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1.
Food Chem ; 358: 129848, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933981

RESUMO

Autumn green tea (AT) has poor taste quality for its strong astringency. This study aims to improve the taste quality as well as the aroma of AT by Eurotium cristatum (MF800948) fermentation and to produce a fermented autumn green tea (FT). Results showed that the aroma quality of AT was improved, and the content of terpene alcohols that impart characteristic flowery aroma to FT significantly increased. The umami intensity of FT was comparable to that of AT while the astringency tasted much weaker mainly due to the oxidation of the catechins. The results also confirmed that theabrownins exhibited strong umami taste, not astringent taste. Finally, a metabolic map was analyzed to show the effect of E. cristatum (MF800948) on the quality of AT, and to visualize the changes of differential compounds in AT and FT. The work provides insights into the quality improvement of autumn green tea.

2.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941919

RESUMO

The development of high-performance memory devices has played a key role in the innovation of modern electronics. Non-volatile memory devices have manifested high capacity and mechanical reliability as a mainstream technology; however, their performance has been hampered by low extinction ratio and slow operational speed. Despite substantial efforts to improve these characteristics, typical write times of hundreds of micro- or milliseconds remain a few orders of magnitude longer than that of their volatile counterparts. Here we demonstrate non-volatile, floating-gate memory devices based on van der Waals heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces between different functional elements, achieving ultrahigh-speed programming/erasing operations in the range of nanoseconds with extinction ratio up to 1010. This enhanced performance enables new device capabilities such as multi-bit storage, thus opening up applications in the realm of modern nanoelectronics and offering future fabrication guidelines for device scale up.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2608, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972558

RESUMO

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the bottleneck that limits the energy efficiency of water-splitting. The process involves four electrons' transfer and the generation of triplet state O2 from singlet state species (OH- or H2O). Recently, explicit spin selection was described as a possible way to promote OER in alkaline conditions, but the specific spin-polarized kinetics remains unclear. Here, we report that by using ferromagnetic ordered catalysts as the spin polarizer for spin selection under a constant magnetic field, the OER can be enhanced. However, it does not applicable to non-ferromagnetic catalysts. We found that the spin polarization occurs at the first electron transfer step in OER, where coherent spin exchange happens between the ferromagnetic catalyst and the adsorbed oxygen species with fast kinetics, under the principle of spin angular momentum conservation. In the next three electron transfer steps, as the adsorbed O species adopt fixed spin direction, the OER electrons need to follow the Hund rule and Pauling exclusion principle, thus to carry out spin polarization spontaneously and finally lead to the generation of triplet state O2. Here, we showcase spin-polarized kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction, which gives references in the understanding and design of spin-dependent catalysts.

4.
Chemistry ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871899

RESUMO

Photoresponsive materials are a key part of the smart age, which have broad applied potential. Coordination Networks (CNs) are widely used due to their designability and stability. In this work, three novel alkaline earth metal coordination networks (AEM-CNs): [Mg(CMNDI)(H 2 O) 2 ], [Ca(CMNDI)(H 2 O) 2 ]·H 2 O, and [Sr(CMNDI)(H 2 O)(DMF)] with fsl , cds , and scn topology nets were synthetized by N,N'-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimide (H 2 CMNDI), and the scn net is not found in the Reticular Chemistry Structure Resource and ToposPro. The reusable and sensitive photochromic properties of three CNs enable them to be used as secret inks or ultraviolet detectors. In addition, the CNs also exhibited reusable photoluminescence turn-off toward drug molecules, balsalazide disodium (Bal.) and colchicine (Col.), with a nice limit of detection of 0.16 and 0.70 µM. To our best knowledge, fluorescence sensor towards Bal. is the first time to be studied. Therefore, the AEM-CNs provided a design idea of integrated photoresponsive materials. We believe that related study would be further improved in near future.

6.
Chemistry ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847021

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid halide perovskites with single chiral and ferroelectricity together with various structural phase transitions provide the possibility for them to have more diverse functional properties. Here, we present a 2D chiral hybrid halide perovskite ferroelectric, [C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 4 NH 3 ] 2 CdCl 4 ( 4PBA-CdCl 4 , 4PBA = 4-Phenylbutylamine), which experiences two continuous phase transitions from centrosymmetric triclinic P   to polar chiral monoclinic P 2 and then to another centrosymmetric tetragonal P 4 /mmm with increasing temperature, accompanied by symmetry breaking, due to the prominent octahedral distortion and disorder transformation of organic 4PBA cations. Under polar chiral phase, 4PBA-CdCl 4 exhibits a significant CD signal and a moderate ferroelectric polarization of 0.35 µC/cm 2 . In addition, 4PBA-CdCl 4 occupies a wide band gap of 4.376 eV and is chiefly contributed by inorganic CdCl 6 octahedron. This finding offers an alternative pathway for designing new phase transitions and related physical properties in hybrid halide perovskites and other hybrid crystals.

7.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(3): 55-66, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822499

RESUMO

To obtain activated fractions, the ethanol extract (EE) of Hericium erinaceus was fractionated to get petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NF). Total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in the fractions were determined, and the phenolic compounds were characterized and quantitated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities of extracts were evaluated respectively based on their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory abilities. Finally, the inhibition modes of extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase were detected by kinetic assay. The results showed that TPC, TFC, and the content of phenolic compounds in the extracts were different. EAF contained the highest contents of both TPC and TFC and exhibited strongest inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.63 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively. However, CF showed the highest scavenging abilities on DPPH and ABTS radicals, with IC50 values of 2.30 ± 0.12 and 1.72 ± 0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the high antihyperglycemic ability of EAF may be related to ferulic acid, whereas cinnamic acid may be responsible for the high antioxidant ability of CF. Furthermore, all fractions were found to exert inhibition on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in mixed-type and competitive manners, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that H. erinaceus has a potential effect on antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3545-3551, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818110

RESUMO

Charge density wave (CDW) in two-dimensional (2D) crystals plays a vital role in tuning the interface structures and properties. However, how the CDW tunes the self-assembled molecular superlattice still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the self-assembled manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecular superlattice on single-layered 1T- and 2H-NbSe2 crystals under regulation by distinct CDW patterns. We observe that, in low coverage, MnPc molecules preferentially adsorb on 2H-NbSe2 compared to 1T-NbSe2. With increasing coverage, MnPc can form a highly ordered superlattice on 2H-NbSe2; however, it is randomly distributed on 1T-NbSe2. We reveal a perfect geometric commensurability between the molecular superlattice and intrinsic CDW pattern in 2H-NbSe2 and a poor commensurability for that of 1T-NbSe2. We believe that the subtly different geometric commensurability dominates the different adsorption and arrangement of the molecular superlattices on 2D CDW patterns. Our study provides a pioneering approach for tuning the molecular superlattices using the CDW patterns.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3468-3475, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792326

RESUMO

We report the on-surface chemistry of diamantanethiols on metal surfaces by combining low-temperature STM studies with quantum mechanical density functional theory computations. First, we examined the spatial configurations of diamantanethiols on metal surfaces, in which the thiol-substrate confinement plays a key role. We then thermally desorbed the diamantanethiols from the substrate surfaces to determine whether the C-S or S-metal bonds preferentially break. Finally, we explored diamantane-4,9-dithiol and its polymerization on metal surfaces, forming linear nanodiamond disulfur chains. This work broadens the fundamental knowledge of functionalized diamondoid behavior on surfaces and provides a novel approach to link diamantane as necklace-chain nanodiamond hybrid materials.

11.
Geoinformatica ; : 1-20, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746566

RESUMO

Fast and precise querying in a given set of trajectory points is an important issue of trajectory query. Typically, there are massive trajectory data in the database, yet the query sets only have a few points, which is a challenge for the superior performance of trajectory querying. The current trajectory query methods commonly use the tree-based index structure and the signature-based method to classify, simplify, and filter the trajectory to improve the performance. However, the unstructured essence and the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the trajectory-sequence lead these methods to a high degree of spatial overlap, frequent I/O, and high memory occupation. Thus, they are not suitable for the time-critical tasks of trajectory big data. In this paper, a query method of trajectory is developed on the Bloom Filter. Based on the gridded space and geocoding, the spatial trajectory sequences (tracks) query is transformed into the query of the text string. The geospace was regularly divided by the geographic grid, and each cell was assigned an independent geocode, converting the high-dimensional irregular space trajectory query into a one-dimensional string query. The point in each cell is regarded as a signature, which forms a mapping to the bit-array of the Bloom Filter. This conversion effectively eliminates the high degree of overlap and instability of query performance. Meanwhile, the independent coding ensures the uniqueness of the whole tracks. In this method, there is no need for additional I/O on the raw trajectory data when the track is queried. Compared to the original data, the memory occupied by this method is negligible. Based on Beijing Taxi and Shenzhen bus trajectory data, an experiment using this method was constructed, and random queries under a variety of conditions boundaries were constructed. The results verified that the performance and stability of our method, compared to R*tree index, have been improved by 2000 to 4000 times, based on one million to tens of millions of trajectory data. And the Bloom Filter-based query method is hardly affected by grid size, original data size, and length of tracks. With such a time advantage, our method is suitable for time-critical spatial computation tasks, such as anti-terrorism, public safety, epidemic prevention, and control, etc.

12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 156, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-associated lung tissue degeneration is a risk factor for lung injury and exacerbated lung disease. It is also the main risk factor for chronic lung diseases (such as COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cancer, among others). So, it is particularly important to find new anti-aging treatments. METHODS: We systematically screened and evaluated elderly senile multiple organ dysfunction macaque models to determine whether BMMSCs inhibited lung tissue degeneration. RESULTS: The average alveolar area, mean linear intercept (MLI), and fibrosis area in the elderly macaque models were significantly larger than in young rhesus monkeys (p < 0.05), while the capillary density around the alveoli was significantly low than in young macaque models (p < 0.05). Intravenous infusion of BMMSCs reduced the degree of pulmonary fibrosis, increased the density of capillaries around the alveoli (p < 0.05), and the number of type II alveolar epithelium in elderly macaques (p < 0.05). In addition, the infusion reduced lung tissue ROS levels, systemic and lung tissue inflammatory levels, and Treg cell ratio in elderly macaque models (p < 0.05). Indirect co-cultivation revealed that BMMSCs suppressed the expression of senescence-associated genes, ROS levels, apoptosis rate of aging type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cells), and enhanced their proliferation (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: BMMSC treatment inhibited age-associated lung tissue degeneration.

13.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; : e13655, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783968

RESUMO

AIM: A "leaky" gut barrier has been implicated in the initiation and progression of a multitude of diseases, for example, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease. Here we show how pro-hormone Chromogranin A (CgA), produced by the enteroendocrine cells, and Catestatin (CST: hCgA352-372 ), the most abundant CgA-derived proteolytic peptide, affect the gut barrier. METHODS: Colon tissues from region-specific CST-knockout (CST-KO) mice, CgA-knockout (CgA-KO) and WT mice were analysed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, ultrastructural and flowcytometry studies. FITC-dextran assays were used to measure intestinal barrier function. Mice were supplemented with CST or CgA fragment pancreastatin (PST: CgA250-301 ). The microbial composition of cecum was determined. CgA and CST levels were measured in blood of IBD patients. RESULTS: Plasma levels of CST were elevated in IBD patients. CST-KO mice displayed (a) elongated tight, adherens junctions and desmosomes similar to IBD patients, (b) elevated expression of Claudin 2, and (c) gut inflammation. Plasma FITC-dextran measurements showed increased intestinal paracellular permeability in the CST-KO mice. This correlated with a higher ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, a dysbiotic pattern commonly encountered in various diseases. Supplementation of CST-KO mice with recombinant CST restored paracellular permeability and reversed inflammation, whereas CgA-KO mice supplementation with CST and/or PST in CgA-KO mice showed that intestinal paracellular permeability is regulated by the antagonistic roles of these two peptides: CST reduces and PST increases permeability. CONCLUSION: The pro-hormone CgA regulates the intestinal paracellular permeability. CST is both necessary and sufficient to reduce permeability and primarily acts by antagonizing PST.

14.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e1816, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the most useful ultrasound (US) features associated with definite neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and their prognostic values, particularly the calculated markers combined with important features. METHODS: A total of 213 suspected NEC cases were collected from the neonatal department of our hospital from January 2015 to August 2017. Each infant received both X-ray and US examinations. RESULTS: No differences were found in sex composition and delivery modes between groups. NEC-positive neonates had poorer prognosis compared to negative ones. The NEC group showed a higher frequency of abnormal signals. US showed higher NEC-related frequencies in different parameters. A variable (named predictor in US [PUS]) with five features was constructed. For NEC diagnosis, this variable provided a much higher area under the curve Q2 (AUC) (0.965) than other parameters. In this model, PUS had a cutoff value of 0.376 with a 0.900 sensitivity and 0.922 specificity. In prognosis, the closest factors were selected to draw a receiver operating characteristic curve, as well as a novel calculated variable US prognostic (USPro) marker. USPro had a much higher AUC (0.86) than other single features and showed a cutoff value of 0.18145, with 0.75 sensitivity and 0.84 specificity. This variable had a weaker power in prognosis when compared with PUS in diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The application of abdominal color Doppler US can provide high accuracy and sensitivity in NEC diagnosis and also contribute to its prognosis, without induction of radiation. Suspected neonates should be examined using this technique as early as possible.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Ultrassonografia
15.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 372, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742112

RESUMO

Phytophthora sojae is a pathogen that causes stem and root rot in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.). We previously demonstrated that GmBTB/POZ, a BTB/POZ domain-containing nuclear protein, enhances resistance to P. sojae in soybean, via a process that depends on salicylic acid (SA). Here, we demonstrate that GmBTB/POZ associates directly with soybean LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (GmLHP1) in vitro and in vivo and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation. Both overexpression and RNA interference analysis of transgenic lines demonstrate that GmLHP1 negatively regulates the response of soybean to P. sojae by reducing SA levels and repressing GmPR1 expression. The WRKY transcription factor gene, GmWRKY40, a SA-induced gene in the SA signaling pathway, is targeted by GmLHP1, which represses its expression via at least two mechanisms (directly binding to its promoter and impairing SA accumulation). Furthermore, the nuclear localization of GmLHP1 is required for the GmLHP1-mediated negative regulation of immunity, SA levels and the suppression of GmWRKY40 expression. Finally, GmBTB/POZ releases GmLHP1-regulated GmWRKY40 suppression and increases resistance to P. sojae in GmLHP1-OE hairy roots. These findings uncover a regulatory mechanism by which GmBTB/POZ-GmLHP1 modulates resistance to P. sojae in soybean, likely by regulating the expression of downstream target gene GmWRKY40.

16.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 331, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782407

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the second common cause of death worldwide. Lamin B2 (LMNB2) is involved in chromatin remodeling and the rupture and reorganization of nuclear membrane during mitosis, which is necessary for eukaryotic cell proliferation. However, the role of LMNB2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. This study explored the biological functions of LMNB2 in the progression of colorectal cancer and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that LMNB2 was significantly upregulated in primary colorectal cancer tissues and cell lines, compared with paired non-cancerous tissues and normal colorectal epithelium. The high expression of LMNB2 in colorectal cancer tissues is significantly related to the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and the shorter overall and disease-free cumulative survival. Functional analysis, including CCK8 cell proliferation test, EdU proliferation test, colony formation analysis, nude mouse xenograft, cell cycle, and apoptosis analysis showed that LMNB2 significantly promotes cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression in vivo and in vitro. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis, luciferase report analysis, and CHIP analysis showed that LMNB2 promotes cell proliferation by regulating the p21 promoter, whereas LMNB2 has no effect on cell apoptosis. In summary, these findings not only indicate that LMNB2 promotes the proliferation of colorectal cancer by regulating p21-mediated cell cycle progression, but also suggest the potential value of LMNB2 as a clinical prognostic marker and molecular therapy target.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6936-6944, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653964

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the safety of hypofractionated imaging-guided (IG) volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (IG-VMAT; 70 Gy/28 fractions over 5.5 weeks) versus conventionally fractionated regimen (IG-VMAT; 80 Gy/40 fractions over 8 weeks) in Chinese patients with localized prostate cancer. METHOD: In this randomized non-comparative phase II trial, 92 patients with localized prostate cancer were assigned to receive either hypofractionated IG-VMAT (HFRT; 70 Gy/2.5Gy/28f) or conventionally fractionated IG-VMAT (CFRT; 80 Gy/2Gy/40f). Primary endpoint was grade 2 or higher late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity at 2 years. The GI/GU toxicity and biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) were compared between the two treatment groups. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 26 months. The incidence of grade 2 or higher late GI/GU toxicity was low in both groups; the 5-year cumulative incidence of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 or higher GI/GU toxicity at 2 years was 7.6% with HFRT versus 10.3% with CFRT (P = 0.707). Biochemical control was not significantly different between the two groups; the 2-year bRFS was 94.6% for HFRT versus 95.0% for CFRT (P = 0.704). CONCLUSION: Hypofractionated IG-VMAT appears to be equivalent to conventionally fractionated IG-VMAT in terms of toxicity in Chinese patients with localized prostate cancer.

18.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 4(1): 2-15, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738432

RESUMO

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are top two chronic comorbidities that increase the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, how SARS-CoV-2 alters the progression of chronic diseases remain unclear. Methods: We used adenovirus to deliver h-ACE2 to lung to enable SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. SARS-CoV-2's impacts on pathogenesis of chronic diseases were studied through histopathological, virologic and molecular biology analysis. Results: Pre-existing CVDs resulted in viral invasion, ROS elevation and activation of apoptosis pathways contribute myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection increased fasting blood glucose and reduced insulin response in DM model. Bone mineral density decreased shortly after infection, which associated with impaired PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Conclusion: We established mouse models mimicked the complex pathological symptoms of COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases. Pre-existing diseases could impair the inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which further aggravated the pre-existing diseases. This work provided valuable information to better understand the interplay between the primary diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
ACS Nano ; 15(4): 6352-6368, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723994

RESUMO

Excessive scar formation has adverse physiological and psychological effects on patients; therefore, a therapeutic strategy for rapid wound healing and reduced scar formation is urgently needed. Herein, bilayered thiolated alginate/PEG diacrylate (BSSPD) hydrogels were fabricated for sequential release of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), which acted in different wound healing phases, to achieve rapid and scarless wound healing. The sEVs secreted by bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (B-sEVs) were released from the lower layer of the hydrogels to promote angiogenesis and collagen deposition by accelerating fibroblast and endothelial cell proliferation and migration during the early inflammation and proliferation phases, while sEVs secreted by miR-29b-3p-enriched bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were released from the upper layer of the hydrogels and suppressed excessive capillary proliferation and collagen deposition during the late proliferation and maturation phases. In a full-thickness skin defect model of rats and rabbit ears, the wound repair rate, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition were evaluated at different time points after treatment with BSSPD loaded with B-sEVs. Interestingly, during the end of the maturation phase in the in vivo model, tissues in the groups treated with BSSPD loaded with sEVs for sequential release (SR-sEVs@BSSPD) exhibited a more uniform vascular structure distribution, more regular collagen arrangement, and lower volume of hyperplastic scar tissue than tissues in the other groups. Hence, SR-sEVs@BSSPD based on skin repair phases was successfully designed and has considerable potential as a cell-free therapy for scarless wound healing.

20.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719020

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-energy red light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). PDLSCs were derived from human periodontal ligament tissues of premolars and were irradiated with 0 (control group), 1, 3, or 5 J/cm2 red LED in osteogenic induction medium. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Osteogenic differentiation activity was evaluated by monitoring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results. Osteoblast-associated proteins (Runx2, OCN, OPN, and BSP) were detected using western blotting. The results of the MTT assay indicated that PDLSCs in the irradiation groups exhibited a higher proliferation rate than those in the control group (P < 0.05). ALP results showed that after 7 days of illumination, only 5 J/cm2 promoted the expression of ALP of PDLSCs. However, after 14 days of illumination, the irradiation treatments did not increase ALP activity. The results of alizarin red staining showed that red LED promoted osteogenic differentiation of the PDLSCs. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results demonstrated that red LED upregulated the expression levels of osteogenic genes. Expression of the proteins BSP, OPN, OCN, and Runx2 in the irradiation groups was higher than that in the control group. Our results confirmed that low-energy red LED at 1, 3, and 5 J/cm2 promotes proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.

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