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1.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2214): 20210127, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802267

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, more than ever, data science has become a powerful weapon in combating an infectious disease epidemic and arguably any future infectious disease epidemic. Computer scientists, data scientists, physicists and mathematicians have joined public health professionals and virologists to confront the largest pandemic in the century by capitalizing on the large-scale 'big data' generated and harnessed for combating the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we review the newly born data science approaches to confronting COVID-19, including the estimation of epidemiological parameters, digital contact tracing, diagnosis, policy-making, resource allocation, risk assessment, mental health surveillance, social media analytics, drug repurposing and drug development. We compare the new approaches with conventional epidemiological studies, discuss lessons we learned from the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlight opportunities and challenges of data science approaches to confronting future infectious disease epidemics. This article is part of the theme issue 'Data science approaches to infectious disease surveillance'.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Busca de Comunicante , Ciência de Dados , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2214): 20210116, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802268

RESUMO

Percolation theory is essential for understanding disease transmission patterns on the temporal mobility networks. However, the traditional approach of the percolation process can be inefficient when analysing a large-scale, dynamic network for an extended period. Not only is it time-consuming but it is also hard to identify the connected components. Recent studies demonstrate that spatial containers restrict mobility behaviour, described by a hierarchical topology of mobility networks. Here, we leverage crowd-sourced, large-scale human mobility data to construct temporal hierarchical networks composed of over 175 000 block groups in the USA. Each daily network contains mobility between block groups within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), and long-distance travels across the MSAs. We examine percolation on both levels and demonstrate the changes of network metrics and the connected components under the influence of COVID-19. The research reveals the presence of functional subunits even with high thresholds of mobility. Finally, we locate a set of recurrent critical links that divide components resulting in the separation of core MSAs. Our findings provide novel insights into understanding the dynamical community structure of mobility networks during disruptions and could contribute to more effective infectious disease control at multiple scales. This article is part of the theme issue 'Data science approaches to infectious disease surveillance'.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criatividade , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(50)2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876509

RESUMO

Research has documented increasing partisan division and extremist positions that are more pronounced among political elites than among voters. Attention has now begun to focus on how polarization might be attenuated. We use a general model of opinion change to see if the self-reinforcing dynamics of influence and homophily may be characterized by tipping points that make reversibility problematic. The model applies to a legislative body or other small, densely connected organization, but does not assume country-specific institutional arrangements that would obscure the identification of fundamental regularities in the phase transitions. Agents in the model have initially random locations in a multidimensional issue space consisting of membership in one of two equal-sized parties and positions on 10 issues. Agents then update their issue positions by moving closer to nearby neighbors and farther from those with whom they disagree, depending on the agents' tolerance of disagreement and strength of party identification compared to their ideological commitment to the issues. We conducted computational experiments in which we manipulated agents' tolerance for disagreement and strength of party identification. Importantly, we also introduced exogenous shocks corresponding to events that create a shared interest against a common threat (e.g., a global pandemic). Phase diagrams of political polarization reveal difficult-to-predict transitions that can be irreversible due to asymmetric hysteresis trajectories. We conclude that future empirical research needs to pay much closer attention to the identification of tipping points and the effectiveness of possible countermeasures.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258868, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752462

RESUMO

Human mobility is crucial to understand the transmission pattern of COVID-19 on spatially embedded geographic networks. This pattern seems unpredictable, and the propagation appears unstoppable, resulting in over 350,000 death tolls in the U.S. by the end of 2020. Here, we create the spatiotemporal inter-county mobility network using 10 TB (Terabytes) trajectory data of 30 million smart devices in the U.S. in the first six months of 2020. We investigate the bond percolation process by removing the weakly connected edges. As we increase the threshold, the mobility network nodes become less interconnected and thus experience surprisingly abrupt phase transitions. Despite the complex behaviors of the mobility network, we devised a novel approach to identify a small, manageable set of recurrent critical bridges, connecting the giant component and the second-largest component. These adaptive links, located across the United States, played a key role as valves connecting components in divisions and regions during the pandemic. Beyond, our numerical results unveil that network characteristics determine the critical thresholds and the bridge locations. The findings provide new insights into managing and controlling the connectivity of mobility networks during unprecedented disruptions. The work can also potentially offer practical future infectious diseases both globally and locally.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Transição de Fase , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19906, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620938

RESUMO

We combined survey, mobility, and infections data in greater Boston, MA to simulate the effects of racial disparities in the inclination to become vaccinated on continued infection rates and the attainment of herd immunity. The simulation projected marked inequities, with communities of color experiencing infection rates 3 times higher than predominantly White communities and reaching herd immunity 45 days later on average. Persuasion of individuals uncertain about vaccination was crucial to preventing the worst inequities but could only narrow them so far because 1/5th of Black and Latinx individuals said that they would never vaccinate. The results point to a need for well-crafted, compassionate messaging that reaches out to those most resistant to the vaccine.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Fatores Raciais , Vacinação , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Comunicação Persuasiva , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Incerteza , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18715, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548546

RESUMO

Many critical complex systems and networks are continuously monitored, creating vast volumes of data describing their dynamics. To understand and optimize their performance, we need to discover and formalize their dynamics to enable their control. Here, we introduce a multidisciplinary framework using network science and control theory to accomplish these goals. We demonstrate its use on a meaningful example of a complex network of U.S. domestic passenger airlines aiming to control flight delays. Using the real data on such delays, we build a flight delay network for each airline. Analyzing these networks, we uncover and formalize their dynamics. We use this formalization to design the optimal control for the flight delay networks. The results of applying this control to the ground truth data on flight delays demonstrate the low costs of the optimal control and significant reduction of delay times, while the costs of the delays unabated by control are high. Thus, the introduced here framework benefits the passengers, the airline companies and the airports.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(17): 170501, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988406

RESUMO

Establishing long-distance quantum entanglement, i.e., entanglement transmission, in quantum networks (QN) is a key and timely challenge for developing efficient quantum communication. Traditional comprehension based on classical percolation assumes a necessary condition for successful entanglement transmission between any two infinitely distant nodes: they must be connected by at least a path of perfectly entangled states (singlets). Here, we relax this condition by explicitly showing that one can focus not on optimally converting singlets but on establishing concurrence-a key measure of bipartite entanglement. We thereby introduce a new statistical theory, concurrence percolation theory (ConPT), remotely analogous to classical percolation but fundamentally different, built by generalizing bond percolation in terms of "sponge-crossing" paths instead of clusters. Inspired by resistance network analysis, we determine the path connectivity by series and parallel rules and approximate higher-order rules via star-mesh transforms. Interestingly, we find that the entanglement transmission threshold predicted by ConPT is lower than the known classical-percolation-based results and is readily achievable on any series-parallel networks such as the Bethe lattice. ConPT promotes our understanding of how well quantum communication can be further systematically improved versus classical statistical predictions under the limitation of QN locality-a "quantum advantage" that is more general and efficient than expected. ConPT also shows a percolationlike universal critical behavior derived by finite-size analysis on the Bethe lattice and regular two-dimensional lattices, offering new perspectives for a theory of criticality in entanglement statistics.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7645, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828120

RESUMO

Data-driven risk networks describe many complex system dynamics arising in fields such as epidemiology and ecology. They lack explicit dynamics and have multiple sources of cost, both of which are beyond the current scope of traditional control theory. We construct the global economy risk network by combining the consensus of experts from the World Economic Forum with risk activation data to define its topology and interactions. Many of these risks, including extreme weather and drastic inflation, pose significant economic costs when active. We introduce a method for converting network interaction data into continuous dynamics to which we apply optimal control. We contribute the first method for constructing and controlling risk network dynamics based on empirically collected data. We simulate applying this method to control the spread of COVID-19 and show that the choice of risks through which the network is controlled has significant influence on both the cost of control and the total cost of keeping network stable. We additionally describe a heuristic for choosing the risks trough which the network is controlled, given a general risk network.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Risco , Algoritmos , COVID-19/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Heurística , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
9.
Chaos ; 31(2): 021101, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653072

RESUMO

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 62 million people worldwide. Control responses varied across countries with different outcomes in terms of epidemic size and social disruption. This study presents an age-specific susceptible-exposed-infected-recovery-death model that considers the unique characteristics of COVID-19 to examine the effectiveness of various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in New York City (NYC). Numerical experiments from our model show that the control policies implemented in NYC reduced the number of infections by 72% [interquartile range (IQR) 53-95] and the number of deceased cases by 76% (IQR 58-96) by the end of 2020. Among all the NPIs, social distancing for the entire population and protection for the elderly in public facilities is the most effective control measure in reducing severe infections and deceased cases. School closure policy may not work as effectively as one might expect in terms of reducing the number of deceased cases. Our simulation results provide novel insights into the city-specific implementation of NPIs with minimal social disruption considering the locations and population characteristics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia
10.
Chaos ; 31(12): 123122, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972350

RESUMO

The cascading spreading process in social and economic networks is more complicated than that in physical systems. These networks' multiple nodes and edges increase their structural complexity and recoverability, enabling the system to lose partial functionality rather than completely fail. However, these phenomena in social and economic networks introduce challenges to the existing network robustness models, where a node is either in a functional state or a failed state. This research uses a network of networks (NoN) to simulate multiple types of nodes and edges. A non-failure cascading process is utilized to model the nodes' self-adaptation and recoverability. The main contribution of this research is proposing a spreading model to extend the non-failure cascading process to the NoN, which can be used in predicting real-world system damage suffering from special events. The case study of this research evaluated the effect degree of crude oil trade changes on each sector from 2015 to 2016.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6043, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247151

RESUMO

Robustness is a prominent feature of most biological systems. Most previous related studies have been focused on homogeneous molecular networks. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for understanding how the interactions between genes, proteins and metabolites contribute to the determinants of robustness in a heterogeneous biological network. We integrate heterogeneous sources of data to construct a multilayer interaction network composed of a gene regulatory layer, a protein-protein interaction layer, and a metabolic layer. We design a simulated perturbation process to characterize the contribution of each gene to the overall system's robustness, and find that influential genes are enriched in essential and cancer genes. We show that the proposed mechanism predicts a higher vulnerability of the metabolic layer to perturbations applied to genes associated with metabolic diseases. Furthermore, we find that the real network is comparably or more robust than expected in multiple random realizations. Finally, we analytically derive the expected robustness of multilayer biological networks starting from the degree distributions within and between layers. These results provide insights into the non-trivial dynamics occurring in the cell after a genetic perturbation is applied, confirming the importance of including the coupling between different layers of interaction in models of complex biological systems.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Neoplasias/genética , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13428, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778699

RESUMO

Considering the elasticity of the real networks, the components in the network have a redundant capacity against the load, such as power grids, traffic networks and so on. Moreover, the interaction strength between nodes is often different. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear model of cascade failure in weighted complex networks considering overloaded edges to describe the redundant capacity for edges and capture the interaction strength of nodes. We fill this gap by studying a nonlinear weighted model of cascade failure with overloaded edges over synthetic and real weighted networks. The cascading failure model is constructed for the first time according to the overload coefficient, capacity parameter, weight coefficient, and distribution coefficient. Then through theoretical analysis, the conditions for stopping failure cascades are obtained, and the analysis shows the superiority of the constructed model. Finally, the cascading invulnerability is simulated in several typical network models and the US power grid. The results show that the model is a feasible and reasonable change of weight parameters, capacity coefficient, distribution coefficient, and overload coefficient can significantly improve the destructiveness of complex networks against cascade failure. Our methodology provides an efficacious reference for the control and prevention of cascading failures in many real networks.

13.
J R Soc Interface ; 17(168): 20200236, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693741

RESUMO

Mutualistic networks, which describe the ecological interactions between multiple types of species such as plants and pollinators, play a paramount role in the generation of Earth's biodiversity. The resilience of a mutualistic network denotes its ability to retain basic functionality when errors and failures threaten the persistence of the community. Under the disturbances of mass extinctions and human-induced disasters, it is crucial to understand how mutualistic networks respond to changes, which enables the system to increase resilience and tolerate further damages. Despite recent advances in the modelling of the structure-based adaptation, we lack mathematical and computational models to describe and capture the co-adaptation between the structure and dynamics of mutualistic networks. In this paper, we incorporate dynamic features into the adaptation of structure and propose a co-adaptation model that drastically enhances the resilience of non-adaptive and structure-based adaptation models. Surprisingly, the reason for the enhancement is that the co-adaptation mechanism simultaneously increases the heterogeneity of the mutualistic network significantly without changing its connectance. Owing to the broad applications of mutualistic networks, our findings offer new ways to design mechanisms that enhance the resilience of many other systems, such as smart infrastructures and social-economical systems.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Simbiose , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plantas
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17528-17534, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661171

RESUMO

While abrupt regime shifts between different metastable states have occurred in natural systems from many areas including ecology, biology, and climate, evidence for this phenomenon in transportation systems has been rarely observed so far. This limitation might be rooted in the fact that we lack methods to identify and analyze possible multiple states that could emerge at scales of the entire traffic network. Here, using percolation approaches, we observe such a metastable regime in traffic systems. In particular, we find multiple metastable network states, corresponding to varying levels of traffic performance, which recur over different days. Based on high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) datasets of urban traffic in the megacities of Beijing and Shanghai (each with over 50,000 road segments), we find evidence supporting the existence of tipping points separating three regimes: a global functional regime and a metastable hysteresis-like regime, followed by a global collapsed regime. We can determine the intrinsic critical points where the metastable hysteresis-like regime begins and ends and show that these critical points are very similar across different days. Our findings provide a better understanding of traffic resilience patterns and could be useful for designing early warning signals for traffic resilience management and, potentially, other complex systems.

15.
Risk Anal ; 40(9): 1780-1794, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506591

RESUMO

The negative impact of climate change continues to escalate flood risk. Floods directly and indirectly damage highway systems and disturb the socioeconomic order. In this study, we propose an integrated approach to quantitatively assess how floods impact the functioning of a highway system. The approach has three parts: (1) a multi-agent simulation model to represent traffic, heterogeneous user demand, and route choice in a highway network; (2) a flood simulator using future runoff scenarios generated from five global climate models, three representative concentration pathways (RCPs), and the CaMa-Flood model; and (3) an impact analyzer, which superimposes the simulated floods on the highway traffic simulation system, and quantifies the flood impact on a highway system based on car following model. This approach is illustrated with a case study of the Chinese highway network. The results show that (i) for different global climate models, the associated flood damage to a highway system is not linearly correlated with the forcing levels of RCPs, or with future years; (ii) floods in different years have variable impacts on regional connectivity; and (iii) extreme flood impacts can cause huge damages in highway networks; that is, in 2030, the estimated 84.5% of routes between provinces cannot be completed when the highway system is disturbed by a future major flood. These results have critical implications for transport sector policies and can be used to guide highway design and infrastructure protection. The approach can be extended to analyze other networks with spatial vulnerability, and it is an effective quantitative tool for reducing systemic disaster risk.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396583

RESUMO

Increasing evidence demonstrates that in many places language coexistence has become ubiquitous and essential for supporting language and cultural diversity and associated with its financial and economic benefits. The competitive evolution among multiple languages determines the evolution outcome, either coexistence, or decline, or extinction. Here, we extend the Abrams-Strogatz model of language competition to multiple languages and then validate it by analyzing the behavioral transitions of language usage over the recent several decades in Singapore and Hong Kong. In each case, we estimate from data the model parameters that measure each language utility for its speakers and the strength of two biases, the majority preference for their language, and the minority aversion to it. The values of these two biases decide which language is the fastest growing in the competition and what would be the stable state of the system. We also study the system convergence time to stable states and discover the existence of tipping points with multiple attractors. Moreover, the critical slowdown of convergence to the stable fractions of language users appears near and peaks at the tipping points, signaling when the system approaches them. Our analysis furthers our understanding of evolution of various languages and the role of tipping points in behavioral transitions. These insights may help to protect languages from extinction and retain the language and cultural diversity.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Idioma , Algoritmos , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Singapura/etnologia
17.
Phys Rev E ; 101(2-1): 022304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168562

RESUMO

Resilience describes a system's ability to adjust its activity to retain the basic functionality when errors or failures occur in components (nodes) of the network. Due to the complexity of a system's structure, different components in the system exhibit diversity in the ability to affect the resilience of the system, bringing us a great challenge to protect the system from collapse. A fundamental problem is therefore to propose a physically insightful centrality index, with which to quantify the resilience contribution of a node in any systems effectively. However, existing centrality indexes are not suitable for the problem because they only consider the network structure of the system and ignore the impact of underlying dynamic characteristics. To break the limits, we derive a new centrality index: resilience centrality from the 1D dynamic equation of systems, with which we can quantify the ability of nodes to affect the resilience of the system accurately. Resilience centrality unveils the long-sought relations between the ability of nodes in a system's resilience and network structure of the system: the capacity is mainly determined by the degree and weighted nearest-neighbor degree of the node, in which weighted nearest-neighbor degree plays a prominent role. Further, we demonstrate that weighted nearest-neighbor degree has a positive impact on resilience centrality, while the effect of the degree depends on a specific parameter, average weighted degree ß_{eff}, in the 1D dynamic equation. To test the performance of our approach, we construct four real networks from data, which corresponds to two complex systems with entirely different dynamic characteristics. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our resilience centrality, providing us theoretical insights into the protection of complex systems from collapse.

18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007520, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765387

RESUMO

Although existing computational models have identified many common driver genes, it remains challenging to identify the personalized driver genes by using samples of an individual patient. Recently, the methods of exploiting the structure-based control principles of complex networks provide new clues for identifying minimum number of driver nodes to drive the state transition of large-scale complex networks from an initial state to the desired state. However, the structure-based network control methods cannot be directly applied to identify the personalized driver genes due to the unknown network dynamics of the personalized system. Here we proposed the personalized network control model (PNC) to identify the personalized driver genes by employing the structure-based network control principle on genetic data of individual patients. In PNC model, we firstly presented a paired single sample network construction method to construct the personalized state transition network for capturing the phenotype transitions between healthy and disease states. Then, we designed a novel structure-based network control method from the Feedback Vertex Sets-based control perspective to identify the personalized driver genes. The wide experimental results on 13 cancer datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas firstly showed that PNC model outperforms current state-of-the-art methods, in terms of F-measures for identifying cancer driver genes enriched in the gold-standard cancer driver gene lists. Furthermore, these results showed that personalized driver genes can be explored by their network characteristics even when they are hidden factors in transcription and mutation profiles. Our PNC gives novel insights and useful tools into understanding the tumor heterogeneity in cancer. The PNC package and data resources used in this work can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/NWPU-903PR/PNC.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Algoritmos , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Teóricos , Mutação/genética , Oncogenes/genética
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(45): 22452-22457, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624122

RESUMO

Catastrophic and major disasters in real-world systems, such as blackouts in power grids or global failures in critical infrastructures, are often triggered by minor events which originate a cascading failure in interdependent graphs. We present here a self-consistent theory enabling the systematic analysis of cascading failures in such networks and encompassing a broad range of dynamical systems, from epidemic spreading, to birth-death processes, to biochemical and regulatory dynamics. We offer testable predictions on breakdown scenarios, and, in particular, we unveil the conditions under which the percolation transition is of the first-order or the second-order type, as well as prove that accounting for dynamics in the nodes always accelerates the cascading process. Besides applying directly to relevant real-world situations, our results give practical hints on how to engineer more robust networked systems.

20.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(157): 20190149, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387488

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to integrate the post-disaster network access to critical facilities into the network robustness assessment, considering the geographical exposure of infrastructure to natural hazards. Conventional percolation modelling that uses generating function to measure network robustness fails to characterize spatial networks due to the degree correlation. In addition, the giant component alone is not sufficient to represent the performance of transportation networks in the post-disaster setting, especially in terms of the access to critical facilities (i.e. emergency services). Furthermore, the failure probability of various links in the face of different hazards needs to be encapsulated in simulation. To bridge this gap, this paper proposed the metric robust component and a probabilistic link-removal strategy to assess network robustness through a percolation-based simulation framework. A case study has been conducted on the Portland Metro road network during an M9.0 earthquake scenario. The results revealed how the number of critical facilities severely impacts network robustness. Besides, earthquake-induced failures led to a two-phase percolation transition in robustness performance. The proposed robust component metric and simulation scheme can be generalized into a wide range of scenarios, thus enabling engineers to pinpoint the impact of disastrous disruption on network robustness. This research can also be generalized to identify critical facilities and sites for future development.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Planejamento em Desastres , Modelos Teóricos , Terremotos , Humanos , Transportes
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