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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 130893, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808757

RESUMO

Nuts have long been known for their health benefits which are mainly contributed by their lipid components. However, the spatial distribution of lipids in nuts has not been firmly established. In this study, desorption electrospray ionization combined with ion mobility and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in positive and negative ion modes was applied to visualize spatially the lipids in eight edible nuts, namely almonds, hazelnuts, cashews, walnuts, peanuts, peach seeds, bitter almonds, and Chinese dwarf cherry seeds. The glycerophospholipids were first imaged in nuts in the negative ion mode, while the glycerolipids and phosphatidylcholines were mainly detected in the positive ion mode. In total 87 characterized components, including 47 glycerophospholipids, 24 glycerolipids, eight alkyl phenolic acids, three fatty acid acyl metabolites, four oligosaccharides, and amygdalin, were visualized in the eight nuts, and the collision cross-sectional values of these components were obtained. The outer shell of the nut cotyledon concentrated more abundant components than the center, while for the hydrolyzed glycerophospholipids, the reverse was observed. The results provide a more comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the location of the diverse metabolite profiles in nuts and of their relationship to their respective health benefits.


Assuntos
Juglans , Nozes , Estudos Transversais , Lipidômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 3259238, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721757

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Oridonin (OD), which is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Rabdosia rubescens, reportedly exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Here, we first find that OD protects against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results of hepatic tissue-associated RNA-seq and metabolomics showed that the protective effects of OD were dependent upon urea cycle regulation. And such regulation of OD is gut microbiota partly dependent, as demonstrated by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Furthermore, using 16S rRNA sequencing, we determined that OD significantly enriched intestinal Bacteroides vulgatus, which activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway to regulate redox homeostasis against APAP by urea cycle. In conclusion, our study suggests that the Bacteroides vulgatus-urea cycle-Nrf2 axis may be a potential target for reducing APAP-induced liver injury, which is altered by OD.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 751086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722305

RESUMO

In the past decade, cancer immunotherapy has achieved great success owing to the unravelling of unknown molecular forces in cancer immunity. However, it is critical that we address the limitations of current immunotherapy, including immune-related adverse events and drug resistance, and further enhance current immunotherapy. Lipids are reported to play important roles in modulating immune responses in cancer. Cancer cells use lipids to support their aggressive behaviour and allow immune evasion. Metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells destroys the equilibrium between lipid anabolism and catabolism, resulting in lipid accumulation within the tumour microenvironment (TME). Consequently, ubiquitous lipids, mainly fatty acids, within the TME can impact the function and phenotype of infiltrating immune cells. Determining the complex roles of lipids and their interactions with the TME will provide new insight for improving anti-tumour immune responses by targeting lipids. Herein, we present a review of recent literature that has demonstrated how lipid metabolism reprogramming occurs in cancer cells and influences cancer immunity. We also summarise the potential for lipid-based clinical translation to modify immune treatment.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 709923, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722501

RESUMO

Vertebrate erythropoiesis involves nuclear and chromatin condensation at the early stages of terminal differentiation, which is a unique process to distinguish mature erythrocytes from erythroblasts. However, the underlying mechanisms of chromatin condensation during erythrocyte maturation remain elusive. Here, we reported a novel zebrafish mutant cas7 with erythroid maturation deficiency. Positional cloning showed that a single base mutation in tprb gene, which encodes nucleoporin translocated promoter region (Tpr), is responsible for the disrupted erythroid maturation and upregulation of erythroid genes, including ae1-globin and be1-globin. Further investigation revealed that deficient erythropoiesis in tprb cas7 mutant was independent on HIF signaling pathway. The proportion of euchromatin was significantly increased, whereas the percentage of heterochromatin was markedly decreased in tprb cas7 mutant. In addition, TPR knockdown in human K562 cells also disrupted erythroid differentiation and dramatically elevated the expression of globin genes, which suggests that the functions of TPR in erythropoiesis are highly conserved in vertebrates. Taken together, this study revealed that Tpr played vital roles in chromatin condensation and gene regulation during erythroid maturation in vertebrates.

5.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726825

RESUMO

Root architecture is one of the most important agronomic traits that determines rice crop yield. The primary root (PR) absorbs mineral nutrients and provides mechanical support; however, the molecular mechanisms of PR elongation remain unclear in rice. Here, the two loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutants of root length regulator 4 (OsRLR4), osrlr4-1 and osrlr4-2 with longer PR, and three OsRLR4 overexpression lines, OE-OsRLR4-1/-2/-3 with shorter PR compared to the wild type, Hwayoung (WT/HY), were identified. OsRLR4 is one of five members of the PRAF subfamily of the regulator chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) family. Phylogenetic analysis of OsRLR4 from wild and cultivated rice indicated that it is under selective sweeps, suggesting its potential role in domestication. OsRLR4 controls PR development by regulating auxin accumulation in the PR tip and thus the root apical meristem activity. A series of biochemical and genetic analyses demonstrated that OsRLR4 functions directly upstream of the auxin transporter OsAUX1. Moreover, OsRLR4 interacts with the TRITHORAX-like protein OsTrx1 to promote H3K4me3 deposition at the OsAUX1 promoter, thus altering its transcription level. This work provides insight into the cooperation of auxin and epigenetic modifications in regulating root architecture and provides a genetic resource for plant architecture breeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Water Res ; 207: 117751, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731658

RESUMO

Understanding the speciation and mobilization mechanisms of potentially toxic metals in sediments is critical to aquatic ecosystem health and contamination remediation in urban rivers. In this study, chemical sequential extraction, a thermodynamic chemical equilibrium model (Visual MINTEQ ver. 3.1), diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT), and high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) techniques were integrated to identify seasonal variations in cadmium (Cd) mobility in sulfidized sediments. Acid-soluble Cd was the dominant geochemical fraction in sediments, followed by residual, oxidizable, and reducible Cd. The DGT-labile Cd concentration was associated with various geochemical processes and was independent of the total concentration and geochemical fractionation of Cd in sediments. Sulfate reduction facilitated the formation of insoluble CdS and induced low Cd concentrations in sediment porewater. Sulfide oxidation was principally responsible for lowered porewater pH and elevated Cd concentrations in summer. Strongly acidic conditions promoted release of sediment Cd but might reduce the binding efficiency of Chelex resin gel for dissolved Cd, leading to underestimation of the mobility of sediment Cd. Sediments generally functioned as a sink for Cd in winter and shifted to acting as a source in summer, releasing Cd into the overlying water mainly as Cd-S complexes with high potential to migrate downstream.

7.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 2087-2103, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823417

RESUMO

Novel series of pleuromutilin analogs containing substituted 1,2,3-triazole moieties were designed, synthesised and assessed for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Initially, the in vitro antibacterial activities of these derivatives against 4 strains of S. aureus (MRSA ATCC 43300, ATCC 29213, AD3, and 144) were tested by the broth dilution method. Most of the synthesised pleuromutilin analogs displayed potent activities. Among them, compounds 50, 62, and 64 (MIC = 0.5∼1 µg/mL) showed the most effective antibacterial activity and their anti-MRSA activity were further studied by the time-killing kinetics approach. Binding mode investigations by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with 50S ribosome revealed that the selected compounds all showed obvious affinity for 50S ribosome (KD = 2.32 × 10-8∼5.10 × 10-5 M). Subsequently, the binding of compounds 50 and 64 to the 50S ribosome was further investigated by molecular modelling. Compound 50 had a superior docking mode with 50S ribosome, and the binding free energy of compound 50 was calculated to be -12.0 kcal/mol.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770368

RESUMO

As a newly developed pile foundation, the snowflake shaped steel sheet pile is composed of three Y-shaped sections with an included angle of 120° and has a large specific surface area, which can give full play to the side friction of pile and improve the bearing capacity of single pile. At the same time, the snowflake shaped steel sheet pile has a high strength, relatively few materials, and it has good prospects with engineering applications. In order to accurately grasp the mechanical characteristics of the snowflake shaped steel sheet pile, this paper carried out the model test of snowflake shaped steel sheet pile based on OFDR (optical frequency domain reflector) distributed optical fiber sensor technology. The results show that: (1) OFDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology can effectively monitor the strain of snowflake steel sheet pile; (2) under the vertical load, the strain of snowflake steel sheet pile decreases along the length of the pile; (3) the strain of the same section of snowflake steel sheet pile is different at different positions, the strain at the junction between web and web is basically the same as the junction between web and flange, and the strain of the pile shaft on the flange edge is larger.

9.
JCI Insight ; 6(21)2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747371

RESUMO

Patients with diabetes with coronary microvascular disease (CMD) exhibit higher cardiac mortality than patients without CMD. However, the molecular mechanism by which diabetes promotes CMD is poorly understood. RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) is a key regulator of mRNA stability and translation; therefore, we investigated the role of HuR in the development of CMD in mice with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic mice exhibited decreases in coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR; a determinant of coronary microvascular function) and capillary density in the left ventricle. HuR levels in cardiac endothelial cells (CECs) were significantly lower in diabetic mice and patients with diabetes than the controls. Endothelial-specific HuR-KO mice also displayed significant reductions in CFVR and capillary density. By examining mRNA levels of 92 genes associated with endothelial function, we found that HuR, Cx40, and Nox4 levels were decreased in CECs from diabetic and HuR-KO mice compared with control mice. Cx40 expression and HuR binding to Cx40 mRNA were downregulated in CECs from diabetic mice. Cx40-KO mice exhibited decreased CFVR and capillary density, whereas endothelium-specific Cx40 overexpression increased capillary density and improved CFVR in diabetic mice. These data suggest that decreased HuR contributes to the development of CMD in diabetes through downregulation of gap junction protein Cx40 in CECs.

10.
Nanoscale Adv ; 3(21): 6197-6205, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765870

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of small metal clusters strongly depend on their precise geometry. Determining such geometries, however, is challenging, particularly for clusters formed by multiple elements. In this work, we combine infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations to investigate the lowest-energy structures of Pd doped gold clusters, PdAu n-1 + (n ≤ 10). The high-quality experimental spectra allow for an unambiguous determination of the structures adopted by the clusters. Our results show that the Pd-Au interaction is so large that the structures of PdAu n-1 + and Au n + are very different. Pd doping induces a 2D to 3D transition at much smaller cluster sizes than for pure Au n + clusters. PdAu n-1 + clusters are three-dimensional from n = 4, whereas for Au n + this transition only takes place at n = 7. Despite the strong Au-Pd interaction, the Au n-1 + cluster geometries remain recognizable in PdAu n-1 + up to n = 7. This is particularly clear for PdAu6 +. In PdAu8 + and PdAu9 +, Pd triggers major rearrangements of the Au clusters, which adopt pyramidal shapes. For PdAu4 + we find a geometry that was not considered in previous studies, and the geometry found for PdAu8 + does not correspond to the lowest-energy structure predicted by DFT, suggesting kinetic trapping during formation. This work demonstrates that even with the continuous improvement of computational methods, unambiguous assignment of cluster geometries still requires a synergistic approach, combining experiment and computational modelling.

11.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1600, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790806

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the role and mechanism of EEF1D in various diseases, especially in tumorigenesis and development, and explore the possibility of EEF1D as a biological target. Background: EEF1D is a part of the EEF1 protein complex, which can produce four protein isoforms, of which three short isoforms are used as translation elongation factors. The three short isoforms play a role in anti-aging, regulating the cell cycle, and promoting the occurrence and development of malignant tumors, and the only long-form isoform plays a role in the development of the nervous system. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for literature up to January 2021 using relevant keywords, including "EEF1D", "eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta", "translation elongation factor", "translation elongation factor and cancer", and "translation elongation factor and nervous system disease". We then created an overview of the literature and summarized the results of the paper. Conclusions: Through the review of relevant articles, we found that EEF1D is obviously overexpressed in a variety of tumors, and can regulate the proliferation of tumor cells and tumor growth, as well as play a role in tumor invasion. EEF1D is likely to become a new biological target for tumor therapy and diagnosis.

12.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enlarging tuberculosis (TB) preventive treatment among at-risk populations is a critical component of the End TB Strategy. It is urgently needed to develop suitable latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) testing and treatment tools according to local TB epidemic and available resources in worldwide. METHODS: Based on an open-labeled randomised controlled trial conducted since 2015 among rural residents aged 50-70 years with LTBI, the protective efficacy of the 6-week twice-weekly regimen of rifapentine plus isoniazid was further evaluated in a 5-year follow-up survey. RESULTS: A total of 1298 treated participants and 1151 untreated controls were included in the 5-year protective efficacy analysis. In the per-protocol analysis, the incidence rate was 0.49/100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30-0.67) in the untreated control group and 0.19/100 person-years (95% CI: 0.07-0.32) in the treated group, the protection rate was 61.22%. Subgroup analysis showed that the protection rate was 76.82% in the per-protocol analysis among participants with baseline IFN-γ levels in the highest quartile (≥3.25 IU·mL-1). The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that participants with baseline BMI <18.5 kg·m-2 and with pulmonary fibrotic lesions had increased hazard of developing active disease with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 3.64 (95% CI: 1.20-11.00) and 5.99 (95% CI: 2.20-16.27), respectively. In addition, individuals with higher baseline IFN-γ levels showed an increased risk of TB occurrence (aHR 2.27, 95% CI 1.13-4.58). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested the 6-week twice-weekly regimen of rifapentine plus isoniazid for LTBI treatment might be an optional tool for TB control in Chinese population.

13.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine differences in cycloplegic vs. non-cycloplegic refractive error and factors associated with these differences in Chinese school students. METHOD: In this cross-sectional school-based study, refractive error was measured in school students using a NIDEK autorefractor before and after administration of 0.5% tropicamide. Spherical equivalent (SER) in diopters (D) was calculated as sphere plus half cylinder. SER differences before vs. after cycloplegia were evaluated using mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% limits of agreement. Univariable and multivariable regression models were used to determine factors associated with SER differences. RESULTS: Among 3604 students, 3450 (95.7%) provided data for analysis. Mean age (SD) was 9.7 (3.6) years. The mean SER (SD) was -1.12 (1.97) D before cycloplegia, and -0.20 (2.19) D after cycloplegia, with a mean difference of 0.92 D (95% limits of agreement: -0.93 to 2.78 D). Among 196 eyes with non-cycloplegic SER -6.0 D or worse (e.g., met high myopia definition), 71.4% had cycloplegic SER -6.0 D or worse, and among 3607 eyes with non-cycloplegic SER -0.5 D or worse (e.g., met myopia definition), 62.1% eyes had cycloplegic SER -0.5 D or worse. Cycloplegic SER was more correlated with axial length than non-cycloplegic SER (Pearson r = 0.82 vs. 0.72, p < .0001). In multivariable analysis, larger SER differences were associated with more hyperopic refractive error and smaller axial length (all p < .0001). CONCLUSION: Non-cycloplegic refractive error overestimates myopia by approximately one diopter. This overestimation increases with more hyperopic refractive error and smaller axial length. Non-cycloplegic refractive error should not be used for evaluating pediatric myopia. ABBREVIATIONS: BCVA = best corrected visual acuity; D = diopter; SD = standard deviation; SE = standard error; SER = spherical equivalent; CI = confidence interval.

14.
Anesthesiology ; 135(6): 1132-1152, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731233

RESUMO

The prevention of perioperative neurocognitive disorders is a priority for patients, families, clinicians, and researchers. Given the multiple risk factors present throughout the perioperative period, a multicomponent preventative approach may be most effective. The objectives of this narrative review are to highlight the importance of sleep, pain, and cognition on the risk of perioperative neurocognitive disorders and to discuss the evidence behind interventions targeting these modifiable risk factors. Sleep disruption is associated with postoperative delirium, but the benefit of sleep-related interventions is uncertain. Pain is a risk factor for postoperative delirium, but its impact on other postoperative neurocognitive disorders is unknown. Multimodal analgesia and opioid avoidance are emerging as best practices, but data supporting their efficacy to prevent delirium are limited. Poor preoperative cognitive function is a strong predictor of postoperative neurocognitive disorder, and work is ongoing to determine whether it can be modified to prevent perioperative neurocognitive disorders.

15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 108296, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794889

RESUMO

Inflammation modulation is currently considered a promising therapeutic strategy to counteract the burden of cardiovascular disease. Amentoflavone (AME) is a natural biflavone with two apigenin molecules that, possess promising anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AME on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Our results showed that AME significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α after hypoxia (H) 12 h/reoxygenation (R) 4 h treatment, and significantly increased the cell survival rate of H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by H/R and inhibited their apoptosis rate. AME (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.g.) or a positive control drug diltiazem (DIZ) (16 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.g.) was used as pretreatment for 7 days; the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion(I/R) model was established. TTC staining results showed that the infarct volume was significantly reduced after AME and DIZ treatment. Oral administration of AME dose-dependently ameliorated I/R injury-induced increase in pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) and levels of LDH and CK-MB. Results of TUNEL and HE staining showed that the I/R model had more induced apoptosis, but could be effectively reduced by pretreatment with AME. After surgery, the heart of the rat was examined via western blotting to detect inflammation-related proteins. Compared with the sham group, the p-AKT in the I/R group was significantly reduced and the content of p-NF-κBp65 was significantly increased. However, these changes could be reversed by AME treatment. DIZ treatment exerted similar beneficial effects in I/R rats as the high dose of AME did. This study highlights the excellent therapeutic potential of AME for managing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

16.
Adv Mater ; : e2107343, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796566

RESUMO

Flexible neural electrodes integrated on micrometer-thick polymer substrates offer important opportunities for improving the stability of neuronal activity recordings during cognitive processes. However, the bending stiffness of micrometer-thick polymer substrates is typically two orders of magnitude higher than that of nanofilm electrodes, making it a limiting factor in electrode-tissue interfacings. Here, we overcome this limitation by developing self-assembled nanofilm electrode arrays (NEAs) that consist of high-density, free-standing gold nanofilm electrodes. Chronically implanted NEAs can form intimate and innervated interfaces with neural tissue, enabling stable neuronal activity recordings across multiple brain regions over several months. As an application example, we track the activities of the same neuronal populations across odor discrimination reversal learning and illustrate how dorsal striatal neurons represent and update stimulus-outcome associations across multiple timescales. Our results underscore the potential of free-standing nanoscale materials for interfacing biological systems over long terms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Nano Lett ; 21(21): 9354-9360, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719926

RESUMO

The classical size effect of Pt particles on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) suggests that the activity and durability would decrease with reducing the particle size, self-limiting the effectiveness in maximizing the Pt utilization efficiency with the particle-size-reduction strategy. Herein, we discover an anomalous size effect based on Pt nanowires (NWs) with tunable diameters, where the monotonically increasing activity and durability for ORR were observed with decreasing the diameter from 2.4 to 1.1 nm. Our results reveal that the dominant role of increased compressive strain induced by decreasing the diameter of NWs in weakening the adsorption and suppressing the Pt dissolution accounts for this anomalous size effect, where the reduced low-coordinated sites on NWs, the intrinsic structural advantage, is the root. Our findings not only expand the knowledge to the classical size effect but also provide new implications to break through the size limit in the design of Pt-based ORR catalysts.

18.
Front Genet ; 12: 702072, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603372

RESUMO

Objective: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification may modulate various biological processes. Nonetheless, clinical implications of m6A modification in pancreatic cancer are undefined. Herein, this study comprehensively characterized the m6A modification patterns in pancreatic cancer based on m6A regulators. Methods: Genetic mutation and expression pattern of 21 m6A regulators and their correlations were assessed in pancreatic cancer from TCGA dataset. m6A modification patterns were clustered using unsupervised clustering analysis in TCGA and ICGC datasets. Differences in survival, biological functions and immune cell infiltrations were assessed between modification patterns. A m6A scoring system was developed by principal component analysis. Genetic mutations and TIDE scores were compared between high and low m6A score groups. Results: ZC3H13 (11%), RBM15B (9%), YTHDF1 (8%), and YTHDC1 (6%) frequently occurred mutations among m6A regulators. Also, most of regulators were distinctly dysregulated in pancreatic cancer. There were tight crosslinks between regulators. Two m6A modification patterns were constructed, with distinct prognoses, immune cell infiltration and biological functions. Furthermore, we quantified m6A score in each sample. High m6A scores indicated undesirable clinical outcomes. There were more frequent mutations in high m6A score samples. Lower TIDE score was found in high m6A score group, with AUC = 0.61, indicating that m6A scores might be used for predicting the response to immunotherapy. Conclusion: Collectively, these data demonstrated that m6A modification participates pancreatic cancer progress and ornaments immune microenvironment, providing an insight into pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and facilitating precision medicine development.

19.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599593

RESUMO

Plant TRANS-ACTING SIRNA3 (TAS3)-derived short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) include tasiR-AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs), which are functionally conserved in targeting ARF genes, and a set of non-tasiR-ARF siRNAs, which have rarely been studied. In this study, TAS3 siRNAs were systematically characterized in rice (Oryza sativa). Small RNA sequencing results showed that an overwhelming majority of TAS3 siRNAs belong to the non-tasiR-ARF group, while tasiR-ARFs occupy a diminutive fraction. Phylogenetic analysis of TAS3 genes across dicot and monocot plants revealed that the siRNA-generating regions were highly conserved in grass species, especially in the Oryzoideae. Target genes were identified for not only tasiR-ARFs but also non-tasiR-ARF siRNAs by analyzing rice Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends datasets, and some of these siRNA-target interactions were experimentally confirmed using tas3 mutants generated by genome editing. Consistent with the de-repression of target genes, phenotypic alterations were observed for mutants in three TAS3 loci in comparison to wild-type rice. The regulatory role of ribosomes in the TAS3 siRNA-target interactions was further revealed by the fact that TAS3 siRNA-mediated target cleavage, in particular tasiR-ARFs targeting ARF2/3/14/15, occurred extensively in rice polysome samples. Altogether, our study sheds light into TAS3 genes in plants and expands our knowledge about rice TAS3 siRNA-target interactions.

20.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-4, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665060

RESUMO

Purpose: To report a case of postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis).Methods: Retrospective case report.Results: A 50-year-old healthy man presented with endophthalmitis 16 hours after silicone oil removal. Vitreous cultures remained positive for S. bovis. In addition to vitreous and anterior chamber lavage, the patient received five intravitreal injections in total. All the above aggressive measures did not effectively prevent the deterioration of the disease and the patient was discharged with a final outcome of retinal detachment and atrophia bulbi with no light perception.Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of postoperative endophthalmitis caused by S. bovis.

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