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1.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116331, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383419

RESUMO

Tributyltin (TBT), a bioaccumulative and persistent environmental pollutant, has been proposed as a metabolism disruptor and obesogen through targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) receptor pathway. However, it remains unknown whether this biological effect occurs in macrophage, a cell type which cooperates closely with hepatocytes and adipocytes to regulate lipid metabolism. This study for the first time investigated the effect of TBT on PPARγ pathway in macrophages. Our results indicated that nanomolar levels of TBT was able to strongly activate PPARγ in human macrophages. TBT treatment also markedly increased the intracellular lipid accumulation, and enhanced the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in macrophages, while these effects were all significantly down-regulated in PPARγ-deficient macrophages, confirming the involvement of PPARγ in TBT-induced lipogenesis. Next, a mouse model that C57BL/6 mice were orally exposed to TBT with the doses (250 and 500 µg/kg body weight) lower than NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) was used to further investigate the in vivo mechanisms. And the in vivo results were consistent with cellular assays, confirming the induction of PPARγ and the increased expression of lipogenesis-regulating and lipid metabolism-related genes by TBT in vivo. In conclusion, this study not only provided the first evidence that TBT stimulated lipogenesis, activated PPARγ and related genes in human macrophages, but also provided insight into the mechanism of TBT-induced metabolism disturbance and obesity through targeting PPARγ via both in vitro cellular assays and in vivo animal models.


Assuntos
Lipogênese , PPAR gama , Animais , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Compostos de Trialquitina
2.
Environ Int ; 134: 105328, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778932

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) and its replacement analog, bisphenol S (BPS), have been proposed as environmental obesogen to disrupt the lipid metabolism through regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) receptor. However, there is a dearth of information on whether this biological effect can occur in human macrophage, a cell type which closely interacts with adipocytes and hepatocytes to control lipid metabolism. Here, we for the first time investigate the activity of BPA and BPS on PPARγ pathway in human macrophages. The results demonstrated that BPA and BPS served as activators of PPARγ in human macrophage cell line, and significantly induced the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3 (NR1H3). In PPARγ knockout cells, expression of these genes was down-regulated, suggesting that these genes are dependent on PPARγ. The underlying mechanisms were further investigated using an in vivo mouse model, and the results confirmed the induction of PPARγ and its respective target genes in mice following exposure to BPA or BPS. Moreover, the observed alteration of PPARγ expression highly correlated with the disturbance of metabolism profiles in liver tissues as detected by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics. Overall, this study provided the first evidence that BPA and BPS activated PPARγ and its target genes in human macrophages, and provided comprehensive information to confirm that BPA and BPS disturb the metabolism through targeting PPARγ via both in vitro assays and in vivo animal models.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antígenos CD36 , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado , Metabolômica , Camundongos
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