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Appl Opt ; 56(16): 4843-4853, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047624


Filtering off speckle noise from a fringe image is one of the key tasks in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). In general, ESPI fringe images can be divided into three categories: low-density fringe images, high-density fringe images, and variable-density fringe images. In this paper, we first present a general filtering method based on variational image decomposition that can filter speckle noise for ESPI fringe images with various densities. In our method, a variable-density ESPI fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise. A low-density fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes and noise. A high-density fringe image is decomposed into high-density fringes and noise. We give some suitable function spaces to describe low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise, respectively. Then we construct several models and numerical algorithms for ESPI fringe images with various densities. And we investigate the performance of these models via our extensive experiments. Finally, we compare our proposed models with the windowed Fourier transform method and coherence enhancing diffusion partial differential equation filter. These two methods may be the most effective filtering methods at present. Furthermore, we use the proposed method to filter a collection of the experimentally obtained ESPI fringe images with poor quality. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of our proposed method.

J Mol Biol ; 427(24): 3824-33, 2015 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26478222


Drosophila Zeste is a DNA binding protein important for chromatin-targeted regulation of gene expression. It is best studied in the context of transvection-a mechanism of interallelic gene regulation involving paired chromosomes-and repression of the expression of white by Zeste mutants. Both of these functions depend on the DNA binding and self-association properties of Zeste, but the underlying structural basis remains unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of Zeste in complex with a 19-bp DNA duplex containing the consensus recognition sequence motif. The structure reveals a helix-turn-helix Myb/homeodomain-like fold with the Zeste-specific insertion sequence forming a short helix and a long loop. Direct base contacts by the major groove binding helix principally account for the sequence-specific recognition, and backbone contacts via the Zeste-specific insertion are mainly responsible for the length requirement and the orientation of DNA. Our structural and biochemical characterizations of the DNA binding property of Zeste uncover an altered DNA binding modality of homeodomain-like proteins, and the structural information should facilitate the unraveling of the intricate mechanism of Zeste in regulation of gene expression.

Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , DNA/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Drosophila melanogaster , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Sequência Consenso , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína