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1.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 2, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have demonstrated that either initiating or up-titrating a statin dose substantially reduce Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, statin adherence in actual practice tends to be suboptimal, leading to diminished effectiveness. This study aims to use real-world data to determine the effect on LDL-C levels and LDL-C goal attainment rates, when selected statins are titrated in Asian patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from April 2014 to March 2019 was conducted on a cohort of multi-ethnic adult Asian patients with clinical diagnosis of Dyslipidaemia in a primary care clinic in Singapore. The statins were classified into low-intensity (LI), moderate-intensity (MI) and high-intensity (HI) groups according to the 2018 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Blood Cholesterol Guidelines. Patients were grouped into "No statin", "Non-titrators" and "Titrators" cohorts based on prescribing patterns. For the "Titrators" cohort, the mean percentage change in LDL-C and absolute change in LDL-C goal attainment rates were computed for each permutation of statin intensity titration. RESULTS: Among the cohort of 11,499 patients, with a total of 266,762 visits, there were 1962 pairs of LDL-C values associated with a statin titration. Initiation of LI, MI and HI statin resulted in a lowering of LDL-C by 21.6% (95%CI = 18.9-24.3%), 28.9% (95%CI = 25.0-32.7%) and 25.2% (95%CI = 12.8-37.7%) respectively. These were comparatively lower than results from clinical trials (30 to 63%). The change of LDL-C levels due to up-titration, down-titration, and discontinuation were - 12.4% to - 28.9%, + 13.2% to + 24.6%, and + 18.1% to + 32.1% respectively. The improvement in LDL-C goal attainment ranged from 26.5% to 47.1% when statin intensity was up-titrated. CONCLUSION: In this study based on real-world data of Asian patients in primary care, it was shown that although statin titration substantially affected LDL-C levels and LDL-C goal attainment rates, the magnitude was lower than results reported from clinical trials. These results should be taken into consideration and provide further insight to clinicians when making statin adjustment recommendations in order to achieve LDL-C targets in clinical practice, particularly for Asian populations.

3.
Insects ; 10(8)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390796

RESUMO

Diapause control is one of the successful methods for long-term cold storage of biological control organisms without decreasing their fitness. Sufficient preparation before diapause is essential for successful diapause initiation and maintenance. Harmonia axyridis, an important biocontrol agent in its native place, can enter reproductive diapause for overwintering. However, the key preparatory events before diapause in H. axyridis, such as specific developmental trajectory, timing, and physiological changes, remain unclear. We compared differences in the development of internal reproductive organs, feeding amount and nutrient storage between pre-diapause and pre-reproductive adult H. axyridis which had been reared at 20 °C under a short-day (10L:14D) and long-day (14L:10D) condition, respectively. The results showed that there were obvious morphological differences in internal reproductive organs of diapause and reproductive H. axyridis. The development of internal reproductive organs was suppressed at early adult stage in pre-diapause beetles compared to pre-reproductive beetles. Feeding amount in both pre-diapause and pre-reproductive beetles increased for more than ten days after eclosion. The feeding amount of pre-diapause beetles sharply decreased from the 15th day after eclosion in females and the 14th day after eclosion in males, which implied the initiation of diapause. During the pre-diapause stage, carbohydrates and lipids were mainly accumulated by females, whereas males mainly accumulated carbohydrates. Our results not only provide basic information about the diapause process of pre-diapause stage, but also give tips to better utilization of diapause strategy during mass production and storage of H. axyridis.

4.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(7): 469-75, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on renal Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression in contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) diabetic rats, so as to explore its protective mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 40 diabetic male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, acupuncture, moxibustion and combined treatment (acupuncture combined with moxibustion) groups (n=8 rats in each group). The diabetic model was established by i.p. injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg), followed by regular raising for 9 weeks. Then, the manual acupuncture, moxibustion or acupuncture plus moxibustion at "Sanyinjiao"(SP6) "Shenshu"(BL23) and "Pishu"(BL20) was given to the diabetic rats, once daily for 7 days. On the 8th day, these diabetic rats received i.p. injection of compound Meglumine Diatrizoate Injection (10 mL/kg) for establishing CIN model. Then, the venous blood specimens were collected for detecting contents of serum urine nitrogen (BUN, with urease method) and creatinine (Scr, with picric acid method). The kindey tissues were exteriorized for detecting nitricoxide synthase (NOS, with oxidation-reduction method), malondialdehyde (MDA, with thiobarbituric acid method), superoxide dismutase (SOD, with xanthine oxidase technique) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, with colorimetric technique). The expression levels of Fas and FasL in the kidney tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot separately. The histopathological and ultrastructural changes of the kidney were observed under microscope (after H.E. staining) and transmission electron microscope, respectively. RESULTS: Following modeling and compared with the control group, the BUN, Scr and renal MDA contents, and Fas and FasL mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), and renal NOS, SOD and T-AOC levels considerably decreased in the model group (P<0.05). After the interventions and compared with the model group, serum BUN and Scr contents and renal Fas mRNA and protein expression levels in both acupuncture group and combined treatment group, BUN in the moxibustion group, and renal MDA content and FasL mRNA and protein expression levels in the 3 treatment groups were obviously down-regulated (P<0.05,P<0.01), while renal NOS in the 3 treatment groups, and SOD and T-AOC levels in the combined treatment group were considerably up-regulated (P<0.01,P<0.05). The effects of the combined treatment were significantly superior to those of simple acupuncure and simple moxibustion in down-regulating serum BUN contents, and Fas and FasL mRNA and protein expression levels, and in up-regulating renal NOS, SOD and T-AOC activity (P<0.05). No significant differences were found between the acupuncture and moxibustion groups in down-regulating serum BUN, Scr and renal MDA contents, and Fas and FasL mRNA and protein levels, as well as in up-regulating NOS content (P>0.05). H.E. staining showed lobular changes of glomeruli, many local necrosis and vascular degeneration in the model group, and transmission electron microscope displayed thickened basement membrane of the glomerular blood loop, many vacuoles in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells, severely swollen mitochondria with disordered, broken or disappeared cristae, and some apoptotic cells in the model group, which were relatively milder in the combined treatment group. CONCLUSION: Joint application of acupuncture and moxibustion can reduce the oxidative stress and renal injury in CIN diabetic rats, which may be associated with its function in down-regulating the expression of renal Fas and FasL genes and proteins. Acupuncture and moxibustion has a synergistic effect.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Moxibustão , Animais , Proteína Ligante Fas , Rim , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Chronobiol Int ; 36(7): 969-978, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043079

RESUMO

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, is one of the most important global agricultural pests. C. suppressalis has distinct rice and water-oat host populations. Asynchrony in sexual activity is thought to be the main factor maintaining reproductive segregation between these populations, particularly the obvious difference in the circadian rhythm of female calling activity between populations. However, the mechanism responsible for this difference in the timing of female calling is poorly understood. The circadian clock is an essential regulator of daily behavioral rhythms in insects, including female calling. We investigated the variation in circadian clock genes of the rice and water-oat populations of C. suppressalis. We did this by comparing deduced amino acid sequences and the expression patterns of seven circadian clock genes (clock, cycle, period, timeless, timeout, cryptochrome1, and cryptochrome2) between females from each population. We found that the two populations had different variants of the timeout and cryptochrome1 genes and differed in the expression of period, timeless and timeout. This suggests that population-related variation in the circadian clock genes period, timeless, timeout and cryptochrome1 could be responsible for the different circadian rhythms of female calling in these host population of C. suppressalis. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying asynchronous sexual activity in insect populations and suggest new topics for future research on the origins and maintenance of population differentiation in insects.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Variação Genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067258

RESUMO

Antibiotics are commonly used in livestock and poultry farming. Residual antibiotics in manure may lead to antibiotic pollution of soil, surface water, and groundwater through land application and run-off rainfall. The black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens is a good candidate for manure management. We evaluated the effect of sulfonamide pollution on the growth of H. illucens. Four treatments were considered with a sulfonamide content in the feed of 0 (control group), 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg. The control larvae were fed without sulfonamide. Survival and development status of the individuals were recorded daily. The weights of the fifth instar larvae, prepupae, and pupae were checked. Antioxidant enzyme activity was determined with the fifth instar larvae. The results showed that a low (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) concentration of sulfonamides had no effects on larval survival, pupation, and eclosion of BSFs. A high sulfonamide concentration of 10 mg/kg had a significant effect on the survival of larvae and pupae and on the body weight of larvae, prepupae and pupae. Peak of the cumulated pupation rate and eclosion rate in the sulfonamide treatment of 10 mg/kg was very low. Pupation and eclosion in this group peaked later than that of the control and low sulfonamide concentration treatment groups (0.1 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg). Larvae from the sulfonamides group showed lower antioxidase activities than that of the control. In sulfonamide groups, the activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethazine were not detected in the harvested prepupae. Only sulfadiazine was discovered in the sulfonamide treatments of 1 and 10 mg/kg. In conclusion, BSFs can tolerate certain concentrations of sulfonamide contamination.


Assuntos
Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterco/parasitologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , Animais , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Med Virol ; 91(3): 351-360, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to determine the antigenic and genetic characteristics and evaluate potential vaccine efficacy of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 in Yantai from August 2009 to August 2017. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 236 swabs were collected among patients with an influenza-like illness who were admitted to two sentinel surveillance hospitals in Yantai, East China, from August 2009 to August 2017. All specimens were cultured in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and identified by haemagglutination-inhibition assay. Complete sequences of haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase of 51 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains circulating in Yantai were amplified, sequenced and analysed using molecular and phylogenetic methods. The potential vaccine efficacy was calculated using the p epitope model which measured the antigenic variation based on the changes in the dominant epitope of HA. RESULTS: The results showed that most Yantai strains were grouped into genetic clades 1.7, 6C, 6B.1 and 6B.2. The amino acid substitutions accumulated gradually in HA proteins and considerable genetic variation were observed in circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the seven influenza seasons. The V241I, N369K, N386K and K432E mutations which may change the binding pattern and affinity of oseltamivir for neuraminidase were detected in the strains circulating in 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 seasons and the recommended vaccine strains could afford optimal protection against the influenza A/H1N1pdm09. CONCLUSIONS: Although influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses acquired significant genetic variation over the course of seven influenza seasons, the recommended vaccine strains still afforded protection against main circulating strains. Continuous epidemiological and virological surveillance are necessary.


Assuntos
Variação Antigênica , Antígenos Virais/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , China/epidemiologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Potência de Vacina
8.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 43(10): 651-6, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of single and multiple acupoints on sleep and concentrations of interlukin-1 ß(IL-1 ß), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prostaglandin D2(PGD2) and melatonin (MLT, sleep-promoting factors) and corticosterone (CORT, awakening-promoting factor) in the serum in insomnia rats, so as to explore its efficacy difference and the mechanism underlying improving sleep. METHODS: Fifty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, EA-Baihui (GV 20), EA-Shenmen (HT 7), EA-Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and EA-GV 20+HT 7+SP 6 groups (n=9 rats in each group). The insomnia model was established by intraperitoneal injection of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg) once daily for 2 days. In the EA-GV 20, EA-HT 7, EA-SP 6 and EA-GV 20+HT 7+SP 6 groups, EA stimulation was administrated for 30 min, once a day for 4 days. The sleep onset latency and sleep duration were measured after intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital sodium (35 mg/kg). The concentrations of IL-1 ß, BDNF, MLT, PGD2and CORT in the serum were detected by ELISA. RESULTS: After EA stimulation of GV 20, HT 7, SP 6 and GV 20+HT 7+SP 6, the sleep latency was significantly shortened (P<0.05, P<0.01, except SP 6), and the sleep duration was remarkably prolonged in comparison with the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the therapeutic effects of EA-GV 20+HT 7+SP 6 were significantly superior to those of EA-GV 20, EA-HT 7 and EA-SP 6 in shortening the sleep latency and lengthening the sleep duration (P<0.05). Following modeling, the concentrations of IL-1 ß, BDNF, PGD2 and MLT were significantly down-regulated, and the CORT level was markedly up-regulated in the model group relevant to the control group (P<0.05). Following EA,modeling induced dramatic decrease of serum IL-1 ß, BDNF, PGD2 and MLT was considerably up-regulated, and the increased CORT level markedly down-regulated in the EA-GV 20, EA-HT 7, EA-SP 6 and EA-GV 20+HT 7+SP 6 groups (P<0.05). The effects of EA-GV 20+HT 7+SP 6 were evidently superior to those of EA-GV 20 and EA-SP 6 in up-regulating serum IL-1 ß, BDNF and PGD2levels, and to those of HT 7, GV 20 and SP 6 in up-regulating serum MLT level, and significantly superior to those of EA-ST 7 and EA-SP 6 in down-regulating serum CORT (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA stimulation of HT 7, GV 20, SP 6 and GV 20+HT 7+ SP 6 can significantly improve the sleep in insomnia rats, which is closely associated with its effects in regulating serum sleep-promoting factors and awakening-promoting factor. Joint administration of EA of GV 20+HT 7+ SP 6 has a better effect than the single acupoint mentioned above.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
BMC Microbiol ; 18(1): 131, 2018 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut bacteria are closely associated with host. Chrysomya megacephala, as a vector and resource insect, can transmit various pathogenic bacteria and consume manure to produce biofertilizer and larva biomass. However, the gut bacteria composition and abundance of C. megacephala remain unclear. RESULTS: Illumina MiSeq platform was used to compare composition of gut bacterial community in eggs, 1-day-old larvae, 5-day-old larvae, pupae, adult females and males by sequencing with variation in V4 region of 16S ribosomal DNA gene. In total, 928 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. These OTUs were annotated into 19 phyla, 42 classes, 77 orders, 153 families and 289 genera. More than 0.5% abundance of 32 OTU core genera were found across all life stages. At class level, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant in C. megacephala. Eight species were identified to have significantly different abundance between 1-d-larvae and 5-day-larvae and took 28.95% of shared species between these two groups. Sex-specific bacterial species were identified that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was merely present in females, while Rhodococcus fascians was merely present in males. CONCLUSION: Gut bacteria of C. megacephala varied across life stages. The composition and community structure of the bacterial community differed from young larvae to mature larvae, while that were similar in adult females and males. These data will provide an overall view of bacterial community across life stages in C. megacephala with attention on manure associated and pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Dípteros/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Feminino , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , Esterco , Óvulo/microbiologia , Pupa/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Microb Biotechnol ; 11(3): 498-509, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536673

RESUMO

Chrysomya megacephala is a saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biomass and bio-fertilizer simultaneously. However, there are concerns for the safety of the composting system, that is risk of diseases spread by way of manure pathogens, residue of harmful metals and emission of greenhouse gases. Microbiota analysis and heavy metal speciation by European Communities Bureau of Reference were evaluated in raw, C. megacephala-composted and natural stacked swine manure to survey pathogenic bacterial changes and mobility of lead and cadmium in manure after C. megacephala feeding; the emission rate of CH4 and N2 O from manure during C. megacephala composting and natural stacking was also measured. C. megacephala composting altered manure microbiota, reduced the risk of pathogenic bacteria and maintained the stability, and microbiota changes might be associated with heavy metal fractions, especially in Pseudomonas and Prevotella. In addition, C. megacephala-composting significantly reduced the emission rate of CH4 and N2 O in comparing with natural stacking situation and the first two days should be the crucial period for CH4 and N2 O emission measurement for manure treatment by C. megacephala. Moreover, OTU26 and Betaproteobacteria were changed after C. megacephala composting which might play a role in emission of CH4 and N2 O, respectively.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Esterco/microbiologia , Esterco/parasitologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Compostagem , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chumbo/análise , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Suínos
11.
Radiother Oncol ; 129(1): 149-153, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The standard therapy for locally advanced rectal cancers (LARCs) is neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) followed by surgical resection. Pathological response to nCRT varies among patients, and it remains a challenge to predict pathological response to nCRT in LARCs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using 42 samples as the training cohort, we searched a signature by screening the gene pairs whose within-sample relative expression orderings are significantly correlated with the pathological response. The signature was validated in both a public cohort of 46 samples and a cohort of 33 samples measured at our laboratory. RESULTS: A signature consisting of 27 gene pairs was identified in the training cohort with an accuracy of 92.86% and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.95. The accuracy was 89.13% for the public test cohort and 90.91% for the private test cohort, with AUC being 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. Furthermore, the signature was used to predict disease-free survival benefits from 5Fu-based chemotherapy in 285 locally advanced colorectal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The signature consisting of 27 gene pairs can robustly predict clinical response of LARCs to nCRT.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 509: 1-9, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881199

RESUMO

The preparation of highly efficient and cheap electrocatalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction is significant for many electrochemical cells. Here we facilely synthesized nitrogen doped carbon nanotube by pyrolyzing melamine formaldehyde resin and Fe loading on MgO. There were mainly three morphologies observed, slender bamboo-like CNT, thick bamboo-like CNT, surface smooth, hollow CNT. The content of Fe loading on MgO had little influence on morphologies of CNT, however, when no MgO as support, only carbon ribbon obtained. The MgO as support was also significant for the formation of CNT. The samples with CNT formed represented better catalytic activity than control samples with no-CNT obtained, the morphology of CNT was beneficial for catalytic process. The sample C1-CNT with lowest content of Fe on support represented best catalytic activity which was competitive with 20% Pt/C in half-wave potential. The C1-CNT also showed outstanding stability and improved selectivity towards ORR, making it a promising alternative to Pt in application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(6): 5379-5385, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209974

RESUMO

Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758), is an important economic fly as its larvae can be used for recycling organic waste, such as food waste and manure. H. illucens larvae (BSFL) could uptake Cd from substrates and accumulate it inside bodies, which need to be monitored during waste treatment. Metallothionein (MT) usually serve as biomarker because of its role in metal homeostasis, detoxification, and dose response of heavy metals. Therefore, a MT gene was cloned from H. illucens (HIMT) that encoded 40 amino acids with typical cysteine rich features, which had a high sequence identity with other insect MTs. The expression of HIMT and total MT protein was measured in BSFL fed by meals spiked with gradient dose of Cd (0, 5, 50, 500 mg/kg) for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. Dose-associated response of HIMT and total MT were found and the possible correlative range of Cd was from 5 to 50 mg/kg. The expression of HIMT might be a potential biomarker for monitoring Cd contamination by H. illucens in terrestrial organic matters, which might further apply in waste transformation system.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/genética , Reciclagem/métodos , Simuliidae , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Simuliidae/genética , Simuliidae/metabolismo
14.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 42(3): 189-96, 2017 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29071973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous otopoint electrostimulaiton (TCOES) on seizure frequency, immunoreactivity of hippocampal gliocytes and expression of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6(IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (CTLE) rats, so as to investigate its antiepileptic mechanism. METHODS: Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided into control, model and TCOES groups (n=12 in each group). The CTLE model was established by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.i.) of lithium chloride (127.2 mg/kg), scopolamine (1 mg/kg, 20 h after the 1st injection) and pilocarpine (10 mg/kg, 30 min after scopolamine injection). Rats of the control group were treated by i.p.i. of normal saline. TCOES (1 mA, 20 Hz) was applied to bilateral otopoint "Heart"-"Lung"-"Subcortex" region for 20 min, once daily for 6 weeks. The epileptic attack was observed by a video monitoring system. The numbers of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba 1)-labeled microgliacytes and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytes in the CA 1 and CA 3 regions of hippocampus were counted under light microscope after immunostaining, and the expression levels of hippocampal IL-6 and IL-10 proteins and genes were determined by immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: After TCOES intervention, the seizure frequency was significantly decreased in comparison with pre-treatment(P<0.05), modeling-induced dramatic increase of the numbers of microgliacytes and astrocytes,IL-6 immunoactivity in the hippocampal CA 1 and CA 3 regions, and IL-6 mRNA expression in the hippocampus were significantly suppressed (P<0.05), and hippo-campal IL-10 immunoactivity and mRNA expression were considerably up-regulated in comparison with the model group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: TCOES intervention has an antiepileptic effect in CTLE rats, which may be associated with its effects in suppressing gliocyte proliferation, suppressing the expression of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, and up-regulaiting the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/terapia , Hipocampo/citologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neuroglia/citologia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 42(4): 283-9, 2017 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Futu"(LI 18), etc. on activities of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats with neck-incision pain so as to explore its mechanism underlying reduction of post-surgical pain of thyroidectomy. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, EA-Futu (LI 18), EA-Hegu (LI 4)-Neiguan (PC 6), and EA-Zusanli (ST 36)-Yanglingquan (GB 34) groups, with 20 rats in each group. The neck-incision pain model was established by making a longitudinal incision and repeated mechanical stimulation. In the EA-LI 18, EA-LI 4-PC 6 and EA-ST 36-GB 34 groups, EA stimulation was administrated for 30 min, once a day,continuously for 3 days. The thermal pain threshold (PT) of the neck-incision region was detected. The immunoactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP,a specific marker for SGCs) and connexin 43 (Cx 43) of DRGs (C 2-C 6) was determined by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of GFAP, IL-1 ß, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNAs were determined by quantitative Real-time PCR, and the contents of IL-1 ß,IL-6,TNF-α assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the expression of Cx 43 protein was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: After EA intervention at LI 18 and LI 4-PC 6 (but not ST 36-GB 34), neck incision-induced reduction of the thermal PT was obviously prolonged in comparison with the model group (P<0.05),suggesting a pain relief. The expression levels of GFAP, IL-1 ß, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNAs and Cx 43 protein, and the contents of IL-1 ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in C 2-C 6 DRGs were all significantly up-regulated in the model group relevant to those of the control group (P<0.05). Following EA, modeling induced dramatic increase of expression of GFAP, IL-1 ß, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNAs and Cx 43 protein in both EA-LI 18 and EA-LI 4-PC 6 groups, and the contents of IL-1 ß and TNF-α in the EA-LI 18 group, IL-6 in the EA-LI 4-PC 6 group was considerably down-regulated (P<0.05). In comparison with the model group, no significant changes were found in all the abovementioned indexes of EA-ST 36 -GB 34 group except the down-regulated IL-1 ß and TNF-α mRNAs, in the contents of IL-1 ß and TNF-α of the EA-LI 4-PC 6 group, and in the IL-6 content of the EA-LI 18 group (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EA stimulation of LI 18 and LI 4-PC 6 can significantly suppress pain reaction of neck incision in the rat, which is closely associated with its effects in down-regulating the activity of SGCs, decreasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in weakening the expression of Cx 43 in the cervical DRGs.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Gânglios Espinais , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuroglia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos
16.
Phytomedicine ; 33: 21-27, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels (Apiaceae) is a traditional medicine that has been used for more than 2000 years in China. It exhibits various therapeutic effects including neuroprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. Angelica polysaccharides (APs), bioactive constituents of Angelica have been shown to be responsible for these effects; however, the utility of APs for the treatment of glioma and their mechanism of action remain to be elucidated. PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of APs on a glioma cell line and their molecular mechanism of action. STUDY DESIGN: U251 cells were utilized to confirm the effects of APs on glioma. METHODS: The human glioblastoma cell line U251 was utilized for both in vitro and in vivo models, in which we tested the effects of APs. Flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, western blotting, and MTT assays were used to elucidate the effects of APs on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that APs significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of U251 cells and induced their apoptosis. Furthermore, APs effectively reduced the expression of several cell cycle regulators: cyclins D1, B, and E. The apoptosis suppressor protein Bcl-2 was also downregulated, and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and cleaved-caspase-3 increased. Additionally, APs inhibited the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signaling pathway and stimulated the expression of E-cadherin, thus prohibiting cell growth. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results indicate that APs attenuate the tumorigenicity of glioma cells and promote their apoptosis by suppressing the TGF-ß signaling pathway. The present study therefore provides evidence of the inhibitory effects of APs against glioma progression, and proposes their potential application as alternative therapeutic agents for glioma.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/patologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antígenos CD , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 13(8): 1831-1838, 2017 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537484

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characterizations and pathogen spectrum of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Yantai City, Shandong Province, China, during 2011-2015, and to study the nucleotide evolution and amino acid variation of coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) epidemic strains that caused HFMD. The HFMD epidemic began to rise in March, and became prevalent from May to August, reached its peak in June, and then declined in September every year, children aged one to 5 years-old had the highest incidence rate whereas the incidence in children under 6 months was very low, and there were more males than females. Enterovirus nucleic acid detection using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on 2130 clinical specimens collected from patients with HFMD between 2011 and 2015, and 2012 enterovirus positive samples were detected, including 678 CV-A16, 639 EV-A71, and 695 other enteroviruses. In total, 60 CV-A16 isolates were randomly selected each year for virus isolation, of which 33 CV-A16 strains were randomly selected for further characterization because CV-A16 is the predominant serotype that caused HFMD in Yantai City, and a phylogenetic tree based on the VP1 region was constructed. All 33 CV-A16 strains belonged to the Bla and B1b genotypes, with a nucleotide similarity of 87.9-100% and deduced amino acid similarity of 98.6-100%. Compared with the reference strain Tainan/5079/98 (AF177911), amino acid mutations were identified at positions 11, 23, 25, 31, 99, 145, and 289, where differences were observed among 33 strains, indicating a unique mutation map of CV-A16 in Yantai City. Our findings demonstrate the etiologic characteristics of HFMD, provide supporting evidence for the prevention and control of HFMD, and open a promising avenue for vaccine development against HFMD, by targeting CV-A16.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Enterovirus Humano A/isolamento & purificação , Epidemias , Feminino , Genótipo , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sorogrupo
18.
Oncotarget ; 8(18): 30265-30275, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427173

RESUMO

The expression measurements of thousands of genes are correlated with the proportions of tumor epithelial cell (PTEC) in clinical samples. Thus, for a tumor diagnostic or prognostic signature based on a summarization of expression levels of the signature genes, the risk score for a patient may dependent on the tumor tissues sampled from different tumor sites with diverse PTEC for the same patient. Here, we proposed that the within-samples relative expression orderings (REOs) based gene pairs signatures should be insensitive to PTEC variations. Firstly, by analysis of paired tumor epithelial cell and stromal cell microdissected samples from 27 cancer patients, we showed that above 80% of gene pairs had consistent REOs between the two cells, indicating these REOs would be independent of PTEC in cancer tissues. Then, by simulating tumor tissues with different PTEC using each of the 27 paired samples, we showed that about 90% REOs of gene pairs in tumor epithelial cells were maintained in tumor samples even when PTEC decreased to 30%. Especially, the REOs of gene pairs with larger expression differences in tumor epithelial cells tend to be more robust against PTEC variations. Finally, as a case study, we developed a gene pair signature which could robustly distinguish colorectal cancer tissues with various PTEC from normal tissues. We concluded that the REOs-based signatures were robust against PTEC variations.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Transcriptoma , Algoritmos , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Tumoral
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 23(10): 1843-1850, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28348490

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of a hook knife (HO) with a hybrid knife (HK) during endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection (ESTD) procedure. METHODS: Between August 2012 and December 2015, the ESTD procedure was performed for 83 upper GI submucosal lesions, which originated from the muscularis propria layer identified by upper endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. Of these, 34 lesions were treated by a HO, whereas 49 lesions were treated by a HK. Data regarding age, gender, presenting symptoms, tumor location and size, procedure time, complications, en bloc resection rate and others were analyzed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the age, gender, presenting symptoms and tumor location between the two groups. ESTD was successfully completed in all the patients, and no case was converted to laparoscopy. The mean procedure time was significantly shorter in the HK group than in the HO group (41.3 ± 20.3 min vs 57.2 ± 28.0 min, P = 0.004). The mean frequency of device exchange was 1.4 ± 0.6 in the HK group and significantly less than 3.3 ± 0.6 in the HO group (P < 0.001). The differences in tumor size and histopathological diagnoses were not significant between the two groups (P = 0.813, P = 0.363, respectively). Both groups had an equal en bloc resection rate and complete resection rate. Additionally, the complication rate was similar between the two groups (P = 0.901). During the follow-up, no recurrence occurred in either group. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate for the first time that HO and HK do not differ in efficacy or safety, but HK reduces the frequency of device exchange and procedure time.


Assuntos
Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/instrumentação , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Endossonografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso/patologia , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(9): 8637-8644, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197942

RESUMO

The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens is a good candidate for waste management. The harvested insects are rich in protein and have the potential to be used in animal feed. However, people are wary about heavy metals in waste. Therefore, it is necessary to understand how the uptake of heavy metals could affect H. illucens and where and to what extent metals are accumulated by the black soldier fly. Based on these considerations, developmental parameters were investigated in the different life stages of H. illucens fed an increasing concentration gradient of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr); additionally, Cd and Cr distribution in the body parts of H. illucens at the different life stages was monitored. We found that Cd and Cr have no effects on larvae survival and eclosion rate, but they do have effects on larvae duration and pupation rate. Both Cd and Cr were transferred into larvae, prepupae, and pupae. While the concentrations of Cd in larvae and prepupae were much higher than that in their diets, the opposite case was observed with Cr. The concentrations of Cd and Cr in H. illucens decreased in later development stages. In individual larva and prepupa, Cd and Cr were mainly included in the body and not in the integument. In the pupa, the puparium contained higher Cd and Cr concentrations than the pupa body. The distribution of Cd and Cr in the different life stages and body parts may present a potential strategy for how H. illucens tolerate and remove heavy metal stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacologia , Cromo/farmacologia , Simuliidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Dieta , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simuliidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simuliidae/metabolismo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
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