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Front Plant Sci ; 10: 828, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316534


Abscisic acid (ABA) is a crucial phytohormone for the regulation of seed germination. The ABA content of seeds is regulated by synthesis and catabolic pathways. Coumarin, an important plant allelochemical, can inhibit seed germination effectively, although whether it is involved in the regulation of ABA content during seed germination has not been elucidated. For the study reported herein, we show that coumarin effectively inhibits rice seed germination and vivipary. We found that the ABA content gradually decreased in water-imbibed rice seeds and that the content and activity of the Oryza sativa 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (OsNCEDs), which are ABA synthases, decreased during seed germination. At the transcription level, the expression of OsNCED1-3 appeared to decrease, whereas the expression of the ABA 8'-hydroxylase 2 and 3 genes (OsABA8'ox2/3) first appeared to increase and then decrease. Samples of rice seeds were also imbibed in water containing coumarin, which increased their ABA content but did not significantly increase the activity or content of their OsNCEDs or OsNCED1-3 transcription. Interestingly, coumarin imbibition remarkably reduced OsABA8'ox2/3 expression in rice embryos, which partially explained how coumarin increased the ABA content of germinating rice embryos. Coumarin also inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rice embryos and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which are indispensable for seed germination. These results indicate that coumarin delays seed germination by inhibiting ABA catabolism, particularly by decreasing the expression of OsABA8'ox2/3 rather than by increasing ABA synthesis. Moreover, coumarin increases the ABA content while decreasing the ROS content in rice embryos. Our results enhance our understanding of the regulation of ABA and ROS during seed germination and provide theoretical support for application of coumarin to prevent sprouting before crop harvesting.

Front Plant Sci ; 10: 848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316541


Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are a ubiquitous group of oxidoreductase enzymes that are important in plant growth and development; however, the functions of rice Grxs have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, we showed that one of the Grxs, encoded by OsGrxC2.2, exhibited Grx activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that OsGrxC2.2 was able to regulate embryo development during embryogenesis. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing OsGrxC2.2 unexpectedly exhibited degenerate embryos as well as embryoless seeds. Our data indicated that the embryonic abnormalities occurred at an early stage during embryogenesis. We found that the expression of several endodermal layer marker genes for embryo development, such as OSH1 (apical region marker), OsSCR (L2 ground tissue marker), and OsPNH1 (L3 vascular tissue marker), were significantly decreased in the OsGrxC2.2-overexpressed transgenic rice lines. In contrast, the transcript levels of the majority of protodermal layer markers, including HAZ1, ROC2, ROC3, and RAmy1A, and the shoot apical meristem marker HB, showed little change between the wild-type (WT) and OsGrxC2.2-overexpressing embryos. Surprisingly, the seed weight of the overexpressed transgenic rice was remarkably increased in comparison to that of the WT. These results indicate that the overexpression of OsGrxC2.2 interferes with the normal embryogenesis of rice embryos and leads to increased grain weight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that OsGrxC2.2 is a rice embryo development-associated gene.

Plant Physiol Biochem ; 127: 590-598, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729608


Seed storability is an important trait for crop breeding, however, the mechanism underlying seed storability remains largely unknown. Here, a mass spectrometry-based comparative metabolomic study was performed for rice seeds before and after 24-month natural storage between two hybrid rice cultivars, IIYou 998 (IIY) with low storability and BoYou 998 (BY) with relative high storability. A total of 48 metabolites among 90 metabolite peaks detected were conclusively identified, and most of them are involved in the primary metabolism. During the 24-month storage, 19 metabolites with significant changes in abundance were found in the storage-sensitive IIY seeds, but only 8 in the BY seeds, most of which are free amino acids and soluble sugars. The observed changes of the metabolites in IIY seeds that are consistent with our protoemics results are likely to be involved in its sensitivity to storage. Levels of all identified 18 amino acid-related metabolites and most sugar-related metabolites were significantly higher in IIY seeds both before and after storage. However the level of raffinose was lower in IIY seeds before and after storage, and did not change significantly throughout the storage period in both two cultivars, suggesting its potential role in seed storability. Taken together, these results may help to improve our understanding of seed storability.

Armazenamento de Alimentos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Oryza/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 206, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157222


BACKGROUND: A recently discovered tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] cultivar can generate tender shoots in winter. We performed comparative proteomics to analyze the differentially accumulated proteins between winter and spring tender shoots of this clonal cultivar to reveal the physiological basis of its evergrowing character during winter. RESULTS: We extracted proteins from the winter and spring tender shoots (newly formed two leaves and a bud) of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" respectively. Thirty-three differentially accumulated high-confidence proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF / TOF MS). Among these, 24 proteins had increased abundance while nine showed were decreased abundance in winter tender shoots as compared with the spring tender shoots. We categorized the differentially accumulated proteins into eight critical biological processes based on protein function annotation including photosynthesis, cell structure, protein synthesis & destination, transporters, metabolism of sugars and polysaccharides, secondary metabolism, disease/defense and proteins with unknown functions. Proteins with increased abundance in winter tender shoots were mainly related to the processes of photosynthesis, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis, whereas those with decreased abundance were correlated to metabolism and the secondary metabolism of polyphenolic flavonoids. Biochemical analysis showed that the total contents of soluble sugar and amino acid were higher in winter tender shoots while tea polyphenols were lower as compared with spring tender shoots. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that the simultaneous increase in the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins rubisco, plastocyanin, and ATP synthase delta chain, metabolism-related proteins eIF4 and protease subunits, and the cytoskeleton-structure associated proteins phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and profilin may be because of the adaptation of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" to low temperature and light conditions. Histone H4, Histone H2A.1, putative In2.1 protein and protein lin-28 homologs may also regulate the development of winter shoots and their response to adverse conditions.

Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Camellia sinensis/fisiologia , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Luz , Espectrometria de Massas , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 103: 31-44, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26950923


Seed storability is considered an important trait in rice breeding; however, the underlying regulating mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we carried out a physiological and proteomic study to identify proteins possibly related to seed storability under natural conditions. Two hybrid cultivars, IIYou998 (IIY998) and BoYou998 (BY998), were analyzed in parallel because they share the same restorer line but have significant differences in seed storability. After a 2-year storage period, the germination percentage of IIY998 was significantly lower than that of BY998, whereas the level of malondialdehyde was reversed, indicating that IIY998 seeds may suffer from more severe damage than BY998 during storage. However, we did not find correlation between activities of antioxidant enzymes of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase and seed storability. We identified 78 embryo proteins in embryo whose abundance varied more than 3-fold different during storage or between IIY998 and BY998. More proteins changed in abundance in IIY998 embryo (67 proteins) during storage than in BY998 (10 proteins). Several redox regulation proteins, mainly glutathione-related proteins, exhibited different degree of change during storage between BY998 and IIY998 and might play an important role protecting embryo proteins from oxidation. In addition, some disease/defense proteins, including DNA-damage-repair/toleration proteins, and a putative late embryogenesis abundant protein were significantly downregulated in IIY998, whereas their levels did not change in BY998, indicating that they might be correlated with seed storability. Further studies on these candidate seed storage proteins might help improve our understanding of seed aging.

Oryza/fisiologia , Proteômica , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Catalase/metabolismo , Germinação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo