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1.
Food Chem ; 319: 126579, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193061

RESUMO

Food processing generates a large amount of self-assembled colloidal nanoparticles (NPs), which have defined structures and directly interact with macrophages. Their promising potential as a new source of functional NPs and a key to elucidate food-body interactions prompt the importance of the method development. This study attempts to apply capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in studying self-assembled nanoparticles in a real liquid food system of freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) soup, a popular delicacy in East Asia with proven hepatoprotective effects. The soup sample was satisfactorily separated into one nanoparticle fraction and multiple molecular fractions within five minutes by the single and rapid CZE analysis, which was of high repeatability (peak area RSD < 4%, migration time RSD < 1%) and accurate quantification with a linear area-number relationship in the range of (7.5-110) × 1011 particles/mL (R2 > 0.99). Therefore, CZE analysis can be an efficient tool for the investigation of self-assembled nanoparticles in real liquid food systems.

2.
Food Chem ; 320: 126625, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203839

RESUMO

The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay is wildly used for quantifying antioxidant activities of foods and dietary supplements in vitro. Among various incubation and handling buffers used in different laboratories, the inconsistence in concentrations of ions, particularly calcium and magnesium, has somehow been neglected. We hired the Hank's balanced salt solution with or without calcium and magnesium to perform CAA assay in Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells, evaluating the impacts of these cations. The absence of calcium and magnesium reduced intracellular ROS level and underestimated the CAA of quercetin, Trolox and catechin. The abnormally high extracellular calcium and magnesium can also produce inaccurate results. Hank's buffer is recommended to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility. It elucidates precautions must be taken on these cations' concentrations of the buffers while conducting CAA determinations on different types of cells and when comparing foods and beverages with various calcium/magnesium contents.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 151: 781-786, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061848

RESUMO

Bioactives can impact food function either by their dosage or by their forms of dispersion, though the latter remains mostly neglected. Here we report the incidental nanoparticles (iNPs) carrying hepatoprotective bioactives identified in freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea Muller) soup, which is a folk remedy for liver conditions in East Asia. The soup was fractionated into two iNPs containing fractions with high yield (95.8%) in 35 min by gel chromatography. With hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) range from 40 nm to 149 nm, iNPs were mainly constituted by carbohydrates and proteins. Notably, the majority of bioactives, e.g. taurine (63.2%), ornithine (68.1%) and phytosterols (60.0%), was determined to be carried by the iNPs. It suggested a possible mechanism of elevated delivery and absorption of bioactives, explaining why the clam soup can work at the bioactive concentrations way lower than the individual compound. These iNPs have great potential to be developed into a functional food with most potent nutraceutical effects.

4.
Free Radic Res ; 53(11-12): 1073-1083, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631710

RESUMO

Of all the aerobic respiration by-products, cytotoxic superoxide derived from mitochondrial-leaked electrons, is the only one known to be disposed of intracellularly. Is this fate the only destiny for mitochondrial-leaked electrons? When Cynomolgus monkeys were injected intravenously with reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicators, the connective tissues of dura mater, facial fascia, pericardium, linea alba, dorsa fascia and other body parts, emitted specific and intense fluorescent signals. Moreover, the fluorescent signals along the linea alba of SD rats, did not result from the local presence of ROS but from the interaction of ROS indicators with electrons flowing through this tissue. Furthermore, the electrons travelling along the linea alba of mice were revealed to originate from mitochondria. These data suggest that mitochondrial-leaked electrons may be transported extracellularly to a hitherto undescribed system of connective tissues, which is pervasively networked, electrically conductive and metabolically related.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9354-9361, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339706

RESUMO

As a popular ingredient for western and traditional Chinese medicine, the root and rhizome of Chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is often administered in the form of a decoction. The protein nanoparticles (NPs) self-assembled during the process of decoction. A major constitutive protein (GLP) was purified and determined to have a molecular weight of 28 kDa with an N-terminal sequence of NPDGL IACYC GQYCW. Over 80% of the purified GLP self-assembled into spherical NPs with diameters of 74.1 ± 0.7 nm and ζ-potential of -24.3 ± 1.7 mV when boiled in Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 7.9, 20 mM) at 100 °C for 60 min. Each nanoparticle was estimated by the SEC-MALLS approach to be composed of approximately 23 protein molecules. The NPs and GLP showed low cellular toxicity upon four types of cells including MDCK, L-02, HepG2, and Caco2 cells, while the NPs promoted proliferation of normal hepatocytes by 67%. The NPs solubilized the insoluble astragaloside IV by encapsulation. The results suggest a great potential for GLP-NPs as a promising prototype of a type of drug vehicle, a novel source of bioactive nanomaterials from herbal proteins, as well as a new mode of function with herbal components.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza/química , Nanopartículas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Nanoestruturas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 9217912, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798936

RESUMO

The antidiabetic effects of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian-Tang decoction (GQD) have been proven clinically. In a pharmacological study conducted on STZ-induced diabetic rats, the constitutive aggregates/sediments of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian-Tang decoction exhibited stronger hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities compared to the soluble compositions. This study aims to demonstrate the pharmacological properties of aggregates derived from GQD by measuring permeability of the active monomer phytochemicals (e.g., baicalin) in a Caco-2 cell monolayer and determine the cellular viability, intracellular redox status (MDA and SOD), and insulin secretion of pancreatic ß-cell line, INS-1, following STZ-induced oxidative stress. The aggregates were separated into three fractions, namely, "MA (microaggregates)," "400 g supernatant," and "MNA (micro-/nanoaggregates)," by centrifugation at 400 ×g and 15000 ×g, respectively. Aggregates in the sediment increased baicalin absorption, showed little toxicity to ß-cells, elevated intracellular SOD levels, and significantly suppressed oxidative damage effects on cellular viability and functions. The "MA" fraction had a larger particle size and provided higher antioxidant cellular protection than "MNA" in vitro, implying that the sediments may be the active components in the herbal decoction. The actions of these micro-/nanoaggregates may provide a new perspective for understanding the antidiabetic effects of herbal decoctions and aid in interpretation of synergistic actions between the multiple components.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química
7.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 7(2): 178-187, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417088

RESUMO

Colloidal particles are essential components of sun-dried Isatis indigotica Fort. roots (Ban-Lan-Gen in Chinese, BLG) decoction. Nanoparticles (NPs) were isolated from BLG decoction with size exclusion chromatography and characterized. Their average diameter is ∼120 nm, reversibly responding to pH and temperature changes. They promoted the growth of normal cells but suppressed that of cancerogenic cells and macrophages. Two constitutive glycated proteins were identified from the NPs, namely BLGP1 and BLGP2. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences were V-X-R-E-V-V-K-D-I and V-V-R-E-V-V-K-D-I-A-G-A-V-Q-T-N-E-Q-Y. Their full-length cDNA sequences were cloned to obtain the highly homological amino acid sequences of non-glycated proteins, whose theoretical molecular weights are 21831.64 Da and 21841.67 Da. Using pepsin hydrolysis and mass spectrometry, four possible glycation adducts were identified in BLGP1, whereas one in BLGP2. To conclude, bioactive nanoparticles isolated from the herbal decoction are intelligent nanoassemblies composed of a new boiling-stable protein. Glycation plays a critical role in heat-induced formation of these nanoassemblies. The novel, intelligent, safe and stable nano-carriers for drug delivery may be developed using BLG NPs as prototype.

8.
NPJ Sci Food ; 1: 3, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304245

RESUMO

Like any typical food system, bone soup (or broth), a traditional nourishing food in many cultures, contains a colloid dispersion of self-assembled micro/nano-particles. Food ingestion results in the direct contact of food colloidal MNPs with immune cells. Will they ever interact with each other? To answer the question, MNPs and NPs were separated from porcine bone soup and labeled with Nile Red, and their uptake by murine oral macrophages and its consequent effects were investigated. Colloidal particle samples of UF-MNPs and SEC-NP were prepared from porcine bone soup by ultrafiltration (UF) and size-exclusion chromatography, respectively. Their mean hydrodynamic diameters were 248 ± 10 nm and 170 ± 1 nm with dominant composition of protein and lipid. Particles in both samples were found to be internalized by oral macrophages upon co-incubation at particle/cell ratios of 14,000/1. In normal oral macrophages, the particle uptake exerted influence neither on the cellular cytosolic membrane potential (V mem) nor mitochondrial superoxide level, as were indicated with fluorescent dyes of DiBAC4(3) and MitoSOX Red, respectively. However, when oral macrophages were challenged by peroxyl radical inducer AAPH, the engulfment of UF-MNPs and SEC-NPs mitigated the peroxyl radical induced membrane hyperpolarization effect by up to 70%, and the suppression on the oxygen respiration in mitochondria by up to 100%. Those results provide evidence of the direct interaction between food colloidal particles with immune cells, implying a possible new mode of food-body interaction.

9.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 10(1): 449, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586149

RESUMO

Many herbal medicines and compositions are clinically effective but challenged by its safety risks, i.e., aconitine (AC) from aconite species. The combined use of Radix glycyrrhizae (licorice) with Radix aconite L. effectively eliminates toxicity of the later while increasing efficacy. In this study, a boiling-stable 31-kDa protein (namely GP) was purified from licorice and self-assembled into nanoparticles (206.2 ± 2.0 nm) at pH 5.0, 25 °C. The aconitine-encapsulated GP nanoparticles (238.2 ± 1.2 nm) were prepared following the same procedure and tested for its toxicity by intraperitoneal injection on ICR mouse (n = 8). Injection of GP-AC nanoparticles and the mixed licorice-aconite decoction, respectively, caused mild recoverable toxic effects and no death, while the aconitine, particle-free GP-AC mixture and aconite decoction induced sever toxic effects and 100 % death. Encapsulation of poisonous alkaloids into self-assembled herbal protein nanoparticles contributes to toxicity attenuation of combined use of herbs, implying a prototype nanostructure and a universal principle for the safer clinical applications of herbal medicines.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(4): 661-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26137687

RESUMO

The combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata can increase efficacy and decrease toxicity. This study started from the phenomena of protein self-assembly in the mixed decoction of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. The attenuated mechanism was explored between the combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata by using the protein of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and aconitine which was the major toxic component of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein with aconitine could form stable particles which particle mean diameter was (206.2 ± 2.02) nm and (238.20 ± 1.23) nm at pH 5.0 in normal temperature. Through the mouse acute toxicity experiment found that injection of aconitine monomer all mice were killed, and injection of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine particles with the same content of aconitine all mice survived. Survey the stability of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein-aconitine shows that the colloid particles is stable at room temperature, and it has the possibility to candidate drug carrier. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma protein can reduce the toxicity of aconitine through self-assembly.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glycyrrhiza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Aconitum/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Glycyrrhiza/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/toxicidade , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/toxicidade
11.
Nat Prod Commun ; 10(2): 273-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25920259

RESUMO

Isatis indigotica Fort. (Chinese woad) has been widely used as a dye- and medicinal-plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Although I. indigotica has been cultivated in various regions across China in recent years, its innate immunity is little known. In this study, a protein with MW 37.5 kDa was purified from the extract of fresh Isatidis roots by SP-5PW cationic exchange and POROS HP2 hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was subsequently determined as T-D-L-C-H-K-D-P-K-N-T-L-L by Edman degradation. The N-terminal sequence and PG inhibitory activity identified the purified substance as a polygalacturonase inhibiting protein. This purified Isatidis PGIP with a specific activity of 7.64x10(4) U/mg showed strong inhibitory activity against 160 U of Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase. Compared with PGIPs from guava and bean pods, Isatidis PGIP showed very poor pH and heat stabilities, which may represent the different need of plant innate immunity between plant underground and aboveground organs.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/antagonistas & inibidores , Brassicaceae/química , Fracionamento Químico , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 151(3): 1116-1123, 2014 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24384378

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The herbal decoction is a complex dispersion system containing solutes, colloid, aggregates, emulsions and precipitates. In which phase bioactive phytochemicals are dispersed determines their delivery, action and metabolism. This study took ephedrine, a well-studied and widely used phytochemical, as an example to elucidate its exact distribution in the phases of Ma-Xing-Shi-Gan-Tang decoction (MXSGT), which is an Ephedra sinica Stapf. containing traditional Chinese medicinal formula, and the biological meaning of this distribution correspondingly. It may provide an important update to the safety and efficacy assessment of the herbal decoction and its active phytochemicals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the decoction was fractionated with size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering detector. The morphology of fractionated nanoparticles was observed with AFM and SEM. The bioactivities of the decoction, the ephedrine alkaloids loaded NPs (prepared by chromatography isolation) and the synthetic ephedrine were assessed by cell proliferation tests using five cell lines, namely Caco-2, L-02, Hep-G2, NR-8383, and Hela-229. RESULTS: Nanoparticles with radii of gyration ranged from 50 to 150 nm were isolated, in spherical shape. Further analysis of nanoparticles on the subsequent reversed phase chromatography revealed that the majority of ephedrine (99.7%) and pseudoephedrine (95.5%) were associated with these nanoparticles, rather than dispersed freely in the real solution. The addition of both the herbal decoction and the separated ephedrine-loaded nanoparticles reserved higher cell viability/proliferation than that of the sole synthetic ephedrine among the Caco-2, L-02, Hep-G2, and NR-8383 cells. In contrast, the nanoparticles reduced the proliferating power of ephedrine on Hela-229 cells. In general, the ephedrine-loaded NPs conducted the intermediate influences on the cell viability, in either way. CONCLUSIONS: The colloidal nanoparticles were separated from the decoction. The association of ephedrine alkaloids with nanoparticles was demonstrated and may have changed the bioactivity of the alkaloids. The naturally occurred colloidal nanoparticles may play an important role in the pharmacological properties of both the decoction and its active phytochemicals, therefore warrant further studies.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Nanopartículas/análise , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Efedrina/análise , Efedrina/farmacologia , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Pseudoefedrina/análise , Ratos
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