: The analysis was performed using data from 4 community-based cohorts with 12.5 years of follow-up. Participants (recruited between 1989 and 2002) were free of HF at baseline. Biomarker measurements included natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, sST2, galectin-3, cystatin-C, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS: Among 22,756 participants (mean age 60 ± 13 years, 53% women), HF occurred in 2,095 participants (47% women). Age, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, body mass index, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left bundle branch block were strongly associated with HF in both sexes (p < 0.001), and the combined clinical model had good discrimination in men (C-statistic = 0.80) and in women (C-statistic = 0.83). The majority of biomarkers were strongly and similarly associated with HF in both sexes. The clinical model improved modestly after adding natriuretic peptides in men (ΔC-statistic = 0.006; likelihood ratio chi-square = 146; p < 0.001), and after adding cardiac troponins in women (ΔC-statistic = 0.003; likelihood ratio chi-square = 73; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CV risk factors are strongly and similarly associated with incident HF in both sexes, highlighting the similar importance of risk factor control in reducing HF risk in the community. There are subtle sex-related differences in the predictive value of individual biomarkers, but the overall improvement in HF risk estimation when included in a clinical HF risk prediction model is limited in both sexes.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888017

RESUMO

Medical societies have a social responsibility to disseminate knowledge and inform health authorities on threats to public health posed by various diseases. Advocacy for health protection programmes and for medical research funding is now embedded into the missions of most scientific societies. To promote kidney research funding in Europe, the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA), rather than acting as an individual society advocating for the fight against kidney disease, has actively helped to create an alliance of national associations centred on kidney diseases, the European Kidney Health Alliance (EKHA), and joined the Biomedical Alliance (BMA). The ERA-EDTA is fully committed to supporting its working groups (WGs) and consortia of its members to allow them to produce valuable kidney research. The framing and formalization of projects, and the regulatory issues related to submission to the European Commission, are complex. To help WGs to gain expert advice from agencies with specific know-how, the ERA-EDTA has adopted a competitive approach. The best research projects proposed by WGs and consortia of other European investigators will receive seed funding to cover the costs of consultancy by expert agencies. Via its broader platforms, the EKHA and the BMA, the ERA-EDTA will strive towards broader recognition of kidney disease and related clusters of non-communicable diseases, by European and national agencies, as major threats to the qualities of life of their populations and their economies.

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