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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 22, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is low in Beijing, China, but the risk of outbreaks still exists. It is difficult to identify possible sources of infection among sporadic cases based on a routine surveillance system. Therefore, a more effective surveillance system needs to be established. METHODS: The epidemiological data of hepatitis A were obtained from a routine surveillance system. Patients with HAV confirmed at the local hospitals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included additional case information and possible sources of infection. Serum and fecal specimens were also collected for testing HAV RNA by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the 321-nucleotide segment of the VP1/2A junction region was sequenced to determine the HAV genotype. RESULTS: In 2019, 110 HAV cases were reported in Beijing, with an incidence rate of 0.51/100,000. 61(55.5%) of these patients were male. The greatest proportion of these patients were aged from 30 to 60 years. The rate was lower in suburban and rural areas compared to urban areas. Contaminated food consumption, particularly seafood consumption, was the primary potential source of infection. Among the 16 specimens of confirmed HAV cases that could be sequenced, 93.8% were HAV IA, and 6.3% were HAV IB. In addition, the samples collected from all HAV sequences in this investigation showed 89.4-100% nucleotide homology. Two groups (each with three sporadic cases) showed 100% nucleotide homology. The three sporadic cases in one group had the same possible source of infection: contaminated salad with raw vegetables and seafood. In the other group, the three sporadic cases did not have an epidemiological connection. CONCLUSIONS: In a low HAV prevalent area, such as in Beijing, incorporating molecular epidemiology into the routine surveillance system could help inform possible clusters of outbreaks and provide support for earlier control of HAV transmission. Nevertheless, increased sampling from detected cases and improved specimen quality are needed to implement such a system.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite A , Hepatite A , Pequim/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 481-489, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989533

RESUMO

In recent years, dust pollution has occurred frequently in spring and haze or fog in autumn and winter. The inhalable particulate matters in the atmosphere, especially PM2.5, loaded in heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and arsenic, are easily taken up by leafy vegetables and accumulate in the edible parts. It is not clear whether the accumulation of heavy metals in the edible parts of leafy vegetables in greenhouses is also affected by atmospheric deposition. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to explore characteristics and health risk assessment of cadmium, lead, and arsenic accumulation in leafy vegetables planted in a greenhouse using six types of common leafy vegetables (spinach, leaf lettuce, lettuce, pakchoi, Chrysanthemum coronarium, and fennel) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The results showed that C. coronarium, pakchoi, and spinach are the leafy vegetables with a low accumulation of Cd, Pb, and As, respectively. Fennel is the leafy vegetable with a low accumulation of Cd and Pb. In the greenhouse, Pb concentrations in PM2.5 were 42.6 and 8.4 times of Cd and As, respectively. Moreover, PM2.5-Pb contributed on average 36.5% to the edible parts of six kinds of leafy vegetables, which indicated that the Cd, Pb, and As accumulated in leafy vegetables were mainly derived from the soil. Meanwhile, the concentrations of Cd, Pb, and As in the edible parts of vegetables did not exceed the safety limitations of three heavy metals (GB 2762-2017), and Pb accumulation in leafy vegetables does not pose a health risk to humans. However, Cd in the leafy vegetables could threaten the health of adults and children, except for the intake of fennel. Conversely, As in the C. coronarium could threaten the health of adults and children.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Criança , Humanos , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 393, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013472

RESUMO

The automated blister epidermal micrograft (ABEM) is a newly introduced surgical transplantation for refractory vitiligo. Comparative analysis of other surgical methods is lacking. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the efficacy, safety, and experience of ABEM with conventional suction blister epidermal graft (SBEG). A total of 118 anatomically based vitiligo lesions from 75 patients were included. The primary outcome was the degree of repigmentation; the patient and operator experience were evaluated. SBEG had a significantly greater incidence of repigmentation (p < 0.001), as measured by the Physician Global Assessment, as well as improvements in the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, particularly on the face/neck area (p < 0.001). ABEM, on the contrary, had reduced donor harvest time, a better patient operative experience, and more significant Dermatology Life Quality Index improvements. In a subgroup of 38 lesions from ten patients who received both SBEG and ABEM concomitantly, there was no difference in the degree of repigmentation in the same recipient area. Overall, the degree of repigmentation for SBEG is higher than ABEM, especially in the mobilized region, and the cost is less expensive. On the contrary, ABEM requires less procedure learning curve and can supply a greater transplanting zone with shorter donor site recovery. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of two blister grafting procedures is essential for optimal surgical outcomes for vitiligo grafting.

4.
Environ Toxicol ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995020

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental and industrial pollutant that accumulated in the body and induces oxidative stress and inflammation damage. Selenium (Se) has been reported to antagonize immune organs damage caused by heavy metals. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevent effect of Se on mercuric chloride (HgCl2 )-induced thymus and bursa of Fabricius (BF) damage in chickens. The results showed that HgCl2 caused immunosuppression by reducing the relative weight, cortical area of the thymus and BF, and the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Meanwhile, HgCl2 induced oxidative stress and imbalance in cytokines expression in the thymus and BF. Further, we found that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome mediated HgCl2 -induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Mechanically, the targeting and inhibitory effect of microRNA (miR)-135b/183 on forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) were an upstream event for HgCl2 -activated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Most importantly, Se effectively attenuated the aforementioned damage in the thymus and BF caused by HgCl2 and inhibited the TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by reversing the expression of FOXO1 through inhibiting miR-135b/183. In conclusion, the miR-135b/183-FOXO1/TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome axis might be a novel mechanism for Se to antagonize HgCl2 -induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the central immune organs of chickens.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149729, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454135

RESUMO

Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in agroecosystems has increased recently, especially in northern China, which poses serious risks to crop safety and human health via food chain. Wheat grains can accumulate high levels of Pb even when wheat is planted in soils with low levels of Pb. However, the influence of atmospheric deposition on the accumulation and distribution of Pb in wheat grain is still unclear. A field survey was conducted in three districts (A: a district with industrial and traffic pollution; B: a district with traffic pollution; and C: an unpolluted district) in Hebei Province, North China. The grain of wheat cultivated in district A accumulated more Pb from soil and atmospheric deposition than those in other districts, and the bran from district A contained 3.50 and 2.04 times more Pb than those from districts B and C, respectively. The Pb distribution pattern in wheat grain detected by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was characterized by accumulation mostly in the pericarp and seed coat rather than in the crease, embryo and endosperm. Furthermore, Pb isotopic data showed that airborne Pb was the major source (>50%) of Pb in wheat grain. Interestingly, average contributions of Pb from atmospheric deposition to white flour (78.22%) were higher than its contributions to bran (56.27%). In addition, wheat flag leaves were exposed to PbSO4 at the booting stage, and much greater Pb accumulation (0.33-0.48 mg/kg) was observed in exposed wheat grain than in the control (P < 0.05), PbSO4 constituted most (82.80-100%) of the Pb in the wheat grain. In summary, the results confirmed the efficient foliar Pb uptake and transfer from atmospheric deposition into wheat grain. It would be a new sight for understanding the contribution of airborne Pb to Pb accumulation in wheat grains.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo , Espectrometria de Massas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum
6.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118585, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848290

RESUMO

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most popular and frequently consumed leafy vegetables. It was found that atmospheric PM2.5-Pb contributes to Pb accumulation in the edible leaves of Chinese cabbage via stomata in North China during haze seasons with high concentrations of fine particulate matter in autumn and winter. However, it is unclear whether both stomata and trichomes co-regulate foliar transfer of PM2.5-Pb from atmospheric deposition to the leaf of Chinese cabbage genotypes with trichomes. Field and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of foliar uptake of PM2.5-Pb on Pb accumulation in leaves using two genotypes of Chinese cabbage, one without trichomes and one with trichomes. It was verified that open stoma is a prominent pathway of foliar PM2.5-Pb transfer in the short-term exposure for 6 h, contributing 74.5% of Pb accumulation in leaves, whereas Pb concentrations in the leaves of with-trichome genotype in the rosette stage were 6.52- and 1.04-fold higher than that of without-trichome genotype in greenhouse and open field, respectively, which suggests that stomata and trichomes co-regulate foliar Pb uptake of from atmospheric PM2.5. Moreover, subcellular Pb in the leaves was distributed in the following order of cytoplasm (53.8%) > cell wall (38.5%)> organelle (7.8%), as confirmed through high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The Leadmium™ Green AM dye manifested that Pb in PM2.5 entered cellular space of trichomes and accumulated in the basal compartment, enhancing foliar Pb uptake in the edible leaves of cabbage. The results of these experiments are evidence that both stomata and trichomes are important pathways in the regulation of foliar Pb uptake and translocation in Chinese cabbage.

7.
Curr Med Imaging ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative brain edema is a common complication in patients with high-grade glioma after craniotomy. Both computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are applied to diagnose brain edema. Usually, MRI is considered to be better than CT for identifying brain edema. However, MRI is not generally applied in diagnosing acute cerebral edema in the early postoperative stage. Whether CT is reliable in detecting postoperative brain edema in the early stage is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the agreement and correlation between CT and MRI for measuring early postoperative brain edema. METHODS: Patients with high-grade glioma who underwent craniotomy in Beijing Tiantan hospital from January 2017 to October 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The region of interest and operative cavity were manually outlined, and the volume of postoperative brain edema was measured on CT and MRI. Pearson correlation testing and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the association and agreement between CT and MRI for detecting the volume of postoperative brain edema. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included in this study. The interrater agreement was perfect for detecting brain edema (CT: κ=1, ICC=0.977, P<0.001; MRI: κ=0.866, ICC=0.963, P<0.001). A significant positive correlation and excellent consistency between CT and MRI were found for measuring the volume of brain edema (rater 1: r=0.97, ICC=0.934, P<0.001; rater 2: r=0.97, ICC=0.957, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Substantial comparability between CT and MRI is demonstrated for detecting postoperative brain edema. It is reliable to use CT for measuring brain edema volume in the early stage after surgery.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(23)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885625

RESUMO

Gd and Yb elements have high chemical stability, which can stabilize the solid solution in ZrO2. Gd2O3 and Yb2O3 have high melting points, and good oxidation resistance in extreme environments, stable chemical properties. Therefore, Gd2O3 and Yb2O3 were added to ZrO2 to stabilize oxides, improve the high temperature stability, and effectively decrease the thermal conductivity at high temperature. In this work, 5 wt% Yb2O3 and 5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt% Gd2O3 were doped into 8 wt% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (8YSZ) powders as thermal barrier coating materials, and sintered at 1650 °C for 6 h, 12 h, 24 h. The effects of Gd2O3 addition on the microstructure, density, thermal conductivity, hardness, and fracture toughness of Gd2O3-Yb2O3-Y2O3-ZrO2 (GYYZO) bulk composite ceramics were investigated. It was found that the densification of the 8YSZ bulk and GYYZO bulk with 15 wt% Gd2O3 reached 96.89% and 96.22% sintered at 1650 °C for 24 h. With the increase of Gd2O3 addition, the hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness of the GYYZO bulk increased and the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient of the GYYZO bulk decreased. GYYZO bulk with 15 wt% Gd2O3 sintered at 1650 °C for 24h had the highest hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness of 15.61 GPa, 306.88 GPa, 7.822 MPa·m0.5, and the lowest thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient of 1.04 W/(m·k) and 7.89 × 10-6/°C at 1100 °C, respectively. The addition of Gd2O3 into YSZ could not only effectively reduce the thermal conductivity but also improve the mechanical properties, which would improve the thermal barrier coatings' performances further.

9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886617

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the individual binding ability of omalizumab to free IgE and its effect on omalizumab action. Methods:A total of 28 serum samples were collected from patients with allergic rhinitis and divided into groups with high, medium and low concentrations of free IgE. Different doses of omalizumab were administered in vitro for inhibitory binding. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect changes in serum free IgE after inhibition. The inhibition constant of omalizumab on serum free IgE was calculated. At the same time, the binding ability of omalizumab and individual free IgE was analyzed. Results:In general, when 100% serum free IgE was inhibited, the omalizumab required was positively correlated with the original serum free IgE concentration(9.500±7.207, 8.636±7.375, and 0.786±0.857 for the high, medium, and low IgE concentration groups, respectively). The dose of omalizumab required for inhibition of 50% free IgE in serum was significantly lower(0.049±0.071, 0.046±0.077, 0.048±0.048 in the high, medium, and low IgE concentrations groups, respectively). The 100% and 50% inhibition constants of serum free IgE in different individuals were different to some extent. Conclusion:Overall, the amount of omalizumab required to achieve the same inhibitory effect is proportional to the IgE concentration. In some sensitive patients, partial binding inhibition of free IgE can occur even when omalizumab is administered at less than the recommended dose. The binding ability of serum free IgE and omalizumab was different in different individuals. If this factor is used as a reference for the individual dose of omalizumab in clinical medicine, it is possible to achieve the expected efficacy more accurately.

10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 5928-5931, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34892468

RESUMO

Sleep screening based on the construction of sleep stages is one of the major tool for the assessment of sleep quality and early detection of sleep-related disorders. Due to the inherent variability such as inter-users anatomical variability and the inter-systems differences, representation learning of sleep stages in order to obtain the stable and reliable characteristics is runoff for downstream tasks in sleep science. In this paper, we investigated feasibility of the EEG-based symbolic representation for sleep stages. By combining the Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic model and comparing with different feature extraction methods, the work proved the feasibility of multi-topics representation for sleep stages and physiological signals.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 228: 113018, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837874

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a persistent heavy metal contaminant with definite hepatotoxicity. Selenium (Se) has been shown to alleviate liver damage induced by heavy metals. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the mechanism of the antagonistic effect of Se on mercury chloride (HgCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity in chickens. Firstly, we confirmed that Se alleviated HgCl2-induced liver injury through histopathological observation and liver function analyzation. The results also showed that Se prevented HgCl2-induced liver lipid accumulation and dyslipidemia by regulating the gene expression related to lipid as well as glucose metabolism. Moreover, Se blocked the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signaling pathway, which was the key to alleviate the inflammation caused by HgCl2. Mechanically, Se inhibited immoderate mitochondrial division, fusion, and biogenesis caused by HgCl2, and also improved mitochondrial respiration, which were essential for preventing energy metabolism disorder and inflammation. In conclusion, our results suggested that Se inhibited energy metabolism disorder and inflammation by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, thereby alleviating HgCl2-induced liver injury in chickens. These results are expected to provide potential intervention and therapeutic targets for diseases caused by inorganic mercury poisoning.

13.
JAMA Pediatr ; : e214375, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747972

RESUMO

Importance: A rapid nutritional transition has caused greater childhood obesity prevalence in many countries, but the repertoire of effective preventive interventions remains limited. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a novel multifaceted intervention for obesity prevention in primary school children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted during a single school year (from September 11, 2018, to June 30, 2019) across 3 socioeconomically distinct regions in China according to a prespecified trial protocol. Twenty-four schools were randomly allocated (1:1) to the intervention or the control group, with 1392 eligible children aged 8 to 10 years participating. Data from the intent-to-treat population were analyzed from October 1 to December 31, 2019. Interventions: A multifaceted intervention targeted both children (promoting healthy diet and physical activity) and their environment (engaging schools and families to support children's behavioral changes). The intervention was novel in its strengthening of family involvement with the assistance of a smartphone app. The control schools engaged in their usual practices. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters) from baseline to the end of the trial. Secondary outcomes included changes in adiposity outcomes (eg, BMI z score, prevalence of obesity), blood pressure, physical activity and dietary behaviors, obesity-related knowledge, and physical fitness. Generalized linear mixed models were used in the analyses. Results: Among the 1392 participants (mean [SD] age, 9.6 [0.4] years; 717 boys [51.5%]; mean [SD] BMI, 18.6 [3.7]), 1362 (97.8%) with follow-up data were included in the analyses. From baseline to the end of the trial, the mean BMI decreased in the intervention group, whereas it increased in the control group; the mean between-group difference in BMI change was -0.46 (95% CI, -0.67 to -0.25; P < .001), which showed no evidence of difference across different regions, sexes, maternal education levels, and primary caregivers (parents vs nonparents). The prevalence of obesity decreased by 27.0% of the baseline figure (a relative decrease) in the intervention group, compared with 5.6% in the control group. The intervention also improved other adiposity outcomes, dietary, sedentary, and physical activity behaviors, and obesity-related knowledge, but it did not change moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, physical fitness, or blood pressure. No adverse events were observed during the intervention. Conclusions and Relevance: The multifaceted intervention effectively reduced the mean BMI and obesity prevalence in primary school children across socioeconomically distinct regions in China, suggesting its potential for national scaling. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03665857.

14.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 17: 100280, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734200

RESUMO

Background: Aortic dissection (AD) represents a significant mortality; however, there is rare epidemiologic information about the demography of AD in Chinese, especially its incidence rate. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was established using the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance claims data covering 346.7 million residents from 23 provinces in China, 2015-2016. AD cases were then linked to database of the Urban Employee Basic Endowment Insurance for death information. Incidence rate was age- and sex-standardized to the 2010 China census population. The associations between AD and related factors were evaluated with Poisson regression models. Moreover, mortality and sex- and age-adjusted survival rate was estimated by Cox models. Findings: 6084 adult AD cases were included in incidence analysis. Totally 4692(77.1%) were men and 5641(92.7%) were Han Chinese. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of AD was 2.78(95%CI:2.59-2.98) per 100,000 person-years. In terms of geographic disparities, the crude incidence rate was significantly higher in Northwest China than South China (4.96[95%CI:4.17-5.75] vs. 2.04[95%CI:0.38-3.71] per 100,000 person-years; risk ratio: 2.67[95%CI: 2.34-3.04]). Moreover, survival analysis of 4518 AD patients with 683 recorded deaths during follow-up (median 2.2 years) showed that overall 3-year survival was 83.7%(95%CI:82.4-84.8). Interpretation: This contemporary population-based cohort study provides a first comprehensive assessment of incidence of AD in urban Chinese adults. The distinct signatures of different incidence with respect to geographic variations may have important implications for clinical management of AD. Funding: Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC2003503, 2016YFC0903000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (91846112, 81973132, 81961128006).

15.
Chem Sci ; 12(39): 12866-12873, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745519

RESUMO

Transition metal-catalyzed organic electrochemistry is a rapidly growing research area owing in part to the ability of metal catalysts to alter the selectivity of a given transformation. This conversion mainly focuses on transition metal-catalyzed anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction and great progress has been achieved in both areas. Typically, only one of the half-cell reactions is involved in the organic reaction while a sacrificial reaction occurs at the counter electrode, which is inherently wasteful since one electrode is not being used productively. Recently, transition metal-catalyzed paired electrolysis that makes use of both anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction has attracted much attention. This perspective highlights the recent progress of each type of electrochemical reaction and relatively focuses on the transition metal-catalyzed paired electrolysis, showcasing that electrochemical reactions involving transition metal catalysis have advantages over conventional reactions in terms of controlling the reaction activity and selectivity and figuring out that transition metal-catalyzed paired electrolysis is an important direction of organic electrochemistry in the future and offers numerous opportunities for new and improved organic reaction methods.

16.
J Neurochem ; 159(4): 729-741, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599505

RESUMO

Recent work has revealed that spontaneous release plays critical roles in the central nervous system, but how it is regulated remains elusive. Here, we report that synaptotagmin-11 (Syt11), a Ca2+ -independent Syt isoform associated with schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, suppressed spontaneous release. Syt11-knockout hippocampal neurons showed an increased frequency of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents while over-expression of Syt11 inversely decreased the frequency. Neither knockout nor over-expression of Syt11 affected the average amplitude, suggesting the pre-synaptic regulation of spontaneous neurotransmission by Syt11. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, and affinity-purification experiments demonstrated a direct interaction of Syt11 with vps10p-tail-interactor-1a (vti1a), a non-canonical SNARE protein that maintains spontaneous release. Importantly, knockdown of vti1a reversed the phenotype of Syt11 knockout, identifying vti1a as the main target of Syt11 inhibition. Domain analysis revealed that the C2A domain of Syt11 bound vti1a with high affinity. Consistently, expression of the C2A domain alone rescued the phenotype of elevated spontaneous release in Syt11-knockout neurons similar to the full-length protein. Altogether, our results suggest that Syt11 inhibits vti1a-containing vesicles during spontaneous release.

17.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; : 19458924211050547, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used for treating local allergic rhinitis (LAR) patients. However, the clinical efficacy and safety were still questioned. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to estimate the efficacy and safety of SCIT for treating LAR patients through meta-analysis. METHODS: We systemically searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase publications. Randomized, double-blind, clinical trials for the efficacy and safety of Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for LAR were included. A meta-analysis of 4 clinical endpoints (combined symptom and medication scores [CSMS], symptom scores [SS], medication scores [MS] and rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire [RQLQ]) and adverse events (AEs)) was performed after bias and heterogeneity assessments. The immunologic response results were summarized. RESULTS: Four RCTs with 134 patients were included. Four studies for analyzing primary outcomes (CSMS, SS, MS) and AEs, three for RQLQ results. The results indicated an important significant difference between SCIT and placebo groups, list as follows: CSMS (SMD = -2.42, 95% CI: -3.60 to -1.25, P < .0001), SS (SMD = -2.08, 95% CI -3.68 to -0.48, P = .01), MS (SMD = -1.43, 95% CI: -2.65 to -0.21, P = 0.02), RQLQ (SMD = -0.70, 95% CI -1.29 to -0.12, P = .02), Local AEs (RR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.08 to 15.77, P = .04). For immunologic response, significantly increased serum sIgG4 levels and improvements of allergen tolerance was observed after SCIT. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggests that SCIT has a significant effect on improving symptoms and reducing medicine consumption for LAR patients. Larger and multicenter clinical trials are needed to clarify the safety and long-term efficacy.

18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564656

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ageratina adenophora on the intestines morphology and integrity in rat. Rats were randomly divided into two groups and were fed with 10 g/100 g body weight (BW) basal diet and 10 g/100 g BW experimental diet, which was a mixture of A. adenophora powder and basal diet in a 3:7 ratio. The feeding experiment lasted for 60 days. At days 28 and 60 of the experiment, eight rats/group/timepoint were randomly selected, weighed, and sacrificed, then blood and intestinal tissues were collected and stored for further analysis. The results showed that Ageratina adenophora caused pathological changes and injury in the intestine, elevated serum diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactate (D-LA), and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, reduced occludin levels in intestinal tissues, as well as increased the count of intraepithelial leukocytes (IELs) and lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) in the intestine (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). In addition, the mRNA and protein (ELISA) expressions of pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-ϒ) were elevated in the Ageratina adenophora treatment groups, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10 were reduced (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Therefore, the results obtained in this study indicated that Ageratina adenophora impaired intestinal function in rats by damaging the intestine structure and integrity, and also triggered an inflammation immune response that led to intestinal immune barrier dysfunction.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(38): 15599-15605, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533943

RESUMO

An electrochemical asymmetric coupling of secondary acyclic amines with ketones via a Shono-type oxidation has been described, affording the corresponding amino acid derivatives with good to excellent diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. The addition of an N-oxyl radical as a redox mediator could selectively oxidize the substrate rather than the product, although their oxidation potential difference is subtle (about 13 mV). This electrochemical transformation proceeds in the absence of stoichiometric additives, including metals, oxidants, and electrolytes, which gives it good functional group compatibility. Mechanistic studies suggest that proton-mediated racemization of the product is prevented by the reduction of protons at the cathode.

20.
Fitoterapia ; 155: 105032, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517058

RESUMO

A. adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob. is as invasive plant known to cause toxicity in humans and animals. The plant's toxic activities have been associated with some toxic phytochemicals present in the plant. One of the major phytochemicals that have been reported to induce toxicity in various organs is euptox A (9-oxo-10, 11-dehydroageraphorone). Previous studies have reported that the main target organs of euptox A are the liver and spleen. Although, many studies have reported on euptox A toxicity in rats and mice, the mechanism of action and the beneficial uses of this toxin as well as it potential uses have not been fully established in literatures. Therefore, this review firstly, aims at elaborating on the toxic effects and mechanism of action of euptox A to give basic knowledge to researchers to help in the development of strategies that will reduce its toxicity to the environment. Secondly, this paper will also report on some beneficial uses of euptox A in recent years as well as suggest some future potential applications of this toxin to help in the utilization of this plant resource.

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