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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419446

RESUMO

The miniaturization of diagnostic devices that exploit optical detection schemes requires the design of light sources combining small size, high performance for effective excitation of chromophores, and mechanical flexibility for easy coupling to components with complex and nonplanar shapes. Here, ZnO nanowire-in-fiber hybrids with internal architectural order are introduced, exhibiting a combination of polarized stimulated emission, low propagation losses of light modes, and structural flexibility. Ultrafast transient absorption experiments on the electrospun material show optical gain which gives rise to amplified spontaneous emission with a threshold lower than the value found in films. These systems are highly flexible and can conveniently conform to curved surfaces, which makes them appealing active elements for various device platforms, such as bendable lasers, optical networks, and sensors, as well as for application in bioimaging, photo-cross-linking, and optogenetics.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233453

RESUMO

We present a transient absorption setup combining broadband detection over the visible-UV range with high temporal resolution (∼20 fs) which is ideally suited to trigger and detect vibrational coherences in different classes of materials. We generate and detect coherent phonons (CPs) in single-layer (1L)-MoS2, as a representative semiconducting 1L-transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD), where the confined dynamical interaction between excitons and phonons is unexplored. The coherent oscillatory motion of the out-of-plane A'1 phonons, triggered by the ultrashort laser pulses, dynamically modulates the excitonic resonances on a time scale of few tens of fs. We observe an enhancement by almost 2 orders of magnitude of the CP amplitude when detected in resonance with the C exciton peak, combined with a resonant enhancement of CP generation efficiency. Ab initio calculations of the change in the 1L-MoS2 band structure induced by the A'1 phonon displacement confirm a strong coupling with the C exciton. The resonant behavior of the CP amplitude follows the same spectral profile of the calculated Raman susceptibility tensor. These results explain the CP generation process in 1L-TMDs and demonstrate that CP excitation in 1L-MoS2 can be described as a Raman-like scattering process.

3.
Chemistry ; 26(1): 336-343, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750960

RESUMO

Photoinduced processes in thiouracil derivatives have lately attracted considerable attention due to their suitability for innovative biological and pharmacological applications. Here, sub-20 fs broadband transient absorption spectroscopy in the near-UV are combined with CASPT2/MM decay path calculations to unravel the excited-state decay channels of water solvated 2-thio and 2,4-dithiouracil. These molecules feature linear absorption spectra with overlapping ππ* bands, leading to parallel decay routes which we systematically track for the first time. The results reveal that different processes lead to the triplet states population, both directly from the ππ* absorbing state and via the intermediate nπ* dark state. Moreover, the 2,4-dithiouracil decay pathways is shown to be strongly correlated either to those of 2- or 4-thiouracil, depending on the sulfur atom on which the electronic transition localizes.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7370, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089241

RESUMO

Polythiophenes are the most widely utilized semiconducting polymers in organic electronics, but they are scarcely exploited in photonics due to their high photo-induced absorption caused by interchain polaron pairs, which prevents the establishment of a window of net optical gain. Here we study the photophysics of poly(3-hexylthiophene) configured with different degrees of supramolecular ordering, spin-coated thin films and templated nanowires, and find marked differences in their optical properties. Transient absorption measurements evidence a partially-polarized stimulated emission band in the nanowire samples, in contrast with the photo-induced absorption band observed in spin-coated thin films. In combination with theoretical modeling, our experimental results reveal the origin of the primary photoexcitations dominating the dynamics for different supramolecular ordering, with singlet excitons in the nanostructured samples superseding the presence of polaron pairs, which are present in the disordered films. Our approach demonstrates a viable strategy to direct optical properties through structural control, and the observation of optical gain opens the possibility to the use of polythiophene nanostructures as building blocks of organic optical amplifiers and active photonic devices.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(47): 16087-16093, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380844

RESUMO

We combined sub-30 fs broadband transient absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with state-of-the-art quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to study the ultrafast excited-state dynamics of the sulfur-substituted nucleobase 4-thiouracil. We observed a clear mismatch between the time scales for the decay of the stimulated emission from the bright ππ* state (76 ± 16 fs, experimentally elusive until now) and the buildup of the photoinduced absorption of the triplet state (225 ± 30 fs). These data provide evidence that the intersystem crossing occurs via a dark state, which is intermediately populated on the sub-100 fs time scale. Nonlinear spectroscopy simulations, extrapolated from a detailed CASPT2/MM decay path topology of the solvated system together with an excited state mixed quantum-classical nonadiabatic dynamics, reproduce the experimental results and explain the experimentally observed vibrational coherences. The theoretical analysis rationalizes the observed different triplet buildup times of 4- and 2-thiouracil.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(33): 10416-10420, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084630

RESUMO

We report a novel type of structurally defined graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with uniform width of 1.7 nm and average length up to 58 nm. These GNRs are decorated with pending Diels-Alder cycloadducts of anthracenyl units and N- n-hexadecyl maleimide. The resultant bulky side groups on GNRs afford excellent dispersibility with concentrations of up to 5 mg mL-1 in many organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), two orders of magnitude higher than the previously reported GNRs. Multiple spectroscopic studies confirm that dilute dispersions in THF (<0.1 mg mL-1) consist mainly of nonaggregated ribbons, exhibiting near-infrared emission with high quantum yield (9.1%) and long lifetime (8.7 ns). This unprecedented dispersibility allows resolving in real-time ultrafast excited-state dynamics of the GNRs, which displays features of small isolated molecules in solution. This study achieves a breakthrough in the dispersion of GNRs, which opens the door for unveiling obstructed GNR-based physical properties and potential applications.

7.
Nano Lett ; 18(8): 5211-5216, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985622

RESUMO

Hybrid semiconductor-metal nanoparticles (HNPs) manifest unique, synergistic electronic and optical properties as a result of combining semiconductor and metal physics via a controlled interface. These structures can exhibit spatial charge separation across the semiconductor-metal junction upon light absorption, enabling their use as photocatalysts. The combination of the photocatalytic activity of the metal domain with the ability to generate and accommodate multiple excitons in the semiconducting domain can lead to improved photocatalytic performance because injecting multiple charge carriers into the active catalytic sites can increase the quantum yield. Herein, we show a significant metal domain size dependence of the charge carrier dynamics as well as the photocatalytic hydrogen generation efficiencies under nonlinear excitation conditions. An understanding of this size dependence allows one to control the charge carrier dynamics following the absorption of light. Using a model hybrid semiconductor-metal CdS-Au nanorod system and combining transient absorption and hydrogen evolution kinetics, we reveal faster and more efficient charge separation and transfer under multiexciton excitation conditions for large metal domains compared to small ones. Theoretical modeling uncovers a competition between the kinetics of Auger recombination and charge separation. A crossover in the dominant process from Auger recombination to charge separation as the metal domain size increases allows for effective multiexciton dissociation and harvesting in large metal domain HNPs. This was also found to lead to relative improvement of their photocatalytic activity under nonlinear excitation conditions.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(7): 1534-1541, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504764

RESUMO

We combine sub-20 fs transient absorption spectroscopy with state-of-the-art computations to study the ultrafast photoinduced dynamics of trans-azobenzene (AB). We are able to resolve the lifetime of the ππ* state, whose decay within ca. 50 fs is correlated to the buildup of the nπ* population and to the emergence of coherences in the dynamics, to date unobserved. Nonlinear spectroscopy simulations call for the CNN in-plane bendings as the active modes in the subps photoinduced coherent dynamics out of the ππ* state. Radiative to kinetic energy transfer into these modes drives the system to a high-energy planar nπ*/ground state conical intersection, inaccessible upon direct excitation of the nπ* state, that triggers an ultrafast (0.45 ps) nonproductive decay of the nπ* state and is thus responsible for the observed Kasha rule violation in UV excited trans-AB. On the other hand, cis-AB is built only after intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution and population of the NN torsional mode.

9.
J Biomech ; 63: 125-134, 2017 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28917579

RESUMO

The liver is organized in hexagonal functional units - termed lobules - characterized by a rather peculiar blood microcirculation, due to the presence of a tangled network of capillaries - termed sinusoids. A better understanding of the hemodynamics that governs liver microcirculation is relevant to clinical and biological studies aimed at improving our management of liver diseases and transplantation. Herein, we built a CFD model of a 3D sinusoidal network, based on in vivo images of a physiological mouse liver obtained with a 2-photon microscope. The CFD model was developed with Fluent 16.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA), particular care was taken in imposing the correct boundary conditions representing a physiological state. To account for the remaining branches of the sinusoids, a lumped parameter model was used to prescribe the correct pressure at each outlet. The effect of an adhered cell on local hemodynamics is also investigated for different occlusion degrees. The model here proposed accurately reproduces the fluid dynamics in a portion of the sinusoidal network in mouse liver. Mean velocities and mass flow rates are in agreement with literature values from in vivo measurements. Our approach provides details on local phenomena, hardly described by other computational studies, either focused on the macroscopic hepatic vasculature or based on homogeneous porous medium model.


Assuntos
Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Hemodinâmica , Hidrodinâmica , Imageamento Tridimensional , Microscopia Intravital , Circulação Hepática , Camundongos , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares
10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(3): 547-552, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045534

RESUMO

One-dimensional J aggregates present narrow and intense absorption and emission spectra that are interesting for photonics applications. Matrix immobilization of the aggregates, as required for most device architectures, has recently been shown to induce a non-Gaussian (Lévy type) defect distribution with heavy tails, expected to influence exciton relaxation. Here we perform two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) in one-dimensional J aggregates of the cyanine dye TDBC, immobilized in a gel matrix, and we quantitatively model 2DES maps by nonlinear optimization coupled to quantum mechanical calculations of the transient excitonic response. We find that immobilization causes strong non-Gaussian off-diagonal disorder, leading to a segmentation of the chains. Intersegmental exciton transfer is found to proceed on the picosecond time scale, causing a long-lasting excitation memory. These findings can be used to inform the design of optoelectronic devices based on J aggregates as they allow for control of exciton properties by disorder management.

11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1514: 49-61, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27787791

RESUMO

T cells play critical roles in controlling hepatotropic viral infections and liver tumors. The protective capacity of these cells is mediated by antigen-experienced effector cells and depends on their ability to migrate to and traffic within the liver, recognize pathogen- or tumor-derived antigens, get activated and deploy effector functions.While some of the rules that characterize T cell behavior in the healthy and cancerous antigen-expressing liver have been characterized at the population level, we have only limited knowledge of the precise dynamics of T cell interactions with different kinds of liver cells at the single-cell level. Here, we describe in detail an intravital microscopy technique that allows the analysis of T cell dynamic behavior in the liver of anesthetized mice at high spatial and temporal resolution. A detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of T cells within the liver is important for the rational design of targeted immunotherapeutic approaches for chronic liver infections and tumors.


Assuntos
Antígenos/imunologia , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/patologia
12.
Opt Express ; 24(25): 28491-28499, 2016 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27958492

RESUMO

We introduce a 2D electronic spectroscopy setup in the UV spectral range in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The required interferometrically phase-locked few-optical-cycle UV pulse pair is generated by combining a passive birefringent interferometer in the visible and nonlinear phase transfer. This is achieved by sum-frequency generation between the phase-locked visible pulse pair and narrowband infrared pulses. We demonstrate a pair of 16-fs, 330-nm pulses whose delay is interferometrically stable with an accuracy better than λ/450. 2DUV maps of pyrene solution probed in the UV and visible spectral ranges are demonstrated.

13.
Sci Immunol ; 1(4)2016 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27868108

RESUMO

Antibodies are critical for protection against viral infections. However, several viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), avoid the induction of early protective antibody responses by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of B cell activation to show that, upon subcutaneous infection, LCMV-specific B cells readily relocate to the interfollicular and T cell areas of the draining lymph node where they extensively interact with CD11b+Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes. These myeloid cells were recruited to lymph nodes draining LCMV infection sites in a type I interferon-, CCR2-dependent fashion and they suppressed antiviral B cell responses by virtue of their ability to produce nitric oxide. Depletion of inflammatory monocytes, inhibition of their lymph node recruitment or impairment of their nitric oxide-producing ability enhanced LCMV-specific B cell survival and led to robust neutralizing antibody production. In conclusion, our results identify inflammatory monocytes as critical gatekeepers that prevent antiviral B cell responses and suggest that certain viruses take advantage of these cells to prolong their persistence within the host.

14.
Cell ; 161(3): 486-500, 2015 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25892224

RESUMO

Effector CD8(+) T cells (CD8 TE) play a key role during hepatotropic viral infections. Here, we used advanced imaging in mouse models of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis to understand the mechanisms whereby these cells home to the liver, recognize antigens, and deploy effector functions. We show that circulating CD8 TE arrest within liver sinusoids by docking onto platelets previously adhered to sinusoidal hyaluronan via CD44. After the initial arrest, CD8 TE actively crawl along liver sinusoids and probe sub-sinusoidal hepatocytes for the presence of antigens by extending cytoplasmic protrusions through endothelial fenestrae. Hepatocellular antigen recognition triggers effector functions in a diapedesis-independent manner and is inhibited by the processes of sinusoidal defenestration and capillarization that characterize liver fibrosis. These findings reveal the dynamic behavior whereby CD8 TE control hepatotropic pathogens and suggest how liver fibrosis might reduce CD8 TE immune surveillance toward infected or transformed hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Monitorização Imunológica , Animais , Movimento Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Cirrose Hepática , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Adesividade Plaquetária , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
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