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1.
Ultrasonics ; 118: 106549, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474357

RESUMO

The state-of-the-art configurations for acoustic-resolution photoacoustic (PA) microscope (AR-PAM) are large in size and expensive, hindering their democratization. While previous research on AR-PAMs introduced a low-cost light source to reduce the cost, few studies have investigated the possibility of optimizing the sensor actuation, particularly for the AR-PAM. Additionally, there is an unmet need to evaluate the image quality deterioration associated with the actuation inaccuracy. A low-cost actuation device is introduced to reduce the system size and cost of the AR-PAM while maintaining the image quality by implementing the advanced beamformers. This work proposes an AR-RAM incorporating the delta configuration actuator adaptable from a low-cost off-the-shelf 3D printer as the sensor actuation device. The image degradation due to the data acquisition positioning inaccuracy is evaluated in the simulation. We further assess the mitigation of potential actuation precision uncertainty through advanced 3D synthetic aperture focusing algorithms represented by the Delay-and-Sum (DAS) with Coherence Factor (DAS+CF) and Delay-Multiply-and-Sum (DMAS) algorithms. The simulation study demonstrated the tolerance of image quality on actuation inaccuracy and the effect of compensating the actuator motion precision error through advanced reconstruction algorithms. With those algorithms, the image quality degradation was suppressed to within 25% with the presence of 0.2 mm motion inaccuracy. The experimental evaluation using phantoms and an ex-vivo sample presented the applicability of low-cost delta configuration actuators for AR-PAMs. The measured full width at half maximum of the 0.2 mm diameter pencil-lead phantom were 0.45 ± 0.06 mm, 0.31 ± 0.04 mm, and 0.35 ± 0.07 mm, by applying the DAS, DAS+CF, and DMAS algorithms, respectively. AR-PAMs with a compact and low-cost delta configuration provide high-quality PA imaging with better accessibility for biomedical applications. The research evaluated the image degradation contributed by the actuation inaccuracy and suggested that the advanced beamformers are capable of suppressing the actuation inaccuracy.

2.
Chem Sci ; 12(40): 13398-13403, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777758

RESUMO

We report herein catalytic asymmetric transformations of racemic α-borylmethyl-(E)-crotylboronate. The Brønsted acid-catalyzed kinetic resolution-allylboration reaction sequence of the racemic reagent gave (Z)-δ-hydroxymethyl-anti-homoallylic alcohols with high Z-selectivities and enantioselectivities upon oxidative workup. In parallel, enantioconvergent pathways were utilized to synthesize chiral nonracemic 1,5-diols and α,ß-unsaturated aldehydes with excellent optical purity.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102592, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719864

RESUMO

The accuracy of de novo protein structure prediction has been improved considerably in recent years, mostly due to the introduction of deep learning techniques. In this work, trRosettaX, an improved version of trRosetta for protein structure prediction is presented. The major improvement over trRosetta consists of two folds. The first is the application of a new multi-scale network, i.e., Res2Net, for improved prediction of inter-residue geometries, including distance and orientations. The second is an attention-based module to exploit multiple homologous templates to increase the accuracy further. Compared with trRosetta, trRosettaX improves the contact precision by 6% and 8% on the free modeling targets of CASP13 and CASP14, respectively. A preliminary version of trRosettaX is ranked as one of the top server groups in CASP14's blind test. Additional benchmark test on 161 targets from CAMEO (between Jun and Sep 2020) shows that trRosettaX achieves an average TM-score ≈0.8, outperforming the top groups in CAMEO. These data suggest the effectiveness of using the multi-scale network and the benefit of incorporating homologous templates into the network. The trRosettaX algorithm is incorporated into the trRosetta server since Nov 2020. The web server, the training and inference codes are available at: https://yanglab.nankai.edu.cn/trRosetta/.

4.
J Biomed Inform ; 125: 103957, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823030

RESUMO

In the last decade, the widespread adoption of electronic health record documentation has created huge opportunities for information mining. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques using machine and deep learning are becoming increasingly widespread for information extraction tasks from unstructured clinical notes. Disparities in performance when deploying machine learning models in the real world have recently received considerable attention. In the clinical NLP domain, the robustness of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for classifying cancer pathology reports under natural distribution shifts remains understudied. In this research, we aim to quantify and improve the performance of the CNN for text classification on out-of-distribution (OOD) datasets resulting from the natural evolution of clinical text in pathology reports. We identified class imbalance due to different prevalence of cancer types as one of the sources of performance drop and analyzed the impact of previous methods for addressing class imbalance when deploying models in real-world domains. Our results show that our novel class-specialized ensemble technique outperforms other methods for the classification of rare cancer types in terms of macro F1 scores. We also found that traditional ensemble methods perform better in top classes, leading to higher micro F1 scores. Based on our findings, we formulate a series of recommendations for other ML practitioners on how to build robust models with extremely imbalanced datasets in biomedical NLP applications.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e2107353, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738266

RESUMO

The increasing demand for energy storage is calling for improvements in cathode performance. In traditional layered cathodes, the higher energy of the metal 3d over the O 2p orbital results in one-band cationic redox; capacity solely from cations cannot meet the needs for higher energy density. Emerging anionic redox chemistry is promising to access higher capacity. In recent studies, the low-lying O nonbonding 2p orbital was designed to activate one-band oxygen redox, but they are still accompanied by reversibility problems like oxygen loss, irreversible cation migration, and voltage decay. Herein, by regulating the metal-ligand energy level, both extra capacities provided by anionic redox and highly reversible anionic redox process are realized in NaCr1- y Vy S2 system. The simultaneous cationic and anionic redox of Cr/V and S is observed by in situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Under high d-p hybridization, the strong covalent interaction stabilizes the holes on the anions, prevents irreversible dimerization and cation migration, and restrains voltage hysteresis and voltage decay. The work provides a fundamental understanding of highly reversible anionic redox in layered compounds, and demonstrates the feasibility of anionic redox chemistry based on hybridized bands with d-p covalence.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(45): 24096-24106, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608723

RESUMO

We report herein the development of stereodivergent syntheses of enantioenriched homoallylic alcohols using chiral nonracemic α-CH2 Bpin-substituted crotylboronate. Chiral phosphoric acid (S)-A-catalyzed asymmetric allyl addition with the reagent gave Z-anti-homoallylic alcohols with excellent enantioselectivities and Z-selectivities. When the enantiomeric acid catalyst (R)-A was utilized, the stereoselectivity was completely reversed and E-anti-homoallylic alcohols were obtained with high E-selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities. By pairing the chirality of the boron reagent with the catalyst, two complementary stereoisomers of chiral homoallylic alcohols can be obtained selectively from the same boron reagent. DFT computational studies were conducted to probe the origins of the observed stereoselectivity. These reactions generate highly enantioenriched homoallylic alcohol products that are valuable for rapid construction of polyketide structural frameworks.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27101, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596111

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common malignant soft tissue sarcoma, which is the third most common soft tissue sarcoma after malignant fibrohistoma and liposarcoma. The discovery of potential postbiomarkers could lead to early and more effective treatment measures to reduce the mortality of RMS. The discovery of biomarker is expected to be the direction of targeted therapy, providing a new direction for the precise treatment of RMS.Gene Expression Omnibus database was used to download the tow gene profiles, GSE28511 and GSE135517. GEO2R was applied to identify differently expressed genes (DEGs) between RMS and normal group. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and Metascape can perform the enrichment analysis for the DEGs. Protein-protein interaction network was constructed, and the hub genes was identified by the Cytoscape. Expression and overall survival analysis of hub genes were performed.A total of 15 common DEGs were screened between RMS and normal tissues. The enrichment analysis here showed that the DEGs mainly enriched in the muscle filament sliding, myofibril, protein complex, sarcomere, myosin complex, nuclear chromosome, and tight junction. The 6 hub genes (DNA Topoisomerase II Alpha, Insulin Like Growth Factor 2, HIST1H4C, Cardiomyopathy Associated 5, Myosin Light Chain 2 [MYL2], Myosin Heavy Chain 2) were identified. Compared with the normal tissues, MYL2 were down-regulated in the RMS tissues. RMS patients with low expression level of MYL2 had poorer overall survival times than those with high expression levels (P < .05).In summary, lower expression of MYL2 was 1 prediction for poor prognosis of RMS. MYL2 is hope to be the target of therapy, which leads to more effective treatment and reduces the mortality rate of RMS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Miosinas Cardíacas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Nanoscale ; 13(40): 17057-17067, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622908

RESUMO

Previous calculations of the dielectric and optical properties of 2D materials often overlooked or circumvented the influence of vacuum spacing introduced in periodic calculations, which gave rise to mispredictions of the intrinsic properties of 2D materials or merely qualitative results. We first elucidated the relationship between the vacuum spacing and the dielectric and optical properties of 2D materials in periodic calculations, and then formulated an effective method to accurately predict the dielectric and optical properties of 2D materials by restoring the intrinsic dielectric functions of 2D materials independent of the additional vacuum spacing. As examples, the intrinsic dielectric and optical properties of ultrathin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and molybdenum sulphide (MoS2) from a monolayer to a pentalayer, including dielectric functions, optical absorption coefficients, refraction indexes, reflectivities, extinction coefficients, and energy loss functions, have been calculated by our method. Our calculations reveal that the out-of-plane optical dielectric constants, static refraction indexes, and static reflectivities of 2D h-BN and MoS2 increase as the number of layers increases, while the in-plane counterparts remain unchanged. The excitonic frequency-dependent optical properties of h-BN and MoS2 from a monolayer to bulk are also calculated by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation and they show strong anisotropy. The present method shows better agreement with the experimental results compared to previous calculations and demonstrates enormous potential to investigate the dielectric and optical properties of other 2D materials extensively and quantitatively.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27315, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596131

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Participation in volunteer activity has positive effects on health among elderly. Few studies have investigated the association between volunteer activity and depression among Chinese elderly. This study aimed to examine the association between volunteer activity and depression among the elderly in China regarding rural-urban differences.Totally 8255 subjects from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were selected in this study. Depression was assessed by 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Types and frequency of volunteer activity were measured in the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between volunteer activity and depression of elderly.In our study, the urban elderly had lower depressive scores than rural elderly (6.7 ±â€Š5.8 vs. 9.1 ±â€Š6.7). After adjustment for all covariates, our results revealed that almost daily participation in formal volunteer activities was negatively associated with depression among urban elderly (B = -2.69, SE = 1.05, P = .010); almost daily caring for a sick or disabled adult was positively associated with depression among both urban and rural elderly (urban:B = 3.13, SE = 1.54, P = .043; rural:B = 2.56, SE = 1.18, P = .031).These findings suggested that there was a negative association between formal volunteer activity and depression among urban elderly, while there was a positive association between caring for a sick or disabled adult and depression among both urban and rural elderly. The government should take effective measures to encourage the elderly to participate in formal volunteer activities to prevent them from depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613978

RESUMO

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, higher educational institutions worldwide switched to emergency distance learning in early 2020. The less structured environment of distance learning forced students to regulate their learning and motivation more independently. According to self-determination theory (SDT), satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and social relatedness affects intrinsic motivation, which in turn relates to more active or passive learning behavior. As the social context plays a major role for basic need satisfaction, distance learning may impair basic need satisfaction and thus intrinsic motivation and learning behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between basic need satisfaction and procrastination and persistence in the context of emergency distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in a cross-sectional study. We also investigated the mediating role of intrinsic motivation in this relationship. Furthermore, to test the universal importance of SDT for intrinsic motivation and learning behavior under these circumstances in different countries, we collected data in Europe, Asia and North America. A total of N = 15,462 participants from Albania, Austria, China, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Kosovo, Lithuania, Poland, Malta, North Macedonia, Romania, Sweden, and the US answered questions regarding perceived competence, autonomy, social relatedness, intrinsic motivation, procrastination, persistence, and sociodemographic background. Our results support SDT's claim of universality regarding the relation between basic psychological need fulfilment, intrinsic motivation, procrastination, and persistence. However, whereas perceived competence had the highest direct effect on procrastination and persistence, social relatedness was mainly influential via intrinsic motivation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Procrastinação , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Autonomia Pessoal , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Cancer ; 12(19): 5807-5816, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475994

RESUMO

Background: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common malignancy in the respiratory tract and could reduce the quality of life seriously like dyspnea, dysphonia and dysphagia. Moreover, 5-year survival rate has decreased over the past 40 years. This study was designed to identify mRNAs that related to prognosis in LSCC to enable early detection and outcome improvement. Methods: Gene expression profiles from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (GSE59102, GSE84957) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with the help of bioinformatics tools. Functional enrichment analyses including Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were carried out to investigate the role of those genes and underlying molecular mechanisms in LSCC. Cox's regression analyses (univariate, LASSO and multivariate in order) were utilized to identify DEGs related with patients' overall survival and a 4-mRNA-based prognostic risk score model was established. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analyses were then performed on LSCC data (90 patients left) to identify independent predictors of OS, including the signature and clinicopathologic variables. The prognostic value of the gene signature was further validated and the genes were analyzed by GEPIA to get pan-cancer expression profiles. Results: 444 differentially expressed mRNAs (250 up-regulated, 194 down-regulated) were identified based on the threshold of fold change > 2 and adjusted p value < 0.05. Univariate Cox's regression analysis showed that high risk score (HR: 3.056, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.135-0.649, p<0.001) and female (HR: 0.296, 95% CI: 2.020-4.624, p=0.002) were associated with relatively poor prognosis. Further multivariate Cox's regression analysis indicated that risk score and gender were independent prognostic factors (p<0.05). The risk score model could stratify patients into high- and low­risk groups, which presents significantly differential overall survival (p= 8.252e-04). The AUCs of 1-, 3- and 5-year OS were 0.724, 0.783 and 0.818, respectively. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the four-mRNA signature could serve as a biomarker to predict prognosis in LSCC, especially in long-term.

12.
Technol Health Care ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simplified and easy-to-use monitoring approaches are crucial for the early diagnosis and prevention of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its complications. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the OSA detection and arrhythmia classification algorithms based on single-channel photoplethysmography (PPG) are proposed for the early screening of OSA. METHODS: Thirty clinically diagnosed OSA patients participated in this study. Fourteen features were extracted from the PPG signals. The relationship between the number of features as inputs of the support vector machine (SVM) and performance of apnea events detection was evaluated. Also, a multi-classification algorithm based on the modified Hausdorff distance was proposed to recognize sinus rhythm and four arrhythmias highly related with SA. RESULTS: The feature set composed of meanPP, SDPP, RMSSD, meanAm, and meank1 could provide a satisfactory balance between the performance and complexity of the algorithm for OSA detection. Also, the arrhythmia classification algorithm achieves the average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 83.79%, 95.91% and 93.47%, respectively in the classification of all four types of arrhythmia and regular rhythm. CONCLUSION: Single channel PPG-based OSA detection and arrhythmia classification in this study can provide a feasible and promising approach for the early screening and diagnosis of OSA and OSA-related arrhythmias.

13.
Org Lett ; 23(20): 7808-7813, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558913

RESUMO

Highly stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of (E)-δ-hydroxymethyl-anti-homoallylic alcohols is reported. Under the developed conditions, reactions between aldehydes and chiral nonracemic α-borylmethyl-(E)-crotylboronate upon oxidative workup gave δ-hydroxymethyl-anti-homoallylic alcohols with high E-selectivities and enantioselectivities.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26990, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477128

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female infertility, which may be caused by excessive androgen, but its mechanism remains unknown. Transsexuals are women who take androgen drugs for a long time, and gradually have male signs. Their ovaries may have received high concentrations of androgen, which leads to the failure of ovarian reproductive function. Therefore, we searched the relevant data of PCOS and transsexuals in gene expression omnibus database, used limma package to identify the most similarly genes, and then analyzed the possible mechanism of PCOS through gene ontology (GO) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Then, the protein-protein interaction network was constructed by searching the String database, and the top 5 hub genes were identified by the cytohubba plug-in of Cytoscape. Finally, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 E1 (UBE2E1), ubiquitin C (UBC), transcription elongation factor B subunit 1 (TCEB1), ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 N (UBE2N), and ring finger protein 7 (RNF7) genes were identified as the most similarly expressed genes between PCOS and Transsexuals. They may cause the ubiquitination of androgen receptor and eventually lead to sinus follicular growth arrest. In conclusion, 5 Central genes were identified in PCOS and transsexuals. These genes can be used as targets for early diagnosis or treatment of PCOS.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/classificação , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Pessoas Transgênero/classificação
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502619

RESUMO

Gas explosion has always been an important factor restricting coal mine production safety. The application of machine learning techniques in coal mine gas concentration prediction and early warning can effectively prevent gas explosion accidents. Nearly all traditional prediction models use a regression technique to predict gas concentration. Considering there exist very few instances of high gas concentration, the instance distribution of gas concentration would be extremely imbalanced. Therefore, such regression models generally perform poorly in predicting high gas concentration instances. In this study, we consider early warning of gas concentration as a binary-class problem, and divide gas concentration data into warning class and non-warning class according to the concentration threshold. We proposed the probability density machine (PDM) algorithm with excellent adaptability to imbalanced data distribution. In this study, we use the original gas concentration data collected from several monitoring points in a coal mine in Datong city, Shanxi Province, China, to train the PDM model and to compare the model with several class imbalance learning algorithms. The results show that the PDM algorithm is superior to the traditional and state-of-the-art class imbalance learning algorithms, and can produce more accurate early warning results for gas explosion.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , China , Carvão Mineral , Probabilidade
16.
Mol Immunol ; 139: 131-138, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482201

RESUMO

WDFY4 (WD repeat and FYVE domain-containing 4) is a susceptibility gene involved in several autoimmune diseases and plays an important role in the immune system. However, it is not clear how WDFY4 affects T cells. We have generated a Wdfy4-knockout mouse and found that selective deficiency of Wdfy4 in T cells led to a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cells in the periphery, thus promoting tumor growth when mice were challenged with a transplantable tumor. Moreover, conditional ablation of Wdfy4 in T cells enhanced the apoptosis of CD8+ T cells and increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species accompanied by the upregulation of Nox2. Mechanistically, the decrease in the CD8+ T-cell numbers in Wdfy4-knockout mice was associated with activation of the p53 pathway and inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. In addition, WDFY4 participated in cell proliferation. In conclusion, our results elucidate the biological role of WDFY4 in apoptosis and establish a link between WDFY4 and T cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Animais , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
17.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(9): 2613-2614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409155

RESUMO

The dance fly Calohilara tibetensis Ding, He, Lin and Yang, 2020 belongs to the subfamily Empidinae of Empididae. The mitochondrial genome of C. tibetensis was sequenced as the new representative of the subfamily Empidinae. The nearly complete mitogenome was 15,354 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. All genes have the similar locations and strands with that of other published species of Empididae. The nucleotide composition biases toward A and T is 77.4% of the entirety. All PCGs start with ATN codons except COI and NAD1, and end with TAA or incomplete stop codon. Bayesian inference (BI) analysis strongly supported the monophyly of both Empididae and Dolichopodidae and the monophyly of subfamily Empidinae. It suggested that Calohilara is the sister group of Hilara.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(33)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389668

RESUMO

The long-range order of noncoplanar magnetic textures with scalar spin chirality (SSC) can couple to conduction electrons to produce an additional (termed geometrical or topological) Hall effect. One such example is the Hall effect in the skyrmion lattice state with quantized SSC. An alternative route to attain a finite SSC is via the spin canting caused by thermal fluctuations in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic ordering transition. Here, we report that for a highly conducting ferromagnet with a two-dimensional array of spin trimers, the thermally generated SSC can give rise to a gigantic geometrical Hall conductivity even larger than the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity of the ground state. We also demonstrate that the SSC induced by thermal fluctuations leads to a strong response in the Nernst effect. A comparison of the sign and magnitude of fluctuation-Nernst and Hall responses in fundamental units indicates the need for a momentum-space picture to model these thermally induced signals.

19.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(11): 1089-1096, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, and Th2 cells play an important role in asthma. WDFY4 (WDFY family member 4) is a susceptibility gene in several autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the roles of WDFY4 in Th2 cell differentiation and Th2-dependent asthma were investigated. METHODS: Naïve CD4+ T cells were isolated from wild-type and WDFY4-deficient mice and induced to differentiate in vitro. Subsequently, a mouse model of asthma was established by sensitization with ovalbumin. RESULTS: Study results showed that WDFY4 deficiency could promote the differentiation of Th2 cells and the production of Th2 cytokines. WDFY4-deficient asthmatic mice showed higher levels of Th2 cytokines in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid than wild-type mice. Moreover, infiltration of inflammatory cells, hyperplasia of goblet cells, production of mucus, and deposition of collagen were enhanced in WDFY4-deficient asthmatic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the pivotal role of WDFY4 in the pathogenesis of asthma and in Th2 cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Células Th2/imunologia , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Asma/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ovalbumina/imunologia
20.
Genome Res ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193535

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has emerged as a powerful experimental approach to study cellular heterogeneity. One of the challenges in scRNA-seq data analysis is integrating different types of biological data to consistently recognize discrete biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of cells, such as transcription factor activities and gene regulatory networks in distinct cell populations. We have developed an approach to infer transcription factor activities from scRNA-seq data that leverages existing biological data on transcription factor binding sites. The Bayesian inference transcription factor activity model (BITFAM) integrates ChIP-seq transcription factor binding information into scRNA-seq data analysis. We show that the inferred transcription factor activities for key cell types identify regulatory transcription factors that are known to mechanistically control cell function and cell fate. The BITFAM approach not only identifies biologically meaningful transcription factor activities, but also provides valuable insights into underlying transcription factor regulatory mechanisms.

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