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1.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; : e8721, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899842

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Organophosphorus nerve agents are highly toxic because they inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity, thereby causing a series of symptomatic poisoning. Upon entering the body, nerve agents bind active amino acid residues to form phosphonylated adducts. A potentially beneficial method for specific verification of exposure of nerve agents is based on albumin adducts, which have a half-life of 18 days. This appears to be more effective than the fluoride reactivation method, based on acetylcholinesterase. METHODS: After the exposure of human serum albumin to nine nerve agents, human serum albumin was denatured, reduced, alkylated and digested with trypsin according to standard mass spectrometry-based proteomics procedures. The phosphonylated peptides of human serum albumin were identified using positive ion electrospray ionization with a quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer. RESULTS: The peptide KVPQVSTPTLVESR showed a good mass spectrometric response to the nine nerve agents. The tendency of sarin and cyclosarin was to bind to S419 on the peptide, while the other nerve agents (tabun, soman, and V-type nerve agents) were shown to bind more readily to K414 on the peptide. CONCLUSIONS: This research revealed the new site, S419, of the tryptic peptide KVPQVSTPTLVEVSR on human albumin to be a valuable biomarker for sarin/cyclosarin exposure, helping to further distinguish sarin and cyclosarin poisoning from nerve agents and providing an important tool for identification of sarin or cyclosarin in terrorist attacks.

2.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 1-11, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846690

RESUMO

Upon entering the body, nerve agents can bind active amino acid residues to form phosphonylated adducts. Tabun derivatives (O-alkyl-N,N-dialkyl phosphoroamidocyanidates) have strikingly different structural features from other G-series nerve agents, such as sarin and soman. Here, we investigate the binding mechanism for the phosphonylated adducts of nerve agents of tabun derivatives. Binding sites for three tabun derivatives, O-ethyl-N,N- dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate (GA), O-ethyl-N,N-ethyl(methyl) phosphoramidocyanidate, and O-ethyl-N,N-diethylphosphoramidocyanidate were studied. Quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap-MS) coupled to proteomics was used to screen adducts between tabun derivatives and albumin, immunoglobulin, and hemoglobin. The results reveal that all three tabun derivatives exhibit robust selectivity to lysine residues, rather than other amino acid residue types. A set of 10 lysine residues on human serum albumin are labeled by tabun derivatives in vitro, with K525 (K*QTALVELVK) and K199 (LK*CASLQK) peptides displaying the most reactivity. Tabun derivatives formed stable adducts on K525 and K414 (K*VPQVSTPTLVEVSR) for at least 7 days and on K351 (LAK*TYETTLEK) for at least 5 days in a rabbit model. Three of these peptides-K525, K414, and K351-have the highest homology with human serum albumin of all 5 lysine residues that bound to examined rabbit blood proteins in vivo. Molecular simulation of the tabun-albumin interaction using structural analysis and molecular docking provided theoretical evidence supporting lysine residue reactivity to phosphonylation by tabun derivatives. K525 has the lowest free binding energy and the strongest hydrogen bonding to human albumin. In summary, these findings identify unique binding properties for tabun derivatives to blood proteins.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Lisina , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Organofosfatos/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Coelhos , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Toxicology ; 430: 152346, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857189

RESUMO

V-type agents are highly toxic organophosphorus nerve agents that inhibit acetylcholinesterase in the nervous system, causing a series of poison symptoms. Trace analytical methods are essential for the specific verification of exposure to these agents, especially for human exposure. This paper investigates the phosphonylated and disulfide adducts between human ceruloplasmin and O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX), O-isobutyl S-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VR), and O-butyl S-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (Vs). After being digested by trypsin, the mixture of peptides was separated by a nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and analyzed using quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap-MS). The sensitive LC-MS/MS-assisted proteomics approach was developed to achieve the identification of human exposure to V-type agents based on these modified sites; results revealed that potential biomarkers could be derived from adducts based on the sulfur- and phosphorus-containing groups of V-type agents. This work offered a novel insight into the mechanism of disulfide-containing adducts resulting from the replacement of disulfide bridges by the thiolate groups from the V-type agents. Moreover, four disulfide adducts on human ceruloplasmin were also discovered during this research, specifically confirming exposure to the V-type agents. Furthermore, molecular simulation testified to the reactivity of the modified sites. Collectively, our findings suggest that the eleven binding sites on human ceruloplasmin have the potential use as a selective marker for prediction the V-type agent exposure in humans.

4.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(7): 1853-1863, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161358

RESUMO

A major challenge in organophosphate compound (OP) and OP nerve agent (OPNA) research has been in the identification and utilization of reliable biomarkers for rapid, sensitive, and efficient detection of OP exposure. Albumin has been widely studied as a biomarker for retrospective verification of exposure to OPNAs, including soman (GD), by detecting the phosphonylation of specific amino acid residues. The aim of the present study was to identify binding sites between GD and rabbit serum albumin in vitro and in vivo. A nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (nLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS) was used to examine the GD-modified adducts of rabbit albumin. A total of 11 GD-modified sites were found in rabbit serum albumin across three experimental models. The following five GD-modified rabbit albumin sites, which were all lysine residues, were established in vivo: K188, K329, K162, K233, and K525. Two of these five lysine residues, K188 in peptide EK*ALISAAQER and K162 in peptide YK*AILTECCEAADK, were stable for at least 7 days in vivo. Molecular simulation of the GD-albumin interaction provided theoretical evidence for reactivity of the identified lysine residues. The findings suggest that these modifiable lysine residues are potential biomarkers of GD exposure for retrospective analysis by Q-Orbitrap-MS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496974

RESUMO

Albumin is a new biomarker of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) and nerve agents (OPNAs) for retrospective verification. Recent studies on OPs adducts show that amino acid residues can covalently bind to OPs and OPNAs. In this article, after being incubated with soman, sarin, cyclosarin, VX, ethyl tabun, and propyl tabun, human serum albumin (HSA) is analyzed by quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Q Exactive LC-MS/MS). In addition to the three known phosphonylated sites, six new sites modified by OPNAs are detected. To identify the most reactive residue, we calculate the area ratio of the modified peptides to the whole peptides. The result demonstrates that tyrosine 263 (Y263) in peptide Y263ICENQDSISSK, which has been poisoned with six kinds of nerve agents, possesses the highest reactivity. The structure characteristics based on molecular simulation provide a theoretical evidence for the reactivity of the nine binding sites. It suggests that Y263 also has the potential to be used as a biomarker to detect OPNAs exposure, and the presented Q Exactive LC-MS/MS method might be of relevance for the verification of new phosphonylated sites.


Assuntos
Agentes Neurotóxicos/envenenamento , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Albumina Sérica Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/química , Humanos , Modelos Químicos , Albumina Sérica Humana/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tirosina/química
6.
J Org Chem ; 83(15): 7981-7993, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800526

RESUMO

Copper(I)-catalyzed enantioselective borylation of α,ß-unsaturated N-acylindoles as well as N-acylpyrroles was efficiently achieved by means of bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2), affording the enantioenriched products in excellent yields with up to 99% ee. The present work provides an alternative class of Michael acceptors, that is, α,ß-unsaturated N-acylindoles, for potential asymmetric transformations.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500932

RESUMO

Tabun has been shown to form phosphylated adducts on tyrosine residues in albumin in vivo and in vitro. However, in this work, tabun-labeled lysine adducts were found in albumin. Three types of albumin were treated with overdose of tabun in vitro and 17 tabun-labeled lysine residues were found: K4, K12, K224, K377, and K524 in bovine albumin, K186, K188, K212, K329, K414, and K525 in leporine albumin, and K79, K186, K188, K212, K376, and K525 in rat albumin. To investigate the modification of tabun in vivo, three leporines were injected with 0.8×LD50 dose of tabun. The results showed that the labeled lysine residues in vivo, were consistent with modified lysines in vitro. Structure characteristics and the binding mode of 6 tabun-labeled lysines of leporine albumin were further analyzed using theory simulation and molecular docking in Discovery Studio. For the first time, we show that tabun-labeled lysine peptides are found in vivo and in vitro. These modified lysine peptides are good biomarkers for exposure to tabun in albumin of leporine and rat.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Lisina/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Albumina Sérica/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dose Letal Mediana , Lisina/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/análise , Coelhos , Ratos , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tirosina/análise
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27128859

RESUMO

Organophosphorus agents (OPs) like sarin, VX, or soman could inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity and cause poisoning. OPs could bind many proteins, such as butyrylcholinesterase and albumin, and the adducts formed could identify the exposure. In this paper, we studied human transferrin, which was one of the proteins that could be labeled by OPs. Pure human transferrin was incubated with an overdose of organophosphorus agents, including sarin, soman, VX, tabun, cyclosarin, ethyl tabun, and propyl tabun, and then additional OPs was removed through dialysis. Trypsin was used to cleave the OP-treated proteins and Q Exactive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Q Exactive LC-MS/MS) was used to identify them. The present study set out to accomplish two goals. The first goal was to find a good method for identifying multiple binding sites on a given protein through Q Exactive LC-MS/MS. The second goal was to investigate the labeled peptides when transferrin was incubated with a numerous molar excess of OPs. Results showed that tyrosine, lysine, and serine formed covalent bonds with OPs. Twenty OP-labeled sites were found: ten tyrosine sites (including two reported sites), seven lysine sites, and three serine sites. Characteristic fragments for labeled-tyrosine and labeled-lysine adducts were summarized in detail. In conclusion, the method by Q Exactive LC-MS/MS using in this present work is a good way to diagnose exposure to OPs accurately when the binding sites of OPs are uncertain. Novel modified peptides and the characteristic ions found in this work could help investigators assess exposure to OPs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Transferrina , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/métodos , Transferrina/análise , Transferrina/química , Transferrina/metabolismo
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 40: 3-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969539

RESUMO

The rate constant for the gas-phase reaction of O3 and Lewisite was studied in air using the smog chamber technique. The experiments were carried out under pseudo-first-order reaction conditions with [O3]≪[Lewisite]. The observed rate constant of O3 with Lewisite was (7.83 ± 0.38) × 10(-19)cm(3)/(molecule·sec) at 298 ± 2K. Lewisite was discussed in terms of reactivity with O3 and its relationship with the ionization potential. Our results show that the rate constant for the gas-phase reaction of O3 with Lewisite is in line with the trend of the rate constants of O3 with haloalkenes.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/química , Ozônio/química , Atmosfera , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cinética , Smog , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Yao Xue Xue Bao ; 44(8): 873-8, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20055155

RESUMO

To explore new biflavones, 7-hydroxy-8-hydroxymethyl-4'-methoxyisoflavone (1), (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone-8-yl)-(7'-hydroxy-4"-methoxyisoflavone-8'-yl)methane (2), bis(7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-8-yl) methane (3), bis(3', 5'-diisopropyl-7, 4'-dihydroxy-isoflavone-8-yl)methane (4), and bis(7-hydroxy-isoflavone-8-yl) methane (5) were designed and synthesized from chrysin, formononetin, 7, 4'-dihydroxy-3', 5'-diisopropyl-isoflavone and 7-hydroxy-isoflavone. Their structures were identified with IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. The binding of 1-5 with DNA was studied with fluorescent spectroscopy. Compounds 2-5 showed higher binding affinity with DNA than 1. According to the Stern-Volmer equation, the binding constants of 2, 3 were determined at 35 degrees C and 25 degrees C respectively, they were Kq2 (25 degrees C) = 1.95 x 10(4) Lx mol(-1) and Kq2 (35 degrees C) = 1.67 x 10(4) L x mol(-1); Kq3 (25 degrees C) = 1.89 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) and Kq3 (35 degrees C) = 1.58 x 10(4) L x mol(-1). The quenching mechanism of 2, 3 was suggested as static quenching.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/síntese química , DNA/química , Flavonoides/síntese química , Flavonoides/química , Estrutura Molecular
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