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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease and information on disease burden of ALS in mainland China was limited. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of ALS in China. METHODS: We used 2012-2016 data from China's Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance and Urban Residence Basic Medical Insurance, covering approximately 0.43 billion individuals. ALS cases were identified by the primary diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases code or text of diagnosis) in the insurance database. RESULTS: The crude prevalence and incidence in 2016 were 2.91 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 2.31 to 3.58) and 1.65 (95% CI 1.33 to 2.01), respectively. The standardised prevalence and incidence based on 2010 Chinese census data were 2.97 (95% CI 2.91 to 3.03) and 1.62 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.67), respectively. The annual prevalence between 2013 and 2016 remained relatively constant, ranging from 2.91 (95% CI 2.31 to 3.58) in 2016 to 3.29 (95% CI 2.51 to 4.17) in 2014 (linear regression: ß=-0.129, p=0.104). Both rates peaked in the group aged 75-79 years. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and incidence of ALS in mainland China were lower than those in developed countries, and maintained a relatively stable trend. The age at onset and age at diagnosis for ALS patients were younger than those in developed countries. Further research is expected to clarify the potential pathophysiological mechanism of ALS.

2.
J Food Prot ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044959

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term storage at different temperatures (4, 25 and 35 °C) on flavor, microbiological and physicochemical quality characteristics of low-salt fermented fish. Food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, such as coliforms,  Pseudomonas ,  Salmonella , were inhibited during the 90 days of storage at all temperatures. Lactic acid bacteria, yeast and total viable counts of the samples stored at 35 °C reduced sharply while others were stable. Compared to refrigerated storage (4 °C), higher storage temperatures (25 and 35 °C) accelerated the moisture migration, lipid oxidation and proteolytic degradation. Compared with storage temperature, storage time contributed more largely to the increase of volatile compounds of Suanyu. Refrigerated storage was beneficial in maintaining odors quality of Suanyu during the whole storage compared with higher storage temperatures (25 and 35 °C). Total biogenic amines contents in all the samples were far below 200 mg/kg. Fermented fish can be consumed with safety during 90 days of storage based on spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and biogenic amines, but the refrigerated storage could effectively slow down the microbial and physicochemical changes to obtain better organoleptic quality. This study will be beneficial to control the safety and quality of fermented fish during transport and storage.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e035190, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) hypertension guideline recommended 130/80 mm Hg as blood pressure (BP) target goals. However, the generalisability of this recommendation to populations at large with hypertension remains controversial. We assessed the association between BP and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mortality using a 20-year follow-up study among Chinese populations. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 7314 participants were followed up for a median of 20 years in Fangshan District, Beijing, China. METHODS: The primary outcome variable was death from cardiovascular causes. The adjusted HR for CVDs mortality associated with baseline BP was calculated using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: We identified 350 deaths from CVDs (148 stroke, 113 coronary heart disease and 89 other CVDs) during follow-up. Hypertension (defined by systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) ≥140/90 mm Hg) was significantly associated with mortality due to CVDs (HR=2.49, 95% CI=1.77 to 3.50) among people aged 35-59 years rather than people aged ≥60 years. In addition, there was no significant association between stage 1 hypertension defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA (SBP/DBP of 130-139/80-89 mm Hg) and CVDs mortality when compared with SBP/DBP of <120/80 in neither the participants aged <60 years (HR=0.90, 95% CI=0.54 to 1.50) nor participants aged ≥60 years (HR=1.47, 95% CI=0.94 to 2.29). CONCLUSION: The study revealed hypertension of SBP/DBP≥140/90 mm Hg was an important risk factor of CVDs mortality, especially among people aged 35-59 years. However, stage 1 hypertension under the definition of 2017 ACC/AHA was not associated with an increased risk of CVDs mortality. This study indicated that whether adopting the new hypertension definition needs further consideration in rural Chinese populations.

4.
FASEB J ; 34(2): 2609-2624, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908017

RESUMO

Caveolae play crucial roles in intracellular membrane trafficking and mechanosensation. In this study, we report that synaptotagmin-11 (Syt11), a synaptotagmin isoform associated with Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, regulates both caveolae-mediated endocytosis and the caveolar response to mechanical stimuli in astrocytes. Syt11-knockout (KO) accelerated caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, the caveolar structures on the cell surface were markedly fewer in the absence of Syt11. Caveolar disassembly in response to hypoosmotic stimuli and astrocyte swelling were both impaired in Syt11-KO astrocytes. Live imaging revealed that Syt11 left caveolar structures before cavin1 during hypoosmotic stress and returned earlier than cavin1 after isoosmotic recovery. Chronic hypoosmotic stress led to proteasome-mediated Syt11 degradation. In addition, Syt11-KO increased the turnover of cavin1 and EH domain-containing protein 2 (EHD2), accompanied by compromised membrane integrity, suggesting a mechanoprotective role of Syt11. Direct interactions between Syt11 and cavin1 and EHD2, but not caveolin-1, are found. Altogether, we propose that Syt11 stabilizes caveolar structures on the cell surface of astrocytes and regulates caveolar functions under physiological and pathological conditions through cavin1 and EHD2.

5.
Environ Int ; 136: 105498, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991238

RESUMO

Few large multicity studies have assessed acute effect of tropospheric ozone pollution on pneumonia risk. We aimed to examine the relation between day-to-day changes in ozone concentrations and hospital admissions for pneumonia in China. We conducted a national time-series study in 184 major Chinese cities from 2014 to 2017. City-specific relation between ozone concentrations and pneumonia admissions was evaluated using an over-dispersed generalized additive model. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to pool the city-specific estimates. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the relations. We also investigated potential effect modifiers. Overall, we observed increased admissions for pneumonia associated with ozone exposure. The national-average estimates per 10-µg/m3 increase in ozone were 0.14% (95% CI: 0.03%-0.25%) at lag 0 day in the whole year, 0.30% (95% CI: 0.17%-0.43%) at lag 0 day in the warm season, and 0.20% (95% CI: 0.05%-0.34%) at lag 1 day in the cool season. Two-pollutant models indicated that the ozone effects were not confounded by PM2.5, SO2, NO2 or CO. The association between ozone and pneumonia was stronger in the elderly. Ozone levels and gross domestic product per capita reduced the effects of ozone, and smoking enhanced the effects of ozone. In conclusion, we estimated an increase in daily pneumonia admissions associated with ozone exposure in China. As the first national study in China to report acute effect of ozone on pneumonia hospitalizations, our findings are incredibly meaningful in terms of both ozone pollution related policy development and pneumonia prevention.

6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(1): 148-157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287778

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among married individuals and to analyze the associated risk factors of HBV infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups in 2006 and 2014.Methods: Information of married individuals aged over 16 y with a clear HBV vaccination status was extracted from the database constructed by the Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control from population-based investigation.A structured questionnaire was employed to collect demographic information, vaccinated history, and other related influence information of HBV of participants. Pearson chi-square test, Fisher's test, and logistic regression were used to explore the risk factors of HBV infection.Results: A total of 2874 individuals in 2006 and 1622 individuals in 2014 were enrolled in our study. The mean age of individuals was 49.30 and 46.68 y in 2006 and 2014, respectively. The overall positive rates of HBsAg, anti-HBc, and single anti-HBs were 4.80%, 43.01%, and 5.78% in 2006, which were 4.69%, 38.22%, and 14.18% in 2014, respectively. For vaccinated individuals, age was significantly correlated with anti-HBc in 2014 (40 < age ≤50 versus age ≤30, relative risk (RR) = 3.03, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.04-8.84). Gender [male versus female, RR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.36-1.00 (2006); RR = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.52-0.97 (2014)] and age (in 2006) were found to be significantly associated with single anti-HBs.For unvaccinated individuals, HBsAg positivity was statistically significant correlated with gender [RR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.04-2.06, in 2006], residence (urban versus rural, RR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.24-0.67, in 2006; RR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.34-0.99, in 2014), sharing syringes [RR = 3.75, 95%CI = 1.33-10.63 (in 2006); RR = 2.07, 95%CI = 1.26-3.41 (in 2014)], infected wives (RR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.28-3.05, in 2006), and infected husbands (RR = 2.19, 95%CI = 1.25-3.82, in 2006). Anti-HBc positivity was significantly associated with gender [RR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.10-1.30 (in 2006); RR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.09-1.40 (in 2014)], age (in 2006 and 2014), endoscopic medicine treatment [RR = 1.16, 95%CI = 1.03-1.32 (in 2006), RR = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.01-1.45 (in 2014)], sharing syringes (RR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.25-1.64, in 2014), body piercing (RR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.75-0.93, in 2006), infected wives (RR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.18-1.47, in 2006), and infected husbands (RR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.22-1.59, in 2006). Anti-HBs positivity was associated with age (in 2006 and 2014).Conclusions: Prevalence of HBV infection was lower in 2014 than in 2006 according to HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity. Unvaccinated individuals faced much more risk of HBV infection than those of vaccinated.

7.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 9207-9215, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Cystatin C is a protease inhibitor that is increased in the serum of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum levels of cystatin C and arterial stiffness, associated with dyslipidemia, obesity, and increased pulse pressure, in middle-aged and elderly individuals without CKD in a population in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study included 1,138 patients aged ≥40 years without CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate measured by serum creatinine (eGFRSCr) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m². Study participants provided clinical details, including height and weight, and blood samples for serum measurements of cystatin C and lipid profiles and completed a clinical questionnaire. Pulse pressure was calculated as the mean systolic pressure (SBP) minus the diastolic pressure (DBP). Data underwent multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS An increase in serum levels of cystatin C was associated with an increased risk of arterial stiffness. Each standard deviation in the increase of cystatin C resulted in a 22% increased risk of dyslipidemia, a 27% increased risk of obesity, and a 24% increased risk of increased pulse pressure, after adjusting for confounders. These associations were further confirmed in a sensitivity analysis by excluding participants with hypertension, diabetes, and patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). CONCLUSIONS In middle-aged and elderly individuals without CKD, arterial stiffness determined by obesity, dyslipidemia and increased pulse pressure, was significantly associated with increased serum levels of cystatin C.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 189, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying subjects with a high risk of ischemic stroke is fundamental for prevention of the disease. Both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to ischemic stroke, but the underlying epigenetic mechanisms which mediate genetic and environmental risk effects are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore whether DNA methylation loci located in the ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes, both involved in the metabolism of lipids in the body, are related to ischemic stroke, using the Fangshan/Family-based Ischemic Stroke Study in China. We also tested if these CpG sites were associated with early signs of cardiovascular atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)). RESULTS: DNA methylation at the cg02494239 locus in ABCG1 was correlated with ischemic stroke after adjusting for gender, previous history of diabetes and hypertension, smoking, drinking, body mass index, and blood lipid levels (above vs below mean, OR = 2.416, 95% CI 1.024-5.700, P = 0.044; 75-100% percentile vs 0-25% percentile, OR = 4.461, 95% CI 1.226-16.225, P = 0.023). No statistically significant associations were observed for the cg06500161 site in ABCG1 and the cg14123992 site in APOE with ischemic stroke. The study detected that hypermethylation of the ABCG1 gene was significantly associated with cIMT, hypermethylation of the APOE gene was significantly related to ABI, and methylation of the APOE gene was statistically negatively correlated with baPWV. The above relationships demonstrated gender differences. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that epigenetic modification of ABCG1 and APOE may play a role in the pathway from disturbed blood lipid levels to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Future prospective validation of these findings is warranted.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e027902, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678935

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a public health concern that is becoming increasingly more serious worldwide. Effective and sustainable childhood obesity prevention strategies may help to reduce the prevalence of obesity and may have an impact on lifelong health. However, few such strategies have been rigorously evaluated for Chinese children in different regions of China. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Diet, ExerCIse and CarDiovascular hEalth-Children is a cluster-randomised controlled trial that aims to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of a school-based, multi-faceted intervention to prevent obesity among Grade 4 primary school students (8-10 years old) in China. Twenty-four schools (approximately 1200 students) from above average, average and below average developed regions in China will be randomised to an intervention (12 schools) or usual practice (12 schools) group. The intervention will last for one school year (9 months) and consists of activities towards students, parents and school environment. A smartphone application will be used to assist in providing information on, monitoring and providing feedback on the behaviours and body weight of the students. Data will be collected at baseline, 4 months, 9 months and 21 months. The primary outcome will be the difference between groups in the change in students' body mass index at 9 months after the baseline investigation. The secondary outcomes will include the differences between groups in the changes in anthropometric measures, diet, physical activity levels and other measures at the follow-up visits. A variety of process evaluation methods will be used to evaluate the implementation process of the complex intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Peking University Institution Review Board (IRB00001052-18021). The results will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals, presentations at conferences and in lay summaries provided to school staff and participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03665857.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2300, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649641

RESUMO

Effects of wine and dairy yeast fermentation on chemical constituents of tilapia fish head hydrolysate supplemented with glucose in an unsalted and acidic environment were investigated. Three wine yeasts (Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lalvin EC-1118 and Pichia kluyveri Frootzen) and one dairy yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC1425) were employed as single starter cultures, respectively, and were compared with one soy sauce yeast (Candida versatilis NCYC1433). Each yeast showed different growth kinetics and fermentation performance. Compared with C. versatilis NCYC1433, other yeasts presented a significant higher rate of glucose consumption (P < 0.05). Besides, K. marxianus NCYC1425 and P. kluyveri Frootzen produced more citric acid and succinic acid, respectively, while S. cerevisiae Lalvin EC-1118 exhibited higher pyruvic acid production. Significant lower levels of total free amino acids were observed in samples inoculated with wine yeasts relative to other yeasts (P < 0.05). Non-soy sauce yeasts produced increased various levels of esters and alcohols without traditional fish sauce unpleasant odorants, especially K. marxianus NCYC1425 and P. kluyveri Frootzen. The results confirmed that non-soy sauce yeasts are suitable for fish sauce flavor compound modification and to develop a fast fermentation process for saltless fish sauce from fish head, which could increase the acceptability of fish sauce and improve the utilization of fish by-products.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17438, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651847

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicated that polymorphisms in ADAMTS7 were associated with artery disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, the correlation between the ADAMTS7 polymorphism and plaque stability remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between 2 ADAMTS7 variants rs3825807 and rs7173743 and ischemic stroke or atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.This research is an observational study. Patients with ischemic stroke and normal control individuals admitted to Beijing Tiantan Hospital from May 2014 to October 2017 were enrolled. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was used to distinguish vulnerable and stable carotid plaques. The ADAMTS7 SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan assays on real-time PCR system. The multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for multiple risk factors between groups.Three hundred twenty-six patients with ischemic stroke (189 patients with vulnerable plaque and 81 patients with stable plaque) and 432 normal controls were included. ADAMTS7 polymorphisms of both rs7173743 and rs3825807 were associated with carotid plaque vulnerability but not the prevalence of ischemic stroke. The T/T genotype of rs7173743 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.885, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.067-3.328, P = .028] and A/A genotype of rs3825807 (OR = 2.146, 95% CI = 1.163-3.961, P = .013) were considered as risk genotypes for vulnerable plaque susceptibility.In conclusion, ADAMTS7 variants rs3825807 and rs7173743 are associated with the risk for carotid plaque vulnerability.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Proteína ADAMTS7/sangue , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(3): 436-443, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 genotyping is an effective method for triage of high-risk (hr) HPV-positive women in primary hrHPV screening for cervical cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate whether co-infected with other hrHPV types will affect the risk of cervical carcinogenesis in HPV16/18 positive women. METHODS: A total of 313,704 women aged ≥30 years were screened in China. Among them, 4,933 HPV16/18-positive participants underwent colposcopy-directed biopsy. The HPV genotypes were identified using the Cobas HPV genotyping system. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model different HPV16/18 infection patterns. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of hrHPV and HPV16/18 were 7.85% (24,456/311,382) and 1.95% (6,086/311,382) respectively. Among HPV16/18 positive individuals, 33.24% (2,023/6,086) were co-infection with multiple types. Of the 4933 women who underwent colposcopy, their HPV16/18 infection patterns were as follows: 52.38% (2,584/4,933) HVP16 only, 23.54% (1,161/4,933) HPV16 + other hrHPVs, 14.98% (739/4,933) HPV18 only, 6.83% (337/4,933) HPV18 + other hrHPVs, 1.13% (56/4,933) HPV16 + 18, 1.13% (56/4,933) HPV16 + 18+other hrHPVs. After adjusting for cofactors, compared with single HPV16 infection, the risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or greater (CIN3+) was significantly lower in HPV16 + other hrHPVs group (odds ratio [OR] = 0.637, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.493-0.822). CONCLUSION: HPV16/18 co-infection with other hrHPVs is a common phenomenon. Different HPV16/18 infection patterns may influence the risk of cervical carcinogenesis. HPV16 co-infected with other hrHPVs appears to have a lower associated risk of CIN3+ in ≥30 years old women.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Carcinogênese , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
13.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 341, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of body fat distribution in uric acid metabolism is still ambiguity. We aimed to investigate the independent contribution of visceral adipose measured by visceral adiposity index and lipid accumulation product and liver fat assessed by fatty liver index to the risk of hyperuricemia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 1284 participants aged ≥ 40 years old recruited from communities in Zhonglou district, Changzhou. Each participant completed a standard questionnaire, and provided blood samples for biochemical measurements. Visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product were calculated by simple anthropometric and functional parameters. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid ≥ 420 µmol/l for males and ≥ 360 µmol/l for females. RESULTS: The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 15.9% and gradually increased across tertiles of adiposity-based indices. The visceral adipose-based measurements (visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index, lipid accumulation product) had better power to discriminate hyperuricemia than body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and neck circumference, and visceral adiposity index exhibited the highest power, with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0.662 (0.636-0.688). Multivariate logistic regression found 1.49-fold, 2.21-fold and 2.12-fold increased risk of hyperuricemia with 1-unit increment of visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index, and lipid accumulation product, respectively. Compared to tertile 1, the odds ratios of hyperuricemia for the second tertile and the third tertile of visceral adiposity index were 1.57 (1.00-2.50) and 3.11 (1.96-4.94), those of fatty liver index were 1.64 (1.05-2.68) and 3.58 (1.94-6.01), and those of lipid accumulation product were 1.93 (1.19-3.15) and 3.53 (2.05-6.09), respectively. However, no significant associations of BMI, waist circumference and neck circumference with hyperuricemia were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral adipose accumulation increased the risk of hyperuricemia, independently of BMI, waist circumference and neck circumference, among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 811, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in China. Over a decade has passed since the last National Hepatitis Seroepidemiological Survey was conducted in 2006. The lack of updated data on hepatitis B in China makes assessing the current prevalence and burden of the disease inadequate. In response to the above situation, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to provide a better understanding of hepatitis B epidemiology in the general population of China. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in international databases (Medline through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science) and national databases (CBM, CNKI, WanFang Data) to retrieve primary studies published between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. The pooled prevalence of HBV infection and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Quality assessment, heterogeneity testing and publication bias assessment were also performed. RESULTS: Of the 27 studies included in the meta-analysis, the pooled estimated prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of China from 2013 to 2017 was 6.89% (95% CI:5.84-7.95%), which could be extrapolated to an estimated population of 84 million living with HBsAg in 2018. The prevalence of HBV infection in males was higher than that in females (5.88% vs 5.05%), and rural areas had a higher prevalence than urban areas (5.86% vs 3.29%). The highest prevalence of HBV infection was reported in Western provinces (8.92, 95% CI: 7.19-10.64%). In adults older than 20 years, the prevalence of HBV infection was approximately 7%, which was higher than that in children. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of China was classified as higher intermediate prevalence (5-7.99%), of which more than 90% of the HBV infection population included adults older than 20 years. The blocking of mother-to-infant hepatitis B transmission and plans involving timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 h should be implemented. Additionally, improving the quality of life and survival rate of the infected population through antiviral therapy and high-risk adult vaccination will be the priority of our future work. Moreover, various control measures should be implemented in different provinces across China.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Prevalência , População Urbana
15.
J Vis Exp ; (150)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498325

RESUMO

This protocol provides a method for preparation of industrialized fermented fish product with sturgeon (Aquilaria sinensis) meat product. The procedures were: (1) pretreatment of farmed sturgeon including decapitation, evisceration, skinning-off, cleaning and cutting; (2) marinating fish cubes in 6-12% (w/v) salt solution (1:1, fish cube mass to solution volume); (3) drying fish cubes to a water content of 50-60% by hot air (40-60 °C) or by vacuum; (4) fermentation involving inoculating fish cubes with 0.4-1.6% (w/w) S. cerevisiae in flavor solution to fish cubes and fermenting at 25-35 °C for 6-10 h; (5) sealing fish cubes in vacuum packages with marinating and fermenting solutions; (6) sterilizing at 115-121 °C for 10-20 min. The sturgeon meat product prepared by this method has delicious taste which is mellow and thick, has various types and large amounts of volatile flavor compounds such as alcohols and esters which could mask musty and unpleasant odor from fish, has moderate salt content but good texture properties such as high springiness, gumminess and chewiness, and has bright russet color and attractive appearance. This new technique could also be applied in the processing of other fish to provide convenient fish snack foods which could be stored at room temperature. It is appropriate for both marine and freshwater fish.

16.
Food Chem ; 301: 125278, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387033

RESUMO

Softening is always a problem in fish preservation. This study was aimed to investigate the role of myofibrillar structural proteins degradation in fish softening. The changes of myofibrillar structural proteins, muscle ultrastructure, myofibril fragmentation, and shear force were studied. The results indicated that during the superchilled preservation of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), small (low-molecular-weight) myofibrillar structural proteins like desmin and troponin-T initiated textural deterioration, leading to Z-disk weakening and actin loosening. In contrast, giant (high-molecular-weight) myofibrillar structural proteins like titin and nebulin were degraded in more amount in the later storage, contributing to Z-disk and M-band disassembly and vague of light and dark regions (I and A bands). Compared to each other, desmin and titin played more important part in softening. All these changes were involved in the increase of muscle fibril segments and the sharp decrease of shear force.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Produtos Pesqueiros , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Miofibrilas/química , Animais , Conectina/química , Conectina/metabolismo , Desmina/química , Desmina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/química , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Troponina T/química , Troponina T/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 234: 438-449, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228846

RESUMO

In this study, the phenyl-modified mesoporous materials were successfully synthesized using phenyl-organosilanes (trimethoxyphenylsilane and triethoxyphenylsilanea) by one-pot co-condensation method for the removal of estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2). Both the triethoxyphenylsilane-modified material (20%EtPh-MCM-41) and trimethoxyphenylsilane-modified material (20%MePh-MCM-41) could rapidly achieve equilibrium in 30 min at low adsorbent dosage of 0.025 g L-1. But the different hydrolysable groups of trimethoxyphenylsilane and triethoxyphenylsilane led to the discrepancies in physicochemical properties of the 20%EtPh-MCM-41 and 20%MePh-MCM-41, and thus affected adsorption performance. The 20%EtPh-MCM-41 exhibited the faster estrogen adsorption rates expressed in pseudo-second-order kinetic constant than the 20%MePh-MCM-41 due to the more hydrophobicity. Conversely, the 20%MePh-MCM-41 had much more estrogen adsorption capacities than the 20%EtPh-MCM-41 because of the more available adsorption sites. The addition of the phenyl-organosilane improved estrogen adsorption by π-π and hydrophobic interactions, and the Langmuir-model-based maximum adsorption amounts could reach 99.02, 83.47, and 53.60 mg g-1 for EE2, E2, and E1, respectively. But excessive concentration of phenyl-organosilane decreased adsorption capacities due to poor pore structure. Alkaline solution, which induced estrogen deprotonation and negative surface charge of absorbents, inhibited estrogen adsorption by electrostatic repulsion and the decreased hydrophobic interaction, but acidic and neutral solutions, ionic strength, and humic acid did not significantly affect estrogen removal. This work not only showed the high potential of trimethoxyphenylsilane-modified MCM-41 used in water purification for steroid estrogens, but also demonstrated the suitable selection of organosilane precursors was key in producing favorable materials with designed functionality.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Estradiol/análise , Estradiol/isolamento & purificação , Estrona/análise , Estrona/isolamento & purificação , Etinilestradiol/análise , Etinilestradiol/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Concentração Osmolar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(4): 547-552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether alterations of regional neural function in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) had manifested deficit in behavioral inhibition using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). METHODS: There were 17 participants with DIPG who took part in the study. Eight children were with deficit in behavioral inhibition, whereas the other 9 children did not obtain deficit in behavioral inhibition. Five healthy children with age, sex, and education matched to the study group also participated as the control group. These 3 groups underwent rs-fMRI, and the results were then converted to amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) data. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation data were further analyzed by single-factor analysis of variance comparing among 3 groups based on the whole brain levels. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation results were subjected to t test of voxel-wised comparison to derive the rs-fMRI brain function differences between the 2 DIPG groups. The Pearson correlation between ALFF values of abnormal regions found in 3 groups and the scores obtained according to the Child Behavior Checklist were analyzed. RESULTS: The 3 groups had shown significant differences in terms of the ALFF results, with the ALFF increased in several brain regions (P < 0.05, corrected with AlphaSim, clusters >59 voxels), which include left supramarginal gyrus, left dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right middle frontal gyrus. Participants with deficit in behavioral inhibition had shown significant differences (ALFF decreased) in several brain regions, including left dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus (P < 0.05, corrected with AlphaSim, clusters >123 voxels), whereas other brain regions had shown ALFF increased, including left supramarginal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right medial superior frontal gyrus (P < 0.05, corrected with AlphaSim, clusters >123 voxels). There was no significant correlation between ALFF values and Child Behavior Checklist scores (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings of focal spontaneous hyperfunction and hypofunction, which correlate with deficit in behavioral inhibition processing, and the abnormal brain regions are considered to be inefficient (in regions of the brain that may relate to compensatory brain and behavioral functioning, and it may be that the brain region needs to exert extra energy to perform a task to the same degree as the control group) or inability (inability in a certain region, or underpowered), pointing to a pathophysiologic process in executive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico , Encéfalo , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(4): 1142-1151, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and morbidity risk in developing countries is not fully understood. We conducted a nationwide time-series study to estimate the short-term effect of PM2.5 on hospital admissions in Chinese adults. METHODS: Daily counts of hospital admissions for 2014-16 were obtained from the National Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance database. We identified more than 58 million hospitalizations from 0.28 billion insured persons in 200 Chinese cities for subjects aged 18 years or older. Generalized additive models with quasi-Poisson regression were applied to examine city-specific associations of PM2.5 concentrations with hospital admissions. National-average estimates of the association were obtained from a random-effects meta-analysis. We also investigated potential effect modifiers, such as age, sex, temperature and relative humidity. RESULTS: An increase of 10 µg/m3 in same-day PM2.5 concentrations was positively associated with a 0.19% (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.30) increase in the daily number of hospital admissions at the national level. PM2.5 exposure remained positively associated with hospital admissions on days when the daily concentrations met the current Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (75 µg/m3). Estimates of admission varied across cities and increased in cities with lower PM2.5 concentrations (p = 0.044) or higher temperatures (p = 0.002) and relative humidity (p = 0.003). The elderly were more sensitive to PM2.5 exposure (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 was positively associated with adult hospital admissions in China, even at levels below current Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards.

20.
Allergy ; 74(9): 1675-1690, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental pollutants, which coexist with allergens, have been associated with the exacerbation of asthma. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. We sought to determine whether benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) co-exposure with dermatophagoides group 1 allergen (Der f 1) can potentiate Der f 1-induced asthma and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The effect of BaP was investigated in Der f 1-induced mouse model of asthma, including airway hyper-responsiveness, allergic inflammation, and epithelial-derived cytokines. The impact of BaP on Der f 1-induced airway epithelial cell oxidative stress (ROS) and cytokine release was further analyzed. The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling in BaP-promoted Der f 1-induced ROS, cytokine production, and allergic inflammation was also investigated. RESULTS: Compared with Der f 1, BaP co-exposure with Der f 1 led to airway hyper-responsiveness and increased lung inflammation in mouse model of asthma. Increased expression of TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25 was also found in the airways of these mice. Moreover, BaP co-exposure with Der f 1 activated AhR signaling with increased expression of AhR and CYP1A1 and promoted airway epithelial ROS generation and TSLP and IL-33, but not IL-25, expression. Interestingly, AhR antagonist CH223191 or cells with AhR knockdown abrogated the increased expression of ROS, TSLP, and IL-33. Furthermore, ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) also suppressed BaP co-exposure-induced expression of epithelial TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25. Finally, AhR antagonist CH223191 and NAC inhibited BaP co-exposure with Der f 1-induced lung inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that BaP facilitates Der f 1-induced epithelial cytokine release through the AhR-ROS axis.

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