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1.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781510

RESUMO

We sought to identify tumor-secreted factors that altered the frequency of MDSCs and correlated with clinical outcomes in advanced melanoma patients. We focused our study on several of the many factors involved in the expansion and mobilization of MDSCs. These were identified by measuring circulating concentrations of 13 cytokines and growth factors in stage IV melanoma patients (n = 55) and healthy controls (n = 22). Based on these results, we hypothesized that IL-6 and IL-8 produced by melanoma tumor cells participate in the expansion and recruitment of MDSCs and together would be predictive of overall survival in melanoma patients. We then compared the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in melanoma tumors to the corresponding plasma concentrations and the frequency of circulating MDSCs. These measures were correlated with clinical outcomes. Patients with high plasma concentrations of either IL-6 (40%) or IL-8 (63%), or both (35%) had worse median overall survival compared to patients with low concentrations. Patients with low peripheral concentrations and low tumoral expression of IL-6 and IL-8 showed decreased frequencies of circulating MDSCs, and patients with low frequencies of MDSCs had better overall survival. We have previously shown that IL-6 is capable of expanding MDSCs, and here we show that MDSCs are chemoattracted to IL-8. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an increased risk of death for subjects with both high IL-6 and IL-8 (HR 3.059) and high MDSCs (HR 4.265). Together these results indicate an important role for IL-6 and IL-8 in melanoma patients in which IL-6 potentially expands peripheral MDSCs and IL-8 recruits these highly immunosuppressive cells to the tumor microenvironment. This study provides further support for identifying potential therapeutics targeting IL-6, IL-8, and MDSCs to improve melanoma treatments.

2.
World J Urol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate how many boys with UDT must undergo orchiopexy to prevent one case of TC, one death from TC and one exposure to TC treatment beyond radical orchiectomy as compared to being treated at an older age. METHODS: This retrospective study utilized data from a 2007 Swedish study of males who underwent orchiopexy for UDT (Pettersson et al.). TC incidence for boys undergoing orchiopexy for UDT was assessed based on the age at orchiopexy (0-6 years, 7-9 years, 10-12 years, 13-15 years). The incidence of TC in each age cohort was calculated and used to determine the number needed to treat (NNT) for each age group using assumptions based on published TC outcomes. RESULTS: For an index patient ≤ 6 years, 372 boys need to undergo orchiopexy to prevent a single case of TC, 1488 boys to prevent exposure to TC therapy beyond radical orchiectomy, and 5315 boys to prevent a single TC-related death compared to treatment at an older age. CONCLUSION: While there is evidence supporting benefits of early orchiopexy, the NNT to affect TC outcomes is very high. Even those with delayed orchiopexies have low risk for TC poor outcomes. This information can be used when counseling patients and families faced with UDT about the risks related to TC, especially with comorbidities.

3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108822, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580832

RESUMO

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is not only a valuable marker for cancer cells with stem-like features, but also plays a vital role in drug resistance and disease progression in many tumors including melanoma. However, the precise role of ALDH activity in patient prognosis remains unclear. In this study, using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-sequencing expression data, we analyzed gene expression of ALDH isozymes in melanoma tumors to define the expression patterns and the prognostic and predictive values of these enzymes. We found that ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 had both higher and broader expression ranges in melanoma patients, and that ALDH1A3 expression correlated with better overall survival in metastatic melanoma. Further, stratification of the TCGA cohorts by the mutational subtypes of melanoma specifically revealed that expression of ALDH1A3 correlated with better prognosis in metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma while expression of ALDH1A1 correlated with better prognosis in BRAF wild-type melanoma. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of these cohorts identified upregulation in oxidative phosphorylation, adipogenesis, and fatty acid metabolism signaling in ALDH1Alo patients, suggesting BRAF/MEK inhibitor resistance in that subset of patients. On the other hand, GSEA of ALDH1A3hi cohorts revealed upregulation in glycolysis, hypoxia and angiogenesis, suggesting BRAF/MEK inhibitor sensitivity in that subset of patients. Gene expression analysis using pre-treatment tumor samples supports high ALDH1A3 expression before BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatment as predictive of better treatment response in BRAF-mutant melanoma patients. Our study provides evidence that high ALDH1A3 mRNA expression is not only a prognostic marker but also a predictive marker for BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatment response in BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma patients.


Assuntos
Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Melanoma/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Idoso , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Retinal Desidrogenase
5.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 56(7): 890-895, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether nonsupine sleep improves obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants with cleft palate undergoing polysomnography (PSG). DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-seven infants (1 month to 1 year) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CP ± L) undergoing PSG testing for suspected OSA were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Polysomnography measures included obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI), central apnea-hypopnea index (CAHI), oxygen saturation (SpO2) nadir, SpO2, and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2). RESULTS: Twenty-three PSGs with at least 20 minutes of sleep in both the supine and the nonsupine positions were analyzed. The supine OAHI (mean: 16.8 events/hour; standard deviation [SD]: 18.5) and nonsupine OAHI (mean: 12.6 events/hour; SD: 12.6) did not differ significantly (P = .10). The supine CAHI (mean: 1.9 events/hour; SD: 2.7) and nonsupine CAHI (mean: 3.1 events/hour; SD: 3.7; P = .15), the supine SpO2 nadir (mean: 81.2%; SD: 6.3) and nonsupine SpO2 nadir (mean: 81.8%; SD: 5.3; P = .70), the supine mean SpO2 (mean: 95.5%; SD: 1.9) and nonsupine mean SpO2 saturation (mean: 95.3%; SD: 2.4; P = .34), and the supine ETCO2 (mean: 45.4 mm Hg; SD: 5.3) and nonsupine ETCO2 (mean: 42.5 mm Hg; SD: 10.1; P = .24) were also similar. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant improvements in OSA metrics during nonsupine sleep in infants with CP ± L. Prior to recommending nonsupine positioning which increases infant's exposure to sudden infant death syndrome risk, we advocate obtaining a PSG to verify an objective improvement in OSA.

6.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(11): 2331-2335, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current investigational priorities in the treatment of favorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT) center on accurate staging and risk-stratification. The extent of lymph node (LN) sampling has not been clearly defined; its importance cannot be overstated as it guides adjuvant therapy. The identification of a minimum LN yield to minimize the risk of harboring occult metastatic disease could help development of surgical guidelines. This study focuses on using the beta-binomial distribution to estimate the risk of occult metastatic disease in patients with FHWT. MATERIALS & METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with unilateral FHWT from 2004 to 2013. Data were used to characterize nodal positivity for patients who underwent surgery and had ≥1 positive LN and ≥2 LNs examined. The probability of missing a positive LN (i.e., false negative) for a given LN yield was calculated using an empirical estimation and the beta-binomial model. Patients were then stratified by tumor size. RESULTS: 422 patients met study criteria. To limit the chance of missing a positive LN to ≤10%, the empirical estimation and beta-binomial model estimated that 6 and 10 LNs needed to be sampled, respectively. Tumor size did not influence the result. Internal validation showed little variation to maintain a false negative rate ≤ 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Using mathematical modeling, it appears that the desired LN yield in FHWT to reduce the risk of false-negative LN sampling to ≤10% is between 6 and 10. The current analysis represents an objective attempt to determine the desired surgical approach to LN sampling to accurately stage patients with FHWT. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais , Linfonodos/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Tumor de Wilms , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico , Tumor de Wilms/patologia
7.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(3): 529-535, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the current practice patterns of pediatric otolaryngologists in managing obstructive sleep-disordered breathing 6 years following the 2011 publication of the clinical practice guideline "Polysomnography for Sleep-Disordered Breathing prior to Tonsillectomy in Children." STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) members. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An electronic survey to assess ASPO members' adherence to polysomnography guidelines prior to tonsillectomy. RESULTS: Forty percent (170 of 427) of ASPO members completed the survey, with 73% in academic practice and 27% in private practice. Snoring represented, on average, 48% of the respondents' practices. The percentage of respondents who requested a polysomnogram prior to tonsillectomy ≥90% of the time was 55% (n = 94) for Down syndrome, 41% (n = 69) for a child <2 years old, and 29% (n = 49) for obese children. A total of 109 (73%) and 112 (75%) respondents admit at least 90% of the time for a child with Down syndrome and for a child <3 years of age, respectively, but only 52 (35%) have a similar practice for an obese child. Only 37% adhere to the inpatient admission recommendation for children with documented obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnogram. CONCLUSION: The current polysomnogram practice patterns for responding pediatric otolaryngologists are not aligned with the clinical practice guideline of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. The threshold for overnight observation when a preoperative polysomnogram has not been performed may be too low. A campaign is necessary to educate clinicians who take care of children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and to obtain more evidence to further define best practice.


Assuntos
Otolaringologia , Pediatria , Polissonografia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente
8.
J Pediatr ; 211: 179-184.e1, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine weight changes relative to surgical success in children with Down syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of children with Down syndrome undergoing tonsillectomy from 2005 to 2016 for OSA at a tertiary care children's hospital. Only patients with pre-and postoperative polysomnogram within 6 months of tonsillectomy were included. Demographics, weight, height, and polysomnogram data were collected. Body mass index (BMI), expressed as a percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMIp95), was calculated for 24 months prior to and following surgery. Pre-and postoperative OSA severity were also recorded. The postoperative obstructive/hypopnea index identified subjects with resolution of obstruction (obstructive/hypopnea index <2 events/hour) or persistent mild/moderate/severe obstructive apnea. Regression analyses were used to compare %BMIp95 pre- and post-tonsillectomy with %BMIp95 by OSA status following tonsillectomy. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients with Down syndrome whose mean age was 5.29 years at time of tonsillectomy were identified. There was no difference between best-fit curves of %BMI p95 pre-and post-tonsillectomy. There was no difference between best-fit curves of %BMI p95 in patients who saw resolution of OSA after tonsillectomy vs patients with residual OSA. CONCLUSIONS: Tonsillectomy neither alters the BMI trajectory of children with Down syndrome, nor changes differentially the risk for obesity in children whose OSA did or did not resolve after surgery.

9.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(9): 1670-1679, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099111

RESUMO

Immune suppression is one of the 10 hallmarks of cancer. Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a member of the IL-1 family, inhibits both innate and adaptive immunity, and has been shown to modulate immune responses in various disease conditions. Yet, IL-37 has rarely been investigated in cancer patients, and its biological role in cancer remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of IL-37 in age- and sex-matched blood samples of healthy individuals and melanoma patients, and demonstrated upregulation of IL-37 messenger RNA (mRNA) in the blood samples of melanoma patients. By further analyzing immune cell subsets responsible for the upregulated IL-37 expression, we discovered that IL-37 mRNA was highly expressed in T cells and granulocytes, with the highest expression in regulatory T (Treg ) cells in healthy individuals, and that IL-37 mRNA was upregulated in lymphocytes (T, B, and natural killer cells) in melanoma patient blood. Among all cell subsets, Treg cells from melanoma patients exhibited the highest IL-37 gene expression levels. We provided evidence that melanoma-conditioned media induces IL-37 mRNA and protein expression in multiple lymphocyte populations, particularly in Treg cells. We further confirmed that the IL-1-mediated secretome from human melanoma cells, specifically transforming growth factor-ß, induces IL-37 mRNA expression in human Treg cells. Our results suggest a potential immunosuppressive role for IL-1 and IL-37 in melanoma tumorigenesis. Highly elevated IL-37 in specific lymphocyte populations could serve as a biomarker for tumor-induced immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
10.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(6): 1351-1364, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808730

RESUMO

Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes engender unique metabolic phenotypes crucial to the survival of tumor cells. EGFR signaling has been linked to the rewiring of tumor metabolism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have integrated the use of a functional genomics screen and metabolomics to identify metabolic vulnerabilities induced by EGFR inhibition. These studies reveal that following EGFR inhibition, EGFR-driven NSCLC cells become dependent on the urea cycle and, in particular, the urea cycle enzyme CPS1. Combining knockdown of CPS1 with EGFR inhibition further reduces cell proliferation and impedes cell-cycle progression. Profiling of the metabolome demonstrates that suppression of CPS1 potentiates the effects of EGFR inhibition on central carbon metabolism, pyrimidine biosynthesis, and arginine metabolism, coinciding with reduced glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. We show that EGFR inhibition and CPS1 knockdown lead to a decrease in arginine levels and pyrimidine derivatives, and the addition of exogenous pyrimidines partially rescues the impairment in cell growth. Finally, we show that high expression of CPS1 in lung adenocarcinomas correlated with worse patient prognosis in publicly available databases. These data collectively reveal that NSCLC cells have a greater dependency on the urea cycle to sustain central carbon metabolism, pyrimidine biosynthesis, and arginine metabolism to meet cellular energetics upon inhibition of EGFR. IMPLICATIONS: Our results reveal that the urea cycle may be a novel metabolic vulnerability in the context of EGFR inhibition, providing an opportunity to develop rational combination therapies with EGFR inhibitors for the treatment of EGFR-driven NSCLC.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(4): 691-700, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical variables describing the natural history and longitudinal therapy outcomes of stage IV anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement positive (ALK-positive) NSCLC and their relationship with long-term overall survival (OS) have not previously been described in detail. METHODS: Patients with stage IV NSCLC treated with an ALK inhibitor at the University of Colorado Cancer Center from 2009 through November 2017 were identified retrospectively. OS curves were constructed by using Kaplan-Meier methods. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine the relationship of variables with OS. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who were identified, 105 received crizotinib as their initial ALK inhibitor. With a median follow-up time of 47 months, the median OS time from diagnosis of stage IV disease was 81 months (6.8 years). Brain metastases at diagnosis of stage IV disease (hazard ratio = 1.01, p = 0.971) and year of stage IV presentation (p = 0.887) did not influence OS. More organs with tumor at diagnosis of stage IV disease was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.49 for each additional organ with disease, including the CNS [p = 0.002]). Each additional month of pemetrexed-based therapy was associated with a 7% relative decrease in risk of death. CONCLUSION: Patients with stage IV ALK-positive NSCLC can have prolonged OS. Brain metastases at diagnosis of stage IV disease does not influence OS. Having more organs involved with tumor at stage IV presentation is associated with worse outcomes. Prolonged benefit from pemetrexed is associated with better outcomes.

12.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(1): e39-e51, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297175

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preclinically, high epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) messenger RNA (FGFR1-MRNA) and FGFR1 amplification (FGFR1-AMP) predicted sensitivity to fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer cell lines. KRAS mutations did not preclude sensitivity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Metastatic EGFR- and ALK-negative lung cancers were screened for FGFR1-MRNA by in-situ hybridization (ISH) and FGFR1-AMP by silver in-situ hybridization (SISH). Patients with positive findings were offered ponatinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor of FGFR1-4. Differences in overall survival (OS) between cohorts were assessed by the log-rank test. Association of FGFR1 positivity with clinicopathologic features were assessed by Fisher exact test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. RESULTS: A total of 171 cases were prescreened: 9 (7.3%) of 123 SISH+; 53 (42.1%) of 126 ISH+; and 6 cases concordantly positive for SISH and ISH. SISH+ cases had fewer coincident KRAS mutations (P = .03) than SISH- cases, and ISH+ cases had worse OS (P = .020) than ISH- cases. Data distributions suggested a distinct higher positivity cut point for FGFR1 ISH (≥ 20%), occurring in 29 (23%) of 126 cases, was associated with small-cell lung cancer histology (P = .022), soft tissue metastases (P = .050) and shorter OS (P = .031). Four patients received ponatinib on study: All ISH+ by the initial cut point, 2 of 4 by higher cut point, 1 of 4 SISH+. Tolerability was poor. The best response for the 2 higher ISH cases was stable disease and progressive disease for the 2 lower ISH cases. CONCLUSION: Elevated FGFR1-MRNA is more common than FGFR1-AMP and associated with worse OS. Higher FGFR1 mRNA expression may be associated with a specific phenotype and is worthy of further exploration. Ponatinib's poor tolerance suggests further fibroblast growth factor receptor exploration in ISH+ cases should utilize more selective FGFR1 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Dosagem de Genes/genética , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Seleção de Pacientes , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 58(1): 79-87, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306797

RESUMO

Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) is a common and challenging problem in pediatric primary and specialty care. We developed a diagnostic algorithm to organize workup for gastrointestinal causes of CAP and improve identification of patients who are low suspicion (LS) or high suspicion (HS) to have significant intestinal pathology identified with endoscopy. We retrospectively used this algorithm to categorize 150 outpatients with CAP as LS (n = 99) or HS (n = 51) and examined subsequent endoscopic findings for all patients. There were 6% significant diagnoses in the LS group compared with 34% in the HS group ( P < .0001). The LS group had no patients with celiac or inflammatory bowel disease. These results can be used to help a clinician approach CAP, and discuss with families the likelihood of endoscopy finding a cause for CAP based on LS or HS designation.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(4): 596-605, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine whether advanced ROS1 gene-rearranged NSCLC (ROS1+ NSCLC) has a higher than expected thromboembolic event (TEE) rate. METHODS: Venous and arterial TEEs within ±365 days of diagnosis of ROS1+, ALK+, EGFR+, or KRAS+ advanced NSCLC at five academic centers in the United States and China were captured (October 2002-April 2018). The primary endpoint was incidence of TEE in ROS1+ compared to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)+, EGFR+, and KRAS+ NSCLC within ±90 days of diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to assess if the odds of TEE differed among oncogene drivers. RESULTS: Eligible data from 95 ROS1+, 193 ALK+, 300 EGFR+, and 152 KRAS+ NSCLC patients were analyzed. The incidence rate of TEE was 34.7% (n = 33), 22.3% (n = 43), 13.7% (n = 41), and 18.4% (n = 28), respectively. In univariate analysis, the odds of a TEE in ROS1+ NSCLC were higher than ALK+, EGFR+, and KRAS+ cohorts. In multivariable analysis, the odds of a TEE were significantly higher for ROS1+ compared to EGFR+ and KRAS+ cohorts, the odds ratio (OR) was 2.44, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.31-4.57 (p = 0.005), and OR: 2.62, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.26-5.46 (p = 0.01), respectively. Although numerically superior, the odds for a TEE with ROS1+ compared to ALK+ was not statistically significant (OR: 1.45, p = 0.229). Overall survival was not significantly different in patients with or without TEE within ±90 days of diagnosis in the overall study cohort or within each molecular group. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of peridiagnostic TEEs is significantly elevated in patients with advanced ROS+ NSCLC compared to EGFR+ and KRAS+ cases. TEE risk may be similarly elevated in ALK+ NSCLC.

15.
Lung Cancer ; 125: 115-120, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes Virus Entry Mediator (HVEM) is an important immune checkpoint in cancer recognition. HVEM expressed on tumor cell membranes activates immune cell signaling pathways leading to either inhibition of activity (B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator, BTLA) or activation of immune activity (LIGHT). The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HVEM expression and its association with PDL1 expression in NSCLC. METHODS: A TMA of 527 resected NSCLC samples and 56 NSCLC cell lines were evaluated for HVEM and PD-L1 expression. The IHC assay for HVEM was optimized on the Dako Link48 autostainer using a polyclonal antibody from R&D Systems(AF356). PD-L1 IHC was performed on the Dako Link48 autostainer using the PD-L1 28-8 pharmDx kit. Scoring HVEM employed the H-score system while for PD-L1 the tumor proportion score (TPS) was used. RESULTS: HVEM expression in the NSCLC resected samples and cell lines revealed a positive H-score more than 1 was 18.6% (77/415) and 48.2% (27/56) respectively. HVEM expression was significantly higher in patients with lymph node N2 metastasis (25.5% vs 7.9% vs 17.5%, p = 0.046) when comparing with N1 or no lymph node metastasis, and was marginally significantly higher in patients with stage III/IV disease (24.5% vs 16.4%, p = 0.059). Subgroup analysis showed that HVEM (median 45 vs 36 months, p = 0.706) and PD-L1 expression (median 45 vs 48 months, p = 0.178) status was not predictive of overall survival. HVEM was found to have a significant negative correlation with PD-L1 expression (r=-0.274, p < 0.001) in patients with NSCLC and also a weak negative correlation in NSCLC cell lines (r=-0.162, p = 0.352). CONCLUSION: HVEM was found to be overexpressed in NSCLC patients of N2 lymph node metastasis or later stage and has a negative co-relationship with PD-L1 expression. HVEM was not prognostic for NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/imunologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia
16.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 17(4): 1103-1108, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant derivatives have been studied as therapies for prostate cancer based on their purported anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and low toxicities. The acai berry is an example of a plant rich in phytochemicals, which may slow the growth of prostate cancer. METHODS: This was a phase II, Simon 2-stage clinical trial in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer with a primary endpoint of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response. Patients were asymptomatic, with a rising PSA of at least 0.2 ng/mL, and were treated with twice daily intake of Acai Juice Product until PSA progression, with a primary endpoint of PSA response. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were enrolled in the first stage of the trial. One of those patients had a PSA response within the study time period. The PSA doubling time was lengthened in 71% of patients (95% confidence interval = 48% to 89%) on the trial, and in a small number of responders, this was sustained over an extended time. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not meet its primary endpoint of 50% PSA response. Nevertheless, the overall tolerability and effects on PSA stabilization warrant further exploration in a biochemically recurrent population.


Assuntos
Euterpe/química , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 102(4): 1357-1365, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353873

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Functional imaging has been proposed that uses 4DCT images to calculate 4DCT-based lung ventilation (4DCT-ventilation). We have started a 2-institution, phase 2 prospective trial evaluating the feasibility, safety, and preliminary efficacy of 4DCT-ventilation functional avoidance. The trial hypothesis is that the rate of grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis could be reduced to 12% with functional avoidance, compared with a 25% rate of pneumonitis with a historical control. The trial employed a Simon 2-stage design with a planned futility analysis after 17 evaluable patients. The purpose of this work is to present the trial design and implementation, dosimetric data, and clinical results for the planned futility analysis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients were patients with lung cancer who were prescribed doses of 45 to 75 Gy. For each patient, the 4DCT data were used to generate a 4DCT-ventilation image using the Hounsfield unit technique along with a compressible flow-based image registration algorithm. Two intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment plans were generated: (1) a standard lung plan and (2) a functional avoidance treatment plan that aimed to reduce dose to functional lung while meeting target and normal tissue constraints. Patients were treated with the functional avoidance plan and evaluated for thoracic toxicity (presented as rate and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) with a 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: The V20 to functional lung was 21.6% ± 9.5% (mean ± standard deviation) with functional avoidance, representing a decrease of 3.2% (P < .01) relative to standard, nonfunctional treatment plans. The rates of grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 radiation pneumonitis were 17.6% (95% CI, 3.8%-43.4%) and 5.9% (95% CI, 0.1%-28.7%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dosimetrically, functional avoidance achieved reduction in doses to functional lung while meeting target and organ at risk constraints. On the basis of Simon's 2-stage design and the 17.6% grade ≥2 pneumonitis rate, the trial met its futility criteria and has continued accrual.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Pneumonite por Radiação/epidemiologia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ventilação Pulmonar , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 113: 115-118, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of healthy children undergoing tympanostomy tubes of an additional surgery prior to age three and associated risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients at a tertiary metropolitan children's hospital who underwent tympanostomy tube insertion procedure before age of three from January 2010 through March 2015. We determined patient demographics, indication for tympanostomy tube insertion, as well as information about additional procedures requiring general anesthesia before the age of three years. A prospective telephone interview was also performed on a portion of the study population to assess if there were additional surgeries before the age of three that did not occur at our institution. RESULTS: In our institution there was a 13% risk of getting an additional surgery after tympanostomy tubes in children who are otherwise healthy. The most common second procedure was an otolaryngologic procedure in 77.8% of the cases. Children with a diagnosis of recurrent acute otitis media had a threefold greater chance of getting an additional surgery than those with a diagnosis of chronic otitis media with effusion. Patients that identified as Black or African American were 3.2 times more likely to have additional surgery. With every year increase at age of surgery, the odds of an additional surgery decreased by 77%. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy children undergoing tympanostomy tube insertion at our institution, the incidence of additional procedures under general anesthesia (GA) is low at 13%. Although there is evidence of possible deleterious effects of anesthesia on the developing brain, it is generally accepted that one short (≤1 h) anesthetic exposure under the age of three has not been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. As a specialty that regularly performs procedures on young children, we need to be aware of the possible effects of anesthetic agents on our patients. However, this study shows that the exposure risk is low and should help reassure patient's families.


Assuntos
Ventilação da Orelha Média , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Geral , Pré-Escolar , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 82, 2018 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains an aggressive breast cancer subtype with limited treatment options. ENMD-2076 is a small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora and angiogenic kinases with proapoptotic and antiproliferative activity in preclinical models of TNBC. METHODS: This dual-institution, single-arm, two-stage, phase II clinical trial enrolled patients with locally advanced or metastatic TNBC previously treated with one to three prior lines of chemotherapy in the advanced setting. Patients were treated with ENMD-2076 250 mg orally once daily with continuous dosing in 4-week cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The primary endpoint was 6-month clinical benefit rate (CBR), and secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, pharmacokinetic profile, safety, and biologic correlates in archival and fresh serial tumor biopsies in a subset of patients. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were enrolled. The 6-month CBR was 16.7% (95% CI, 6-32.8%) and included two partial responses. The 4-month CBR was 27.8% (95% CI, 14-45.2%), and the average duration of benefit was 6.5 cycles. Common adverse events included hypertension, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea. Treatment with ENMD-2076 resulted in a decrease in cellular proliferation and microvessel density and an increase in p53 and p73 expression, consistent with preclinical observations. CONCLUSIONS: Single-agent ENMD-2076 treatment resulted in partial response or clinical benefit lasting more than 6 months in 16.7% of patients with pretreated, advanced, or metastatic TNBC. These results support the development of predictive biomarkers using archival and fresh tumor tissue, as well as consideration of mechanism-based combination strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01639248 . Registered on July 12, 2012.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Aurora Quinase A/antagonistas & inibidores , Aurora Quinase A/metabolismo , Biópsia , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/epidemiologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/sangue , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
20.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 19(5): 450-456, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146263

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test whether a microRNA (miRNA) panel may serve as an alternative biomarker of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensitivity in lung cancer. METHODS: Histologically diverse lung cancer cell lines were submitted to assays for ponatinib and AZD4547 sensitivity. miRNAs, FGFR1 messenger RNA, gene copy number, and protein expression were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and immunoblotting in 34 lung cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Among 34 cell lines, 14 exhibited ponatinib sensitivity and 20 exhibited AZD4547 sensitivity (drug concentration causing 50% inhibition values < 100 nmol/L). A total of 39 of the 377-miRNA set were initially identified from the 4 paired ponatinib-sensitive or -insensitive cell lines to have at least an 8-fold differential expression and then were detected in all the 34 cell lines. A predictive panel of 3 miRNAs (let-7c, miRNA155, and miRNA218) was developed that had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.886 with a sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 77.3% to predict response to ponatinib. The miRNA panel performed similar to FGFR1 protein expression (AUC = 0.864) and messenger RNA expression (AUC = 0.939), and better than FGFR1 amplification (AUC = 0.696). Furthermore, we validated this panel using data for sensitivity to AZD4547 in the cell line cohort with an AUC of 0.931 and a sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 76.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The developed miRNA panel (let-7c, miRNA155, and miRNA218) may be useful in predicting response to FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, either ponatinib or AZD4547 in lung cancer cell lines, and warrants further validation in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
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