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1.
Appl Opt ; 60(29): 9232-9240, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624010

RESUMO

A novel, to the best of our knowledge, hole radius and spacing measurement method is presented based on binocular vision combined with dynamic local plane for the large-size workpiece with plane feature. The novel method overcomes the problem of the ariable working distance and large location error of an abrupt edge for conventional methods. Its measurement principle and model are introduced. Then, a chamfered inner edge extraction method based on the shrinkage of an elliptical band and an adaptive weight optimal calculation based on redundant measurement data are presented to improve the measurement accuracy. Experiments are carried out to validate the presented method, and a high measurement accuracy with a standard deviation of 0.017 mm in the hole radius and 0.021 mm in hole spacing have eventually been achieved for the actual measurement workpieces, respectively. Compared with the common method, the measurement accuracy is improved by at least 77% and 53% in radius and spacing, respectively.

2.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common syndrome in elderly people. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, in particular machine-learning algorithms, have been increasingly used in disease diagnosis. AIM: In this study, we designed an effective diagnostic model of PAD in the elderly patients using artificial intelligence. METHODS: The study was performed with 539 participants, all over 80 years in age, who underwent the measurements of Doppler ultrasonography and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Blood samples were collected. ABI and two machine-learning algorithms (MLAs)-logistic regression and a random forest (RF) model-were established to diagnose PAD. The sensitivity and specificity of the models were analyzed. An additional RF model was designed based on the most significant features of the original RF model and a prospective study was conducted to demonstrate its external validity. RESULTS: Thirteen of the 28 features introduced to the MLAs differed significantly between PAD and non-PAD participants. The respective sensitivities and specificities of logistic regression, RF, and ABI were as follows: logistic regression (81.5%, 83.8%), RF (89.3%, 91.6%) and ABI (85.1%, 84.5%). In the prospective study, the newly designed RF model based on the most significant seven features exhibited an acceptable performance rate for the diagnosis of PAD with 100.0% sensitivity and 90.3% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: An RF model was a more effective method than the logistic regression and ABI for the diagnosis of PAD in an elderly cohort.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1626, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeat abortion is a significant public health problem in China. International knowledge about repeat abortion and its associated factors in Chinese women is scarce. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of repeat abortion among women seeking abortion services with unintended pregnancies in northwestern China and to identify factors associated with the repeat abortion from both two perspectives of abortion seekers themselves and their sexual partners. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 1st to May 31st, 2020, in 90 medical institutions in Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. All women seeking abortions within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy were invited to participate in this survey; however, only those abortion seekers with unintended pregnancies were extracted and included in this study. Pearson's chi-squared tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Of 3397 abortion seekers, 56.6% (1924) were undergoing repeat abortions. Participants who were older than 30 years (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08-1.73 for 31-35 years; 1.82, 1.29-2.57 for ≥36 years), received a low-level education (1.86, 1.42-2.43 for ≤senior high school; 1.46, 1.17-1.83 for junior college), were jobless (2.46, 1.18-5.13), had one child (1.54, 1.10-2.17), had a general (1.60, 1.28-1.98) or no (2.51, 2.02-3.11) cognition of possible adverse health effects of having abortions, and had used contraception at the time of conception, i.e., condoms (1.33, 1.09-1.61), withdrawal (1.43, 1.12-1.84), and emergency measures (1.48, 1.09-1.99) were more likely to undergo a repeat abortion. Besides, participants whose sexual partners were older than 30 years (1.33, 1.06-1.68 for 31-35 years; 2.13, 1.56-2.91 for ≥36 years), attained a low-level education (1.66, 1.28-2.15 for ≤senior high school; 1.38, 1.10-1.74 for junior college), received a high-level monthly income (1.34, 1.08-1.65 for ≥6001 Yuan), and had a weak or very weak willingness to use contraception (6.84, 2.42-19.33) were more likely to have a repeat abortion. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings highlight the problem of repeat abortion in China and suggest the need for government and civil society to increase efforts to reduce the risks of unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion in China. One approach may be to offer better access to reproductive health and contraception knowledge to women and their sexual partners and to promote their correct, consistent, and effective contraception practice.


Assuntos
Aspirantes a Aborto , Aborto Induzido , China/epidemiologia , Anticoncepção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China is becoming an aging society, and the proportion of the population aged 60 years and above is increasing. There is a dualistic urban-rural economic structure between urban and rural areas in China, but there are few comparative health studies on the self-assessed health (SAH) status of the elderly between urban and rural areas. The aim of this study is to explore the SAH status of the elderly in China, and to identify the health disparity between the urban and rural elderly. METHODS: The data from the fourth wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2018 were adopted. A total of 9630 participants aged 60 and above were included in this study. SAH was used as the indicator, measuring the health status. Fairlie decomposition analysis was conducted to find the SAH disparity. RESULTS: The proportion of good SAH of the rural elderly (24.01%) was significantly higher than the urban elderly (19.99%). The association of SAH was widely different between the rural and urban elderly. There was a stronger association between SAH and sleeping time in the urban elderly (Odds ratios (OR) = 3.347 of 4-8 h; OR = 3.337 of above 8 h) than the rural elderly (OR = 1.630 of 4-8 h; OR = 2.293 of above 8 h). Smoking and social activity were significant only in the urban elderly, while region and assets were significant only in the rural elderly. Drinking (11.45%), region (-33.92%), and assets (73.50%) were the main factors contributing to the urban-rural health disparities. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comparative study examining SAH disparity, focusing on the elderly aged 60 and above in China. From the perspective of drinking, region, and assets, our study highlighted substantial urban-rural health disparities, and provided evidence for policy making on narrowing the health gap between urban and rural areas in China.


Assuntos
População Rural , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , População Urbana
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 209, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With trends towards longer life expectancy, lifetime with disability has also been prolonged. It is increasingly recognized that not only the person with disability but also those around them are affected. The relationship between functional limitation (FL) of the older adults and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of their spouse is of interest. So too is the determination of the factors aside from FL that influence HRQoL. METHODS: The sample was derived from the 2013 National Health Service Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province in China. Married couples aged ≥ 60 years were selected (n = 3463). The European quality of life five dimensions (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale were used to measure HRQoL. RESULTS: Both wife and husband reported lower HRQoL if either the male or female partner had some or serious FLs (P < 0.001). Other factors associated with lower HRQoL of the spouse included age, lower educational level, presence of chronic disease, and lower household economic status. Family size was associated with wife's HRQoL only when the male had no FL and lived with another 1-2 persons, or when the male had some FLs and lived in a larger family (n ≥ 5). Residential status did not relate to the HRQoL of spouses regardless of FL status. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults in Shaanxi province who have partners with FLs tend to report poorer EQ-5D, suggesting that couples amongst whom one has FL may be particularly vulnerable to lower HRQoL.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Cônjuges , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Estatal , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070687

RESUMO

With the deepening of health insurance reform in China, the integration of social health insurance schemes was put on the agenda. This paper aims to illustrate the achievements and the gaps in integration by demonstrating the trends in benefits available from the three social health insurance schemes, as well as the influencing factors. Data were drawn from the three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009, 2011, 2015) undertaken since health reforms commenced. χ2, Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Two-Part model were employed in the analysis. The overall reimbursement rate of the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) is higher than that of Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) or the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) (p < 0.001), but the gap has narrowed since health reform began in 2009. Both the outpatient and inpatient reimbursement amounts have increased through the URBMI and NRCMS. Illness severity, higher institutional level, and inpatient service were associated with significant increases in the amount of reimbursement received across the three survey waves. The health reform improved benefits covered by the URBMI and NRCMS, but gaps with the UEBMI still exist. The government should consider more the release of health benefits and how to lead toward healthcare equity.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Seguro Saúde , China , Humanos , População Rural , Previdência Social , População Urbana
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 268: 113372, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979776

RESUMO

The unbalanced allocation of healthcare resources and the underutilization of primary care facilities are the core problems that restrict the current healthcare reforms in China. In order to encourage residents to go to primary care facilities, China implemented the Hierarchical Medical System (HMS) in 2015. This study aims to evaluate the effect of HMS on health seeking behavior in China using panel data. Statistics for the study were derived from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018, and China health and family planning statistical yearbook 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018. We employed the difference-in-differences (DID) model with multiple periods. In total, 61,932 residents were incorporated for a final sample covered 25 provinces. The results indicated that the implementation of HMS had a significantly positive effect on the probability of urban residents going to primary care facilities for contact. However, the effect of HMS was not significant for rural residents. Basic health insurance was a significant factor for directing residents to primary care facilities. Self-assessed health, chronic disease, economic level and educational status were also found to be focal factors of health seeking behavior. In conclusion, the introduction of HMS has led to improved health seeking behavior and is worth putting more effort into. For policy makers, basic medical insurance is still an important health policy that enables systematic health seeking behavior. Initiatives to continue to expand the adjustment range of economic incentives should be adopted to promote the implementation of HMS. However, the effect of HMS in chronic disease is poor and efforts to formulate chronic disease as a breakthrough to HMS should be carried out. Moreover, the government should increase the publicity of HMS.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde , População Rural , China , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 144028, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340736

RESUMO

Coal-fired industrial boiler has become a large source of atmospheric pollutants in China, urging to achieve low NOx emissions. This paper adjusts the coal char structure with high-temperature/microwave expanding modification to investigate the char-NO interaction. The results show that after high-temperature or microwave expansion, the pore structure of char is further expanded with more new pore structure of 2-12 nm. The proper expansion temperature/power/treatment-time increases the ablation collapse of char pores and the order of carbon structure. With microwave, COC and CO bands break, forming a large amount of aromatic CC unsaturated carbon atoms, incrseasing the surface active sites of char-NO interaction. The optimum modifications of char-NO reactivity are 800 °C-90 s and 960 W-90 s. The reduction rate of NO by microwave modified char decreases with increase of inlet NO (<1200 ppm), and increases with increase of inlet CO (<8000 ppm). Burnout time of microwave modified char is shortened, with more rapid release of NO and larger conversion rate of char-N to NO. With microwave field, the conversion rate of char-N to NO at 900 °C is more significant than that at 600 °C. The too large microwave power cannot further shorten the char burnout time and the release time of NO.

9.
ISA Trans ; 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339589

RESUMO

Accurate performance condition evaluation has a pivotal role in maintaining the operating reliability and preventing damage to complex electromechanical systems (CESs), which is still a challenging task. The uncertain features fusion inspired method is developed by utilizing the data-graph conversion, texture analysis, and improved evidence fusion. Unlike the conventional continuous time-series analysis-based methods, the 2D color-spectrums related to the performance conditions are constructed without information losing, and texture features of spectrums are extracted and fused to realize evaluation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by actual evaluation applications. Moreover, the proposed method provides a new idea for large-scale high-dimensional data processing, decision making, uncertainty handling, and other engineering applications.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1442, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in older rural-to-urban migrant workers (aged 50 and above) in mainland China, little known about their depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify depressive symptoms among older rural-to-urban migrant workers, as well as explored the factors leading to differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their rural counterparts (older rural dwellers) and urban counterparts (older urban residents) in mainland China. The results provided a comprehensive understanding of the depressive symptoms of older rural-to-urban migrant workers, and had great significance for improving the depressive symptoms for this vulnerable group. METHODS: Data were derived from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) conducted in 2015, and coarsened exact matching (CEM) method was employed to control confounding factors. This study employed a Chinese version 10-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 10) to measure depressive symptoms, and used the Social-Ecological Model as a framework to explore influential factors related to depressive symptoms. Specifically, the approach of Fairlie's decomposition was used to parse out differences into observed and unobserved components. RESULTS: After matching, our findings indicated that the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older rural-to-urban migrant workers was lower than older rural dwellers; and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older rural-to-urban migrant workers was higher than older urban residents. Fairlie's decomposition analysis indicated that type of in-house shower, sleeping time at night and ill in the last month were proved to be major contributors to the differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and older rural dwellers; self-reported health and sleeping time at night were proved to be major contributors to the differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and older urban residents. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their rural and urban counterparts did exist. Our findings contributed to a more reliable understanding in depressive symptoms among older rural-to-urban migrant workers. Our findings would be of referential significance for improving older rural-to-urban migrant workers' depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(9): 2410-2418, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786283

RESUMO

Colistin is an antibiotic of last resort used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The recent surge in reported cases of colistin-resistant infections urgently calls for fast and reliable diagnostic methods, which can be used for the facile detection and proper treatment of these challenging infections. A major mechanism of colistin resistance involves phosphoethanolamine (PE) modification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the molecular target of colistin. This LPS modification mechanism has been recently reported to be transferrable via a plasmid-carried mcr-1 gene, which is particularly concerning as it may readily confer colistin resistance to a wide array of bacterial pathogens. To develop molecular tools to allow facile detection of colistin resistance, we have herein enlisted a novel phage library that incorporates dynamic covalent warheads to recognize PE modifications on bacterial cells. Screening of this chemically modified phage library against colistin-resistant pathogens revealed a number of peptide probes that readily differentiate colistin-resistant bacterial strains from their colistin-susceptible counterparts. With a fluorophore label, these peptide probes selectively stain colistin-resistant bacteria at sub-to-low micromolar concentrations. The bacterial staining is minimally inhibited by the presence of serum proteins or even blood serum. Mechanistic studies indicate that our peptide probes bind colistin-resistant bacteria primarily by targeting PE-modified lipids. However, some species-specific features of the cell surface can also contribute to the peptides' association to bacterial cells. Further elucidation of such cell surface features may give molecular probes with improved species and strain specificity, which will enable bacterial infection diagnosis with high precision.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Colistina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Peptídeos
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 100, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuum of care for maternal health services (CMHS) is a proven approach to improve health and safety for mothers and newborns. This study aims to explore the influence of China's 2009 healthcare reform on improving the CMHS utilisation. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional quantitative study included 2332 women drawn from the fourth and fifth National Health Service Surveys of Shaanxi Province, conducted in 2008 and 2013 respectively, before and after China's 2009 healthcare reform. A generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) was applied to analyse the influence of this healthcare reform on utilisation of CMHS. Concentration curves, concentration indexes and its decomposition method were used to analyse the equity of changes in utilisation. RESULTS: This study showed post-reform CMHS utilisation was higher in both rural and urban women than the CMHS utilisation pre-reform (according to China's policy defining CMHS). The rate of CMHS utilisation increased from 24.66 to 41.55% for urban women and from 18.31 to 50.49% for rural women (urban: χ2 = 20.64, P < 0.001; rural: χ2 = 131.38, P < 0.001). This finding is consistent when the WHO's definition of CMHS is applied for rural women after reform (12.13% vs 19.26%; χ2 = 10.99, P = 0.001); for urban women, CMHS utilisation increased from 15.70 to 20.56% (χ2 = 2.57, P = 0.109). The GLMM showed that the rate of CMHS utilisation for urban women post-reform was five times higher than pre-reform rates (OR = 5.02, 95%CL: 1.90, 13.31); it was close to 15 times higher for rural women (OR = 14.70, 95%CL: 5.43, 39.76). The concentration index for urban women decreased from 0.130 pre-reform (95%CI: - 0.026, 0.411) to - 0.041 post-reform (95%CI: - 0.096, 0.007); it decreased from 0.104 (95%CI: - 0.012, 0.222) to 0.019 (95%CI: - 0.014, 0.060) for rural women. The horizontal inequity index for both groups of women also decreased (0.136 to - 0.047 urban and 0.111 to 0.019 for rural). CONCLUSIONS: China's 2009 healthcare reform has positively influenced utilisation rates and equity of CMHS's utilisation among both urban and rural women in Shaanxi Province. Addressing economic and educational attainment gaps between the rich and the poor may be effective ways to improve the persistent health inequities for rural women.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(34): 14246-14250, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437040

RESUMO

We report a novel conjugation of N-terminal cysteines (NCys) that proceeds with fast kinetics and exquisite selectivity, thereby enabling facile modification of NCys-bearing proteins in complex biological milieu. This new NCys conjugation proceeds via a thiazolidine boronate (TzB) intermediate that results from fast (k2 : ≈5000 m-1 s-1 ) and reversible conjugation of NCys with 2-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA). We designed a FPBA derivative that upon TzB formation elicits intramolecular acyl transfer to give N-acyl thiazolidines. In contrast to the quick hydrolysis of TzB, the N-acylated thiazolidines exhibit robust stability under physiologic conditions. The utility of the TzB-mediated NCys conjugation is demonstrated by rapid and non-disruptive labeling of two enzymes. Furthermore, applying this chemistry to bacteriophage allows facile chemical modification of phage libraries, which greatly expands the chemical space amenable to phage display.


Assuntos
Ácidos Borônicos/química , Cisteína/química , Tiazolidinas/química , Acilação , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Hidrólise , Cinética
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vocabulary skills in infants with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are related to various factors. They remain underexplored among Mandarin-speaking infants with CL/P. This study identified receptive and expressive vocabulary skills among Mandarin-speaking infants with unrepaired CL/P prior to cleft palate surgery and their associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving patients at the Cleft Lip and Palate Center of the Stomatological Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University between July 2017 and December 2018. The Putonghua Communicative Development Inventories-Short Form (PCDI-SF) was used to assess early vocabulary skills. RESULTS: A total of 134 children aged 9-16 months prior to cleft palate surgery were included in the study. The prevalences of delays in receptive and expressive vocabulary skills were 72.39% (95% CI: 64.00-79.76%) and 85.07% (95% CI: 77.89-90.64%), respectively. Multiple logistic regression identified that children aged 11-13 months (OR = 6.46, 95% CI: 1.76-23.76) and 14-16 months (OR = 24.32, 95% CI: 3.86-153.05), and those with hard/soft cleft palate and soft cleft palate (HSCP/SCP) (OR = 5.63, 95% CI: 1.02-31.01) were more likely to be delayed in receptive vocabulary skills. CONCLUSIONS: Delays in vocabulary skills were common among Mandarin-speaking CL/P infants, and age was positively associated with impaired and lagging vocabulary skills. The findings suggest the necessity and importance of early and effective identification of CL/P, and early intervention programs and effective treatment are recommended for Chinese CL/P infants.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Fala , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fenda Labial/fisiopatologia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Palato Mole , Vocabulário
15.
ACS Omega ; 5(16): 9078-9092, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363260

RESUMO

In this work, two series of brown coals (including acid-washed coal and ion-exchangeable Na-loaded coal) were pyrolyzed in a drop-tube reactor. The experimental results revealed that soot and tar yields of Na-loaded coals were significantly lower than that of acid-washed coals. Gasified Na can reduce the formation of big soot agglomerates. During coal primary pyrolysis, ion-exchangeable Na can reduce the amount and aromaticity of primary tar. Na released with volatiles can catalyze the cracking of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, inhibit the polymerization between aromatic rings, and promote the combination of soot/tar with oxygen-containing substances, resulting in the decrease of graphite crystallite size and the increase of amorphous carbon content. Na can also reduce the organization degree of soot by forming intercalation compounds.

16.
Appl Opt ; 59(7): 2016-2023, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225722

RESUMO

Deflectometry has been widely used to detect defects on specular surfaces. However, it is still very challenging to detect defects on semispecular or diffuse surfaces because of the low contrast and low signal-to-noise ratio. To address this challenge, we proposed a phase-modulation combined method for accurate defect detection. Based on the phase and modulation of captured fringes, a dual-branch convolutional neural network is employed to simultaneously extract geometric and photometric features from the phase-shifting pattern sequence and modulation, which improves the defect detection performance significantly. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, we believe the results demonstrated the proposed method's effectiveness and capability to reduce false positives.

17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 156: 112123, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174552

RESUMO

The rapid increase in antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria has become a global threat, which besides the development of new drugs, requires rapid, cheap, scalable, and accurate diagnostics. Label free biosensors relying on electrochemical, mechanical, and mass based detection of whole bacterial cells have attempted to meet these requirements. However, the trade-off between selectivity and sensitivity of such sensors remains a key challenge. In particular, point-of-care diagnostics that are able to reduce and/or prevent unneeded antibiotic prescriptions require highly specific probes with sensitive and accurate transducers that can be miniaturized and multiplexed, and that are easy to operate and cheap. Towards achieving this goal, we present a number of advances in the use of graphene field effect transistors (G-FET) including the first use of peptide probes to electrically detect antibiotic resistant bacteria in a highly specific manner. In addition, we dramatically reduce the needed concentration for detection by employing dielectrophoresis for the first time in a G-FET, allowing us to monitor changes in the Dirac point due to individual bacterial cells. Specifically, we realized rapid binding of bacterial cells to a G-FET by electrical field guiding to the device to realize an overall 3 orders of magnitude decrease in cell-concentration enabling a single-cell detection limit, and 9-fold reduction in needed time to 5 min. Utilizing our new biosensor and procedures, we demonstrate the first selective, electrical detection of the pathogenic bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii on a single platform.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Transistores Eletrônicos , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952113

RESUMO

Lack of adequate dietary knowledge may result in poor health conditions. This study aims to measure income-related inequality in dietary knowledge, and to explain the sources of the inequality. Data were from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2015. A summary of the dietary knowledge score and dietary guideline awareness was used to measure the dietary knowledge of respondents. The concentration index was employed as a measure of socioeconomic inequality and was decomposed into its determining factors. The study found that the proportion of respondents who correctly answered questions on dietary knowledge was significantly low for some questions. Compared to rural residents, urban residents had a higher proportion of correctly answered dietary knowledge questions. In addition, there are pro-rich inequalities in dietary knowledge. This observed inequality is determined not only by individual factors but also high-level area factors. Our study recommends that future dietary education programs could take different strategies for individuals with different educational levels and focus more on disadvantaged people. It would be beneficial to consider local dietary habits in developing education materials.


Assuntos
Dieta , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
J Org Chem ; 85(3): 1756-1763, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880156

RESUMO

Conjugation of 2-cyanobenzothiazole (CBT) with N-terminal cysteines (NCys) typically gives a luciferin product. We herein report an alternative reaction pathway leading to an N-terminal amidine rendering the side chain thiol available for further modification. Examination of peptide sequence dependence of this amidine conjugation reveals a tripeptide tag CIS that allows facile N, S-double labeling of a protein of interest with >90% yield. This alternative reaction pathway of CBT-NCys condensation presents a significant addition to the toolbox for site-specific protein modifications.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis , Cisteína , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Nitrilas
20.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 28293-28312, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684584

RESUMO

Inter-reflection removal is vital for complex-scene reconstruction. However, most methods assume that the tested surface is a diffuse, and are limited to removal of inter-reflection caused only by diffuse reflections. For all kinds of inter-reflections caused by diffuse and specular reflections, a micro-frequency shifting (MFS) projection technique is presented. Because the modulation variation with frequency in inter-reflection regions is larger than that of other regions, we use the MFS technique to detect inter-reflections, where patterns with specifically designed frequency-shifts and base frequencies are projected. Inter-reflections are detected through large variations in modulation, and removed using a regional-projection technique. Experimental results validate the effectiveness for diffuse and specular inter-reflection removal.

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