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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127906, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799154

RESUMO

Pulping and paper industries using non-woody feedstocks face the challenge of its notorious waste disposal problem. To resolve this problem, in this study, we evaluated a variety of properties of solid residues reclaimed from the effluents of both wheat straw ammonium sulfate and Kraft pulping processes as organic fertilizers. The results show that both residues from the ammonium sulfate (RAS) and Kraft pulping (RKP) processes possess desirable C/N ratios, appropriate nutritional compositions, and low levels of harmful heavy metals. The high solubilities (>35 g/L) of both residues allow their use for fertigation or foliar applications. The salt index (30-50) is within the range of commercial chemical fertilizers such as potassium sulfate (42.6) and magnum sulfate (44). The E3/E5 ratios of residues suggest that the residues have small molecular sizes, which are similar to fulvic acids. Overall, wheat straw pulping residues demonstrate the potential as the sustainable organic fertilizers and the beneficial soil amendments. This work has the potential to resolve the severer effluent disposal problem faced by the non-woody pulping and papermaking industries, open a door to effectively utilize residues as value-added byproducts, and lead to both environmental sustainability and economic benefits.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Solo/química , Triticum
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140972

RESUMO

Although solid-phase activation of lignite using a nanocatalyst has great potential in producing low-cost and sustainable humic acid, the large-scale application of this technology still faces challenges because of the high price and toxicity of the nanocatalyst. Additionally, the specific molecular components of humic acid in activated lignite remain unknown. In this work, a multifunctional molybdate-phosphorus hierarchical hollow nanosphere (Mo-P-HH) catalyst was successfully manufactured by a simple way followed by phosphorization. In comparison with a commercial Pd/C catalyst, the multifunctional Mo-P-HH catalyst was more effective in producing water-soluble humic acid with small molecular functional groups from lignite via solid-phase activation. Moreover, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry revealed the molecular compositions of humic acid in activated lignite. Compared with that from raw lignite, the humic acid after Mo-P-HH activation had less aromatic structure but higher content of lipids, proteins, amino sugar, and carbohydrates. In addition, the activated humic acid simulated seed germination and seedling growth. Therefore, this study provided a high-performance hierarchical hollow nanocatalyst for activation of humic acid and also offered the theoretical basis for the application of humic acid in agriculture.

3.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203939

RESUMO

Chronic liver injury with any etiology can progress to fibrosis and the end-stage diseases cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The progression of liver disease is controlled by a variety of factors, including liver injury, inflammatory cells, inflammatory mediators, cytokines, and the gut microbiome. In the current review, we discuss recent data on a large number of cytokines that play important roles in regulating liver injury, inflammation, fibrosis, and regeneration, with a focus on interferons and T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th9, Th17, interleukin (IL)-1 family, IL-6 family, and IL-20 family cytokines. Hepatocytes can also produce certain cytokines (such as IL-7, IL-11, and IL-33), and the functions of these cytokines in the liver are briefly summarized. Several cytokines have great therapeutic potential, and some are currently being tested as therapeutic targets in clinical trials for the treatment of liver diseases, which are also described.

4.
Autophagy ; : 1-16, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190588

RESUMO

Impaired macroautophagy/autophagy has been implicated in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the mechanism underlying autophagy dysregulation in NASH is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role and mechanism of TXNIP/VDUP1 (thioredoxin interacting protein), a key mediator of cellular stress responses, in the pathogenesis of NASH. Hepatic TXNIP expression was upregulated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and in methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed mice, as well as in palmitic acid (PA)-treated hepatocytes. Upregulation of hepatic TXNIP was positively correlated with impaired autophagy, as evidenced by a decreased number of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta) puncta and increased SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) expression. Deletion of the Txnip gene enhanced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, accompanied by impaired autophagy and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in MCD diet-fed mice. Mechanistically, TXNIP directly interacted with and positively regulated p-PRKAA, leading to inactivation of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) complex 1 (MTORC1) and nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), which in turn promoted autophagy. Inhibition of MTORC1 by rapamycin induced autophagy and increased the expression levels of FAO-related genes and concomitantly attenuated lipid accumulation in PA-treated txnip-knockout (KO) hepatocytes, which was further abolished by silencing of Atg7. Rapamycin treatment also attenuated MCD diet-induced steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis with increased TFEB nuclear translocation and restored FAO in txnip-KO mice. Our findings suggest that elevated TXNIP ameliorates steatohepatitis by interacting with PRKAA and thereby inducing autophagy and FAO. Targeting TXNIP may be a potential therapeutic approach for NASH. Abbreviations: ACOX1: acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl; ACSL1: acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1; ACTA2/α-SMA: actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta; ACTB: actin beta; ADGRE1/F4/80: adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E1; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy-related; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; COL1A1/Col1α1: collagen, type I, alpha 1; CPT1A: carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, liver; CQ: chloroquine; DGAT1: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1; DGAT2: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2; ECI2/Peci: enoyl-Coenzyme A isomerase 2; EHHADH: enoyl-Coenzyme A, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenase; FAO: fatty acid oxidation; FASN: fatty acid synthase; FFA: free fatty acids; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GK/GYK: glycerol kinase; GOT1/AST: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1, soluble; GPAM: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial; GPT/ALT: glutamic pyruvic transaminase, soluble; H&E: hematoxylin and eosin; IL1B/IL-1ß: interleukin 1 beta; IL6: interleukin 6; IOD: integral optical density; KO: knockout; Leu: leupeptin; LPIN1: lipin 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MCD: methionine choline-deficient; MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9; mRNA: messenger RNA; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; PA: palmitic acid; PPARA/PPARα: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha; PPARG/PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; qRT-PCR: quantitative real-time PCR; RPS6KB1/p70S6K1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase, polypeptide 1; RPTOR: regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1; SCD1: stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1; SEM: standard error of the mean; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TG: triglyceride; TGFB/TGF-ß: transforming growth factor, beta; TIMP1: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1; TNF/TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor; TXNIP/VDUP1: thioredoxin interacting protein; WT: wild-type.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186116

RESUMO

This paper proposes a hybrid multi-dimensional features fusion structure of spatial and temporal segmentation model for automated thermography defects detection. In addition, the newly designed attention block encourages local interaction among the neighboring pixels to recalibrate the feature maps adaptively. A Sequence-PCA layer is embedded in the network to provide enhanced semantic information. The final model results in a lightweight structure with smaller number of parameters and yet yields uncompromising performance after model compression. The proposed model allows better capture of the semantic information to improve the detection rate in an end-to-end procedure. Compared with current state-of-the-art deep semantic segmentation algorithms, the proposed model presents more accurate and robust results. In addition, the proposed attention module has led to improved performance on two classification tasks compared with other prevalent attention blocks. In order to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model, experimental studies have been carried out for defects detection on four different datasets.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(88): 13642-13645, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063062

RESUMO

Lithium-oxygen batteries (LOBs) can suffer from large charge overpotentials during the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, a strategy used in the photo-electrochemical (PEC) water oxidation area is integrated into hybrid LOBs. Coating α-Fe2O3 with NiOOH results in enhanced electrochemical properties, and the as-assembled hybrid LOBs deliver a low charge voltage of 3.03 V, high energy efficiency of 88%, and long-term stability for over 350 hours.

7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3657-3664, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124339

RESUMO

The Taihu Lake plain is a highly urbanized region in China with many water-related environmental problems. Although point-source pollution has been effectively controlled by government legislation, urban surface runoff pollution is still a major issue. Different types of urban communities were selected for rainfall runoff experiments. According to the monitoring data of rainfall events, multiple methods were used to analyze the characteristics of surface runoff pollution and estimate the pollution load for different types of communities. The results indicated that surface runoff from urban communities reduced the river water quality. Certain degrees of the 'first flush' effect occurred in different types of urban communities. The surface runoff pollution in the commercial residential community was weaker than that in commercial and private residential communities; however, the first flush occurred more frequently in the commercial residential community. Holding back 30% of the surface runoff could effectively improve the runoff water quality in commercial and private residential communities as well as the commercial residential community with restaurants. In the commercial residential community, 25% of surface runoff should be held to improve runoff water quality effectively. The loads of pollutants, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, in urban communities in the Taihu Lake basin were higher than those in other regions in China. This research can assist with the reduction of surface runoff pollution in highly urbanized communities.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo/análise , Chuva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(41)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036975

RESUMO

Fully implantable neural interfaces with massive recording channels bring the gospel to patients with motor or speech function loss. As the number of recording channels rapidly increases, conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips for neural signal processing face severe challenges on parallelism scalability, computational cost, and power consumption. In this work, we propose a previously unexplored approach for parallel processing of multichannel neural signals in memristor arrays, taking advantage of their rich dynamic characteristics. The critical information of neural signal waveform is extracted and encoded in the memristor conductance modulation. A signal segmentation scheme is developed to adapt to device variations. To verify the fidelity of the processed results, seizure prediction is further demonstrated, with high accuracy above 95% and also more than 1000× improvement in power efficiency compared with CMOS counterparts. This work suggests that memristor arrays could be a promising multichannel signal processing module for future implantable neural interfaces.

9.
Acta Diabetol ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098472

RESUMO

AIMS: Retinal and renal microcirculations are known to share similar physiological changes during early diabetes because of abnormal glucose metabolism and other processes. The retinal vasculature therefore may serve as potential biomarker for the early identification of those at high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetes. METHODS: Data from 1925 patients (aged 49.0 ± 10.3) with type 2 diabetes were analyzed. Various retinal image measurements (RIMs) were collected using a validated fully automated computer program. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate the correlation between RIMs and CKD. RESULTS: In logistic regression adjusting for multiple variables, wider venular calibers in the central and middle zones and narrower arteriolar caliber in the central zone were associated with CKD (p < 0.001, p = 0.020, and p < 0.001, respectively). Increased arteriolar tortuosity was associated with CKD (p = 0.035). Multiple image texture measurements were also significantly associated with CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetes was associated with various retinal image measurements. These non-invasive image measurements may serve as potential biomarkers for the early identification and monitoring of individuals at high risk of CKD in the course of diabetes.

10.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112303

RESUMO

Gene therapy is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease by solving the dual dilemma of ischemia and inflammation. However, its development remains limited by inefficient gene transfection. Hence, we propose a "dual genes + all-adaptive carrier" idea. We have innovatively co-delivered eNOS gene and the ZNF580 gene encoding its transcription factor to enhance the efficiency of eNOS expression. The overexpressed ZNF580 protein significantly promotes angiogenesis via regulating the transcription of multiple genes. This implies a potential synergistic effect of eNOS and ZNF580 genes in anti-ischemic therapy. Additionally, we have designed an all-adaptive gene carrier with cascaded bio-responsive functions based on the characteristic bio-signals of the ischemic site (including extracellular excessive matrix metalloproteinase-2, the endo/lysosomal pH gradient and high cytoplasmic glutathione level). This carrier can sequentially overcome transfection bottlenecks and achieve high transfection. Excitingly, this cascaded bio-responsive delivery strategy remarkably enhanced blood perfusion, accelerated angiogenesis and alleviated inflammation in critical limb ischemia (CLI) mice, which was attributed to the combined effects of pro-angiogenic ZNF580 expression and synergistically produced eNOS expression. Thereby, we believe that the co-delivery of eNOS and ZNF580 genes assisted by a cascaded bio-responsive carrier is a powerful strategy to treat CLI.

11.
Gut ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127832

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to specific mRNA targets and promoting their degradation and/or translational inhibition. miRNAs regulate both physiological and pathological liver functions. Altered expression of miRNAs is associated with liver metabolism dysregulation, liver injury, liver fibrosis and tumour development, making miRNAs attractive therapeutic strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases. Here, we review recent advances regarding the regulation and function of miRNAs in liver diseases with a major focus on miRNAs that are specifically expressed or enriched in hepatocytes (miR-122, miR-194/192), neutrophils (miR-223), hepatic stellate cells (miR-29), immune cells (miR-155) and in circulation (miR-21). The functions and target genes of these miRNAs are emphasised in alcohol-associated liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, drug-induced liver injury, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well liver fibrosis and liver failure. We touch on the roles of miRNAs in intercellular communication between hepatocytes and other types of cells via extracellular vesicles in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. We provide perspective on the application of miRNAs as biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis and assessment of liver diseases and discuss the challenges in miRNA-based therapy for liver diseases. Further investigation of miRNAs in the liver will help us better understand the pathogeneses of liver diseases and may identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets for liver diseases in the future.

12.
Vet Microbiol ; 251: 108861, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059276

RESUMO

Since 2017, duck spleen necrosis caused by new variant duck orthoreovirus (N-DRV) infection had been observed in several provinces in China. This disease retards the growth and development of ducks, thereby reducing feed return rate. N-DRV infection causes damage to duck spleen and other immune organs, leading to immunosuppression and susceptibility to other pathogens. In this study, we successfully constructed a breeding duck artificial infection model and found that N-DRV infection can cause pathologic changes, such as ovarian hemorrhage, follicle atrophy, and fallopian tube bleeding in breeding ducks, resulting in significantly reduced fertilization rate and egg hatching rate. Viral RNA was present in egg vitelline membrane, duck embryo, and duckling's spleen samples, as determined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Autopsy revealed obvious pathologic changes in the spleen and other organs, although there were no obvious early clinical symptoms observed in ducklings. Sequence distance and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that N-DRV-SD19 re-isolated from the spleen samples of ducklings was consistent with the strain N-DRV-XT18 used for infecting breeding ducks. The findings in this study confirmed that N-DRV can be vertically transmitted through eggs, which provide an important reference for the disease prevention and control.

13.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034326

RESUMO

Although good performance has been reported in shallow neural networks, the application of memristor synapses towards realistic deep neural networks has met more stringent requirements on the synapse properties, particularly the high precision and linearity of the synaptic analog weight tuning. In this study, a LiAlOX memristor synapse was fabricated and optimized to address these demands. By delicately tuning the initial conductance states, 120-level continuously adjustable conductance states were obtained and the nonlinearity factor was substantially reduced from 8.96 to 0.83. The significant enhancements were attributed to the reduced Schottky barrier height (SBH) between the filament tip and the electrode, which was estimated from the measured I-V curves. Furthermore, a deep neural network for realistic action recognition task was constructed, and the recognition accuracy was found to be increased from 15.1% to 91.4% on the Weizmann video dataset by adopting the above-described device optimization method.

14.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079330

RESUMO

Oxidative stress-induced granulosa cell (GC) death is a major cause of follicular atresia. As the major types of programmed cell death, autophagy and apoptosis have been observed in response to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress and have been demonstrated to be responsible for porcine GC death. To date, however, the cellular reactions linking autophagy to the apoptosis of porcine GC under oxidative stress are still poorly understood. Porcine GC were treated with H2O2, and autophagic flux was examined by western blotting. Cell viability and cell death assays were performed after cotreatment of porcine GC with autophagy activator (rapamycin) or inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3-MA) together with H2O2. We revealed that short exposure (1-3 h) of porcine GC to H2O2 dramatically increased autophagic flux (1.8- to 2.5-fold over that in the control), whereas 6-12 h prolonged treatment decreased autophagy but elevated the caspase-3 activity and GC apoptotic rate. Furthermore, we showed that pretreatment with rapamycin exacerbated H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and caspase-3 activation but that 3-MA or siRNAs specific for Beclin 1 and Atg7 genes ameliorated H2O2-mediated GC apoptosis. Together, our results indicate that autophagy plays a pivotal role in H2O2-mediated porcine GC apoptosis. Importantly, we show that the early induction of autophagic flux contributes to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in porcine GC. The results also suggest that regulating the autophagy response in porcine GC under oxidative stress might be a new strategy for abnormal follicular atresia.

16.
J Comput Chem ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974966

RESUMO

We develop a new scheme for evaluating different molecular integrals using Gaussian type orbitals. In this new scheme, the evaluation of integrals is performed in two steps during runtime. The first step is a top-down procedure that maps each recurrence relation into a jagged array (array of arrays), where each element of a member array represents either the final results or some intermediate integrals that are stored in our developed data structure "coarse-grained circular buffer". This step is the same for all different one- and two-electron operators so that the same algorithm and source codes can be used. In the second step, a bottom-up procedure is carried out that computes all the intermediate and the final molecular integrals by backtracking elements from the last member array of each jagged array. Different source codes should in principle be used for different electron operators in the second step, but which can be generated automatically by our developed recurrence-relation compiler. The currently proposed general recurrence-relation generation scheme provides a new, generic and automatic programming way for various one- and two-electron integrals needed in computational chemistry. Users can even introduce new electron operators and evaluate their integrals during runtime by combining the implementation of the proposed new scheme and the just-in-time compilation technique.

17.
Nanoscale ; 12(36): 18742-18749, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970089

RESUMO

Utilization of solar energy is very important for alleviating the global energy crisis; however, solar-to-electric energy conversion in a compact battery is a great challenge. High charging overpotential of conventional aprotic Li-O2 batteries still restricts their practical application. Herein, we propose a photo-involved rechargeable Li-O2 battery to not only realize direct solar-to-electric energy conversion/storage but also address the overpotential issue. In this photo-involved battery system, the g-C3N4-decorated WO3 nanowire array (WO3@g-C3N4 NWA) heterojunction semiconductor is used as both the photoelectrode and oxygen electrode. Upon charging under visible-light irradiation, the photoexcited holes and electrons are in situ generated on the WO3@g-C3N4 NWA heterojunction cathode. The fabrication of the heterojunction can distinctly reduce the recombination rate between electrons and holes, while photon-generated carriers are effectively and quickly separated and then migrate under a large current density. The discharge product (Li2O2) can be oxidized to O2 and Li+ with a reduced charging voltage (3.69 V) by the abundant photoexcited holes, leading to high energy efficiency, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. This newly photo-involved reaction scheme could open new avenues toward the design of advanced solar-to-electric energy conversion and storage systems.

18.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 197: 105763, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The series type of LVAD (i.e., BJUT-II VAD) is a novel left ventricular assist device, whose effects on the aortic valve remain unclear. METHODS: The biomechanical effects of BJUT-II VAD on the aortic valve were investigated by using a fluid-structure interaction method. The geometric model of BJUT-II VAD was virtually implanted into the ascending aorta to generate the realistic flow pattern for the aortic valve (i.e., support). In addition, the biomechanical states of the aortic valve without BJUT-II VAD support was computed as control (i.e., control case). RESULTS: Results demonstrated that the biomechanical effects of BJUT-II VAD were quite different from that resulting from traditional "bypass LVAD." Compared with those in the control case, BJUT-II VAD support could significantly reduce the stress load of the leaflet (maximum stress, 0.5 MPa in the control case vs. 0.12 MPa in the support case). Similarly, the rapid valve opening time (100 ms in the control case vs. 175 ms in the support case) and rapid valve closing time (50 ms in the control case vs. 150 ms in the support case) in the support case were obviously longer than those in the control case. Moreover, BJUT-II VAD support reduced retrograde blood flow during the diastolic phase and significantly changed the distribution of WSS of the leaflets. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, while unloading the left ventricle, BJUT-II VAD could provide beneficial biomechanical states for the aortic leaflets, thereby reducing the risk of aortic valve disease.

19.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 667-676, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892258

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a clinical syndrome characterized by jaundice and progressive inflammatory liver injury in patients with a history of prolonged periods of excess alcohol consumption and recent heavy alcohol abuse. Severe AH is a life-threatening form of alcohol-associated liver disease with a high short-term mortality rate around 30-50% at one month from the initial presentation. A large number of pro-inflammatory mediators, metabolic pathways, transcriptional factors and epigenetic factors have been suggested to be associated with the development and progression of AH. Several factors may contribute to liver failure and mortality in patients with severe AH including hepatocyte death, inflammation, and impaired liver regeneration. Although the pathogeneses of AH have been extensively investigated and many therapeutic targets have been identified over the last five decades, no new drugs for AH have been successfully developed. In this review, we discuss interleukin-22 (IL-22) biology and its roles of anti-apoptosis, anti-fibrosis, anti-oxidation, anti-bacterial infection and regenerative stimulation in protecting against liver injury in many preclinical models including several recently developed models such as chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding, acute-on-chronic liver failure, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 plus high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Finally, clinical trials of IL-22 for the treatment of AH are also discussed, which showed some promising benefits for AH patients.

20.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925386, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Depression is the main problem of psycho-nephrology. We aimed to investigate clinical risk factors for depression in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A non-dialysis CKD cohort study was conducted with 223 patients. Information on demographic and clinical parameters was collected at baseline. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were used to estimate depression and sleep quality in the patients. The questionnaires were repeated in 158 patients after 6 months. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent factors associated with depression and any longitudinal changes in BDI scores. RESULTS At baseline, 17 patients (7.72%) in the CKD cohort presented with depression. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that being female (odds ratio [OR] 0.319, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.108 to 0.944, P=0.039) and having lower levels of serum uric acid (SUA) (OR 0.675, 95% CI 0.469 to 0.970, P=0.034) were independent risk factors for depression. A decrease in PSQI score (OR 0.873, 95% CI 0.777 to 0.981, P=0.022) and an increase in SUA level (OR 1.383, 95% CI 1.115 to 1.715, P=0.003) were independently associated with decline in BDI scores in the patients in the 6-month follow-up group. CONCLUSIONS Lower SUA levels and being female were independent risk factors for depression in non-dialysis CKD patients. Improving sleep quality and increasing SUA levels may relieve depression to some extent.

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