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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963787

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, posing a significant threat to female health. Therefore, it is crucial to search for new therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers for breast cancer patients. Method: Bioinformatics analysis, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were employed to investigate the expression of hsa_circ_002144 in breast cancer. Transwell assay, Western blotting, and cell viability assay were utilized to assess the impact of hsa_circ_002144 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells. Additionally, a mouse model was established to validate its functionality. Flow cytometry, WB analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), qRT-PCR, exosomes isolation, and co-culture system were employed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying macrophage polarization. Result: we have discovered for the first time that hsa_circ_002144 is highly expressed in breast cancer. It affected tumor growth and metastasis and could influence macrophage polarization through the glycolytic pathway. Conclusion: This finding provides a new direction for breast cancer treatment and prognosis assessment.

2.
Science ; 385(6704): 99-104, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963849

RESUMO

Rhombohedral-stacked transition-metal dichalcogenides (3R-TMDs), which are distinct from their hexagonal counterparts, exhibit higher carrier mobility, sliding ferroelectricity, and coherently enhanced nonlinear optical responses. However, surface epitaxial growth of large multilayer 3R-TMD single crystals is difficult. We report an interfacial epitaxy methodology for their growth of several compositions, including molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide, tungsten disulfide, tungsten diselenide, niobium disulfide, niobium diselenide, and molybdenum sulfoselenide. Feeding of metals and chalcogens continuously to the interface between a single-crystal Ni substrate and grown layers ensured consistent 3R stacking sequence and controlled thickness from a few to 15,000 layers. Comprehensive characterizations confirmed the large-scale uniformity, high crystallinity, and phase purity of these films. The as-grown 3R-MoS2 exhibited room-temperature mobilities up to 155 and 190 square centimeters per volt second for bi- and trilayers, respectively. Optical difference frequency generation with thick 3R-MoS2 showed markedly enhanced nonlinear response under a quasi-phase matching condition (five orders of magnitude greater than monolayers).

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 282: 116657, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968869

RESUMO

Dexamethasone (DXMS), a synthetic glucocorticoid, is known for its pharmacological effects on anti-inflammation, stress response enhancement and immune suppression, and has been widely used to treat potential premature delivery and related diseases. However, emerging evidence has shown that prenatal DXMS exposure leads to increased susceptibility to multiple diseases. In the present study, we used zebrafish as a model to study the effects of embryonic DXMS exposure on liver development and disease. We discovered that embryonic DXMS exposure upregulated the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased the glycolysis process and ultimately caused hepatic steatosis in zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, DXMS exposure exacerbated hepatic steatosis in a zebrafish model of fatty liver disease. In addition, we showed that embryonic DXMS exposure worsened liver injury induced by paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP), increased the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and promoted the expression of inflammatory factors, leading to impeded liver regeneration. Taken together, our results provide new evidence that embryonic DXMS exposure exacerbates hepatic steatosis by activating glycolytic pathway, aggravates APAP-induced liver damage and impeded regeneration under a persistent inflammation, calling attention to DXMS administration during pregnancy with probable clinical implications for offspring.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1428233, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38957619

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is notoriously known for evolving strategies to modulate IFN signaling. Despite lots of efforts, the underlying mechanisms have remained incompletely understood. This study concerns the regulatory role of viral inner membrane protein p17. We found that the ASFV p17 shows a preferential interaction with cGAS-STING-IRF3 pathway, but not the RIG-I-MAVS-NF-κB signaling, and can inhibit both poly(I:C)- and poly(A:T)-induced activation of IRF3, leading to attenuation of IFN-ß induction. Mechanistically, p17 interacts with STING and IRF3 and recruits host scaffold protein PR65A, a subunit of cellular phosphatase PP2A, to down-regulate the level of p-IRF3. Also, p17 targets STING for partial degradation via induction of cellular apoptosis that consequently inhibits activation of both p-TBK1 and p-IRF3. Thus, our findings reveal novel regulatory mechanisms for p17 modulation of IFN signaling and shed light on the intricate interplay between ASFV proteins and host immunity.

7.
Microsc Res Tech ; 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963689

RESUMO

The quantification of 3D particle field is of interest for a vast range of fields. While in-line particle holography (PH) can provide high-resolution measurements of particles, it suffers from speckle noise. Plenoptic imaging (PI) is less susceptible to speckle noises, but it involves a trade-off between spatial and angular resolution, rendering images with low resolution. Here, we report a simple microscopy setup with the goals of getting the strengths of both techniques. It is built with off-the-shelf and cost-effective components including a photographic lens, a diaphragm, and a CCD camera. The cost of the microscopy setup is affordable to small labs and individual researchers. The pupil plane of the proposed setup can be mechanically accessible, allowing us to implement pupil plane modulation and increase the depth of field (DOF) without requiring any additional relay lenses. It also allows us to understand the working principle of pupil plane modulation clearly, benefiting microscopy education. It illuminates the sample (particles) using diffuse white light, and thus avoids the problem of speckle noise. It captures multiple perspective images via pupil plane modulation, without requiring trading off angular and spatial resolution. We validate the setup with 2D and 3D particle samples. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: We report a simple and cost-effective microscopy setup with the goals of getting the strengths of plenoptic imaging and in-line particle holography. It is built with off-the-shelf and cost-effective components. The cost of the microscopy setup is affordable to small labs and individual researchers. The pupil plane of the proposed setup can be mechanically accessible, allowing us to implement pupil plane modulation and increase the DOF without requiring any additional relay lenses. It also allows us to understand the working principle of pupil plane modulation clearly, benefiting microscopy education. It illuminates the sample (particles) using diffuse white light, and thus avoids the problem of speckle noise. It captures multiple perspective images via pupil plane modulation, without requiring trading off angular and spatial resolution. We validate the setup with 2D and 3D particle samples.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973165

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are regarded as promising materials for next-generation logic circuits. Top gate field-effect transistors (FETs) have independent gate control ability and can be fabricated directly on TMDC materials without a transfer process. Therefore, it has the merits of device reliability and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process compatibility, which are demanded in practical circuit-level integration. However, the fabrication of the top gate FET involves depositing an insulating dielectric layer and a gate electrode in sequence on the TMDC channel material, which may affect the device performance. Insightfully investigating the influences of different top-gate-deposition methods on the electrical properties of the TMDC channel and further harnessing these influences to realize a homogeneous CMOS device on an identical 2D TMDC platform are with practice significance. In this work, p/n-type controllable top gate FET arrays based on 2H-MoTe2 are fabricated by using different top-gate-deposition methods. The electron-beam evaporation (EBE) of top metal gate exhibits an obvious n-doping effect on the 2H-MoTe2 channel and converts it from p-type to n-type, whereas the thermal evaporation of top gate affects little to the channel. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis reveals that the high-energy metal atoms from the EBE process can penetrate through the 30 nm gate dielectric layers (including 10 nm Al2O3 seeding layer), leading to multiple atomic defects in both MoTe2 and the interface between MoTe2 and Al2O3. Furthermore, by utilizing the top gate engineering, a large-scale double-top-gate MoTe2 homogeneous CMOS inverter array is fabricated. The CMOS inverters exhibit clear logic swing, negligible hysteresis, and high device yield (∼93%), indicating high device reliability and stability. Notably, the fabrication process is facile, free from transfer procedure, and compatible with traditional silicon technology. This work promotes the application of 2D TMDCs in nanoelectronics integration.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 162024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985127

RESUMO

The calcitonin receptor (CALCR) is an essential protein for maintaining calcium homeostasis and has been reported to be upregulated in numerous cancers. However, the molecular role of CALCR in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not well understood. In this study, we identified the overexpression of CALCR in RCC using human tissue chip by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, which was associated with a poor prognosis. Functionally, CALCR depletion inhibited RCC cell proliferation and migration, and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest. CALCR is also essential for in vivo tumor formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that CALCR could directly bind to CD44, preventing CD44 protein degradation and thereby upregulating CD44 expression. Moreover, a deficiency in CD44 significantly attenuated the promoting role of CALCR on RCC cell proliferation, migration and anti-apoptosis capacities. Collectively, CALCR exacerbates RCC progression via stabilizing CD44, offering a fundamental basis for considering CALCR as a potential therapeutic target for RCC patients.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38984754

RESUMO

In the modern "omics" era, measurement of the human exposome is a critical missing link between genetic drivers and disease outcomes. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), routinely used in proteomics and metabolomics, has emerged as a leading technology to broadly profile chemical exposure agents and related biomolecules for accurate mass measurement, high sensitivity, rapid data acquisition, and increased resolution of chemical space. Non-targeted approaches are increasingly accessible, supporting a shift from conventional hypothesis-driven, quantitation-centric targeted analyses toward data-driven, hypothesis-generating chemical exposome-wide profiling. However, HRMS-based exposomics encounters unique challenges. New analytical and computational infrastructures are needed to expand the analysis coverage through streamlined, scalable, and harmonized workflows and data pipelines that permit longitudinal chemical exposome tracking, retrospective validation, and multi-omics integration for meaningful health-oriented inferences. In this article, we survey the literature on state-of-the-art HRMS-based technologies, review current analytical workflows and informatic pipelines, and provide an up-to-date reference on exposomic approaches for chemists, toxicologists, epidemiologists, care providers, and stakeholders in health sciences and medicine. We propose efforts to benchmark fit-for-purpose platforms for expanding coverage of chemical space, including gas/liquid chromatography-HRMS (GC-HRMS and LC-HRMS), and discuss opportunities, challenges, and strategies to advance the burgeoning field of the exposome.

11.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 10(1): 56, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003275

RESUMO

Dental calculus severely affects the oral health of humans and animal pets. Calculus deposition affects the gingival appearance and causes inflammation. Failure to remove dental calculus from the dentition results in oral diseases such as periodontitis. Apart from adversely affecting oral health, some systemic diseases are closely related to dental calculus deposition. Hence, identifying the mechanisms of dental calculus formation helps protect oral and systemic health. A plethora of biological and physicochemical factors contribute to the physiological equilibrium in the oral cavity. Bacteria are an important part of the equation. Calculus formation commences when the bacterial equilibrium is broken. Bacteria accumulate locally and form biofilms on the tooth surface. The bacteria promote increases in local calcium and phosphorus concentrations, which triggers biomineralization and the development of dental calculus. Current treatments only help to relieve the symptoms caused by calculus deposition. These symptoms are prone to relapse if calculus removal is not under control. There is a need for a treatment regime that combines short-term and long-term goals in addressing calculus formation. The present review introduces the mechanisms of dental calculus formation, influencing factors, and the relationship between dental calculus and several systemic diseases. This is followed by the presentation of a conceptual solution for improving existing treatment strategies and minimizing recurrence.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cálculos Dentários , Cálculos Dentários/microbiologia , Cálculos Dentários/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Animais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Saúde Bucal , Boca/microbiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo
12.
Bioresour Technol ; : 131114, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39009049

RESUMO

This research examined the impact of exogenous thermophilic bacteria and ripening agents on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, enzyme activity, and microbial community during composting. The use of ripening agents alone resulted in a 30.9 % reduction in CO2 emissions, while the use of ripening agents and thermophilic bacteria resulted in a 50.8 % reduction in N2O emissions. Pearson's analysis showed that organic matter and nitrate nitrogen were the key parameters affecting GHG emissions. There was an inverse correlation between CO2 and CH4 releases and methane monooxygenase α subunit and N2O reductase activity (P<0.05). Additionally, N2O emissions were positively related to ß-1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and ammonia monooxygenase activity (P<0.05). Deinococcota, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidota are closely related to CO2 and N2O emissions. Overall, adding thermophilic bacteria represents an effective strategy to mitigate GHG emissions during composting.

13.
J Food Sci ; 2024 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004805

RESUMO

Walnut oil is an edible oil with high nutritional value, and the roasting process influences its quality and flavor. This study aimed to investigate the effects of roasting on the fatty acid composition, bioactive compounds (tocopherols, polyphenols, and phytosterols), and antioxidant capacity of walnut oil. Additionally, the aroma compounds and sensory characteristics were evaluated to comprehensively assess the variations in walnut oil after roasting. Roasting resulted in no notable impact on the fatty acid composition of walnut oil but increased the content of tocopherols and polyphenols in walnut oil, increasing its antioxidant capacity. Heavy roasting (160°C/20 min) reduced the phytosterol content in walnut oil by 2.3%. In total, 146 volatile compounds were detected in both cold-pressed and roasted walnut oil using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 32 key aroma compounds were identified. Aromatic aldehydes, aliphatic aldehydes, and heterocyclic compounds significantly contributed to fragrant walnut oil. Furthermore, the principal component analysis based on quality characteristics and sensory evaluation indicated that moderate roasting (130°C/20 min, 130°C/30 min, and 160°C/10 min) provided walnut oil with a sweet, nutty, and roasted aroma, as well as high levels of linoleic acid, phytosterols, and γ-tocopherol. Although heavy roasting (160°C/15 min and 160°C/20 min) enhanced the antioxidant capacities of walnut oils due to high levels of polyphenols, the oils exhibited an unpleasant burnt aroma. This study showed that roasting promoted the quality and flavor of walnut oil, and moderate conditions endowed walnut oil with a characteristic-rich flavor while maintaining excellent quality.

14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 282: 116713, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39002374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the association between seminal concentration of prosaposin and ambient air pollutants and whether the association affects the normal fertilization rate in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. METHODS: The cohort of 323 couple participants aged 22-46 was recruited from Jan. 2013 to Jun. 2018. At enrollment, resident address information was obtained and semen parameters of male counterparts were evaluated according to WHO criteria. We used inverse distance weighting interpolation to estimate the levels of ambient pollutants (SO2, O3, CO, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10) in the surrounding area. The exposure of each participant was estimated based on the data gathered from air quality monitoring stations and their home address over various periods (0-9, 10-14, and 0-90 days) before semen sampling. The generalized linear regression model (GLM) and the Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were used to analyze the associations between pollutants, semen parameters, prosaposin, and normal fertilization. Additionally, the mediating effect of prosaposin and semen parameters on the link between pollutants and normal fertilization was investigated. RESULTS: GLM and BKMR showed exposure to ambient air pollutants was all associated with the concentration of seminal prosaposin, among them, O3 and CO were also associated with normal fertilization (-0.10, 95 %CI: -0.13, -0.06; -26.43, 95 %CI: -33.79, -19.07). Among the semen parameters, only the concentration of prosaposin and total motile sperm count (TMC) was associated with normal fertilization (0.059, 95 %CI: 0.047, 0.071; 0.016, 95 %CI: 0.012, 0.020). Mediation analysis showed that prosaposin played a stronger mediating role than TMC in the relationship between short-term exposure to O3 and fertilization (66.83 %, P<0.001 versus 3.05 %, P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Seminal plasma prosaposin showed a stronger meditating effect reflect the correlation between ambient air pollutants and normal fertilization rate than conventional semen parameters, which may be used as one of the indicators between pollution and fertilization in IVF.

15.
Heliyon ; 10(11): e32270, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961981

RESUMO

DLAT has been recognized as a cuproptosis-related gene that is crucial for cuproptosis in earlier research. The study is to look at how DLAT affects individuals with low-grade glioma's prognosis and immune infiltration. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database and the TCGA database were used in this work to download RNAseq data in TPM format. DLAT was found to be overexpressed in LGG by comparing DLAT expression levels between LGG and normal brain tissue, and the expression of DLAT was verified by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative analysis. Then, the functional enrichment analysis revealed that the biological functional pathways and possible signal transduction pathways involved were primarily focused on extracellular matrix organization, transmembrane transporter complex, ion channel complex, channel activity, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, and channel activity. The level of immune cell infiltration by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CD8 T cells was subsequently evaluated using single-sample gene set enrichment analysis, which showed that high DLAT expression was inversely connected with that level of infiltration. The link between the methylation and mRNA transcription of DLAT was then further investigated via the MethSurv database, and the results showed that DLAT's hypomethylation status was linked to a poor outcome. Finally, by evaluating the prognostic value of DLAT using the Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier technique, a column line graph was created to forecast the overall survival (OS) rate at 1, 3, and 5 years after LGG identification. The aforementioned results demonstrated that high DLAT expression significantly decreased OS and DSS, and that overexpression of DLAT in LGG was significantly linked with WHO grade, IDH status, primary therapy outcome, overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and progression-free interval (PFI) events. DLAT was discovered as a separate predictive sign of OS in the end. DLAT might thus represent a brand-new predictive biomarker.

16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2403249, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39013078

RESUMO

Exploring the molecular packing and interaction between chiral molecules, no matter single enantiomer or racemates, is important for recognition and resolution of chiral drugs. However, sensitive and non-destructive analysis methods are lacking. Herein, an intermolecular-charge transfer (ICT) based spectroscopy is reported to reveal the differences in interaction between the achiral acceptor 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene (TCNB) and the chiral donors, including S, R, and racemic naproxen (S/R/rac-NAP). In this process, S-NAP+TCNB and R-NAP+TCNB display a narrower band gap attributed to the newly formed ICT state. In contrast, the mixed rac-NAP and TCNB exhibit almost no significant change due to the strong affinity between the stereoisomers according to the Wallach's rule. Thus, S/R-NAP can be easily distinguished from rac-NAP based on significantly different optical behavior. The single crystal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and theoretical calculation of naproxen confirm the importance of carboxyl for this differentiation in molecular packing and interaction. In addition, the esterification derivatization of naproxen achieves the manipulation of the intermolecular interaction model of racemates from the absolute Wallach's rule to a coexisting form of Wallach's rule and ICT. Further, visualized chiral purification of naproxen by the simple cocrystallization method is achieved through the collaboration of ICT and Wallach's rule.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1284752, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860166

RESUMO

Background: Both Sophora flavescens (SF) and Astragalus mongholicus (AM) are known for their anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and anticancer activities. However, the efficacy, multi-target mechanisms, and therapeutic substances of SF-AM herb pair on the progression of hepatitis-cirrhosis-hepatocellular carcinoma hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Purpose: To investigate the efficacy, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic substances of SF-AM herb pair in the progression of hepatitis-cirrhosis-HCC. Methods: Firstly, diethylnitrosamine was used to establish the hepatitis-cirrhosis-HCC model. HE staining and non-targeted metabolomics were used to evaluate the efficacy of SF-AM herb pair. Subsequently, the absorbed components of SF-AM herb pair in the plasma of rats were determined through HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Flow cytometry, Western blot, and qRT-PCR were then employed to assess CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway-related proteins, and their corresponding mRNAs. Simultaneously, the efficacy and mechanism of SF-AM herb pair on HCC were confirmed by in vitro experiments. Finally, Pearson correlation analysis was performed between pharmacodynamic indicators and in vivo components to identify the potential therapeutic substances of SF-AM herb pair. Results: SF-AM herb pair can alleviate the pathological damage and reverse metabolic abnormalities in hepatitis, cirrhosis, and HCC rats, particularly during the hepatitis and cirrhosis stages. Pharmacological researches have demonstrated that SF-AM herb pair can increase the proportion of CD8+ T lymphocytes, inhibit the expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, NF-κB p65, NF-κB pp65, and Bcl-2, as well as increase the expression of IκBα, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3. These findings suggest that SF-AM herb pair has the ability to enhance immunity, anti-inflammation and promote apoptosis. Cell experiments have shown that SF-AM herb pair can inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cell and regulate the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Moreover, 23 absorbed prototypical components and 53 metabolites of SF-AM herb pair were identified at different stages of HCC rats. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that matrine, cytisine, wogonoside, and isoastragaloside are potential therapeutic substances in SF-AM herb pair for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and HCC. Conclusion: In summary, this study revealed the efficacy, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic substances of SF-AM herb pair in the hepatitis-cirrhosis-HCC axis and provided a reference for its clinical application.

18.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2402030, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837686

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a neurotoxic contaminant that induces cognitive decline similar to that observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Autophagic flux dysfunction is attributed to the pathogenesis of AD, and this study aimed to investigate the effect of autophagy on environmental Cd-induced AD progression and the underlying mechanism. Here, Cd exposure inhibited autophagosome-lysosome fusion and impaired lysosomal function, leading to defects in autophagic clearance and then to APP accumulation and nerve cell death. Proteomic analysis coupled with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified SIRT5 as an essential molecular target in Cd-impaired autophagic flux. Mechanistically, Cd exposure hampered the expression of SIRT5, thus increasing the succinylation of RAB7A at lysine 31 and inhibiting RAB7A activity, which contributed to autophagic flux blockade. Importantly, SIRT5 overexpression led to the restoration of autophagic flux blockade, the alleviation of Aß deposition and memory deficits, and the desuccinylation of RAB7A in Cd-exposed FAD4T mice. Additionally, SIRT5 levels decrease mainly in neurons but not in other cell clusters in the brains of AD patients according to single-nucleus RNA sequencing data from the public dataset GSE188545. This study reveals that SIRT5-catalysed RAB7A desuccinylation is an essential adaptive mechanism for the amelioration of Cd-induced autophagic flux blockade and AD-like pathogenesis.

19.
Science ; 384(6700): 1100-1104, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843317

RESUMO

One-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides exhibiting an enhanced bulk photovoltaic effect have the potential to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit efficiency in solar energy harvest within p-n junction architectures. However, the collective output of these prototype devices remains a challenge. We report on the synthesis of single-crystalline WS2 ribbon arrays with defined chirality and coherent polarity through an atomic manufacturing strategy. The chirality of WS2 ribbon was defined by substrate couplings into tunable armchair, zigzag, and chiral species, and the polarity direction was determined by the ribbon-precursor interfacial energy along a coherent direction. A single armchair ribbon showed strong bulk photovoltaic effect and the further integration of ~1000 aligned ribbons with coherent polarity enabled upscaling of the photocurrent.

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844662

RESUMO

Nanomaterials with a large chiroptical response and high structural stability are desirable for advanced miniaturized optical and optoelectronic applications. One-dimensional (1D) nanotubes are robust crystals with inherent and continuously tunable chiral geometries. However, their chiroptical response is typically weak and hard to control, due to the diverse structures of the coaxial tubes. Here we demonstrate that as-grown multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), featuring coherent-stacking structures including near monochirality, homo-handedness and unipolarity among the component tubes, exhibit a scalable nonlinear chiroptical response. This intrinsic architecture produces a strong nonlinear optical response in individual multiwalled BNNTs, enabling second-harmonic generation (SHG) with a conversion efficiency up to 0.01% and output power at the microwatt level-both excellent figures of merit in the 1D nanomaterials family. We further show that the rich chirality of the nanotubes introduces a controllable nonlinear geometric phase, producing a chirality-dependent SHG circular dichroism with values of -0.7 to +0.7. We envision that our 1D chiral platform will enable novel functions in compact nonlinear light sources and modulators.

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