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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 219: 50-70, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501674

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Species of the genus Codonopsis are perennial herbs mainly distributed throughout East, Southeast and Central Asia. As recorded, they have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia, such as tea, wine, soup, plaster, and porridge. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The review aims to assess the ethnopharmacological uses, explicit the material basis and pharmacological action, promote the safety of medical use, and suggest the future research potentials of Codonopsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on the studies of Codonopsis was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic data search (PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Science Direct, Wiley, Researchgate, ACS, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI). Meanwhile, it was also obtained from published works of material medica, folk records, ethnopharmacological literatures, Ph.D. and Masters Dissertation. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: Codonopsis has been used for medicinal purposes all around the world. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia. The chemical constituents of Codonopsis mainly are polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, lignans, alkaloids, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids, organic acids, saccharides, and so on. Extract of Codonopsis exhibit extensive pharmacological activities, including immune function regulation, hematopoiesis improvement, cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, gastrointestinal function regulation, endocrine function regulation, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects, anti-aging and anti-oxidation, etc. Almost no obvious toxicity or side effect are observed and recorded for Codonopsis. CONCLUSIONS: The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis are reviewed in this paper. Species of the genus have long been used as traditional medicines and food materials, they are reported with a large number of chemical constituents with different structures, extensive pharmacological activities in immune system, blood system, digestive system, etc. and almost no toxicity. More profound studies on less popular species, pharmacodynamic material basis and pharmacological mechanism, and quality assurance are suggested to be carried out to fulfil the research on the long-term clinical use and new drug research of Codonopsis.


Assuntos
Codonopsis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/tendências , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(20): 3963-3968, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243434

RESUMO

To provide a scientific evidence for the quality control of Codonopsis Radix, a method was established for determining the content of three free carbohydrates of Codonopsis Radix. The developed method showed good linearity. The calibration curves were linear within the range of 2.312 5-18.500 0 µg for sucrose, 1.500 0-12.000 0 µg for glucose, and 2.000 0-16.000 0 µg for fructose, resgectwely. The recoveries varied between 96.31%-101.8%. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for determining the content of sucrose, glucose and fructose of Codonopsis Radix. The results showed that different cultivation measures had an effect on the content of three free carbohydrates of Codonopsis Radix. According to the content of sucrose, using Zhuanggenling>not using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving. According to the content of glucose and fructose, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>not pinching, shelving>pinching, not shelving. In consideration of the differences of sweetness and content of the three free carbohydrates in Codonopsis Radix, we recommend that the content of free carbohydrates could be considered as the marker to evaluate the quality of Codonopsis Radix.

3.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 39(6): 1287-90, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156799

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents from stems of Kadsura longipedunculata. Methods: The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods,and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literatures. Results: Seven compounds were isolated from the stems of Kadsura longipedunculata and were identified as longipedunin D( 1),renchangianin A( 2),renchangianin B( 3),meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid( 4),isolariciresinol-9-O-ß-D-xyloside( 5),(-)-gallocatechin( 6) and( +)-catechin( 7). Conclusion: Compound 1 is a novel lignan,and compounds 2,3 are isolated from this plant for the first time.


Assuntos
Kadsura , Cromatografia , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Lignanas , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Caules de Planta
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(20): 3753-3760, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929652

RESUMO

To observe the influence of different cultivation measures on the chemical constituents of Codonopsis Radix and provide reference for its reasonable cultivation, Codonopsis Radix samples cultivated by different cultivation measures were collected from the planting base in Min county,and their quality were evaluated by establishing HPLC fingerprint and determining the content of lobetyolin and Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide. The results show that different cultivation measures have an effect on the quality of Codonopsis Radix and the contents of lobetyolin and Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide are obviously different. According to the content of lobetyolin, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving>pinching, not shelving. According to the content of Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving. Based on the chemical quality evaluation results, the appropriate cultivation measure of Codonopsis Radix is not using Zhuanggenling, not pinching and shelving.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Codonopsis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Poli-Inos/análise
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(23): 4711-4, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27141688

RESUMO

The quality of Chinese medicinal materials relates greatly to the clinical curative effect and security. In order to ensure the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials, a systematic and operable traceability system needs to be established. It can realize the whole process of quality and safety management of Chinese medicinal materials "from production to consumption" through recording and inquiring information and recalling defective products, which is an important direction for the future development of traditional Chinese medicine. But it is still at the exploration and trial stage. In this paper, a framework of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and safety traceability system was established on the basis of the domestic and international experience about the construction of food and agricultural products traceability systems. The relationship between traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and GAP, GMP, GSP was analyzed, and the possible problems and the corresponding solutions were discussed.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(16): 3239-44, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790300

RESUMO

This study is to determine the content of three alkaloids and establish the HPLC fingerprint of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. The HPLC method of content determination was as follows: Thermo C18 (4. 6 mm x 250 mm, 5 µm) was conducted with acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfonate solution-acetic acid (56: 43: 1) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The monitoring wavelength was set at 282 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. The method of HPLC fingerprint was as follows: Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 µm) was conducted with gradient elution of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), the monitoring wavelength was set at 282 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. Similarities evaluation and hierarchical clustering analysis were applied to demonstrate the variability of 12 batches of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula samples. The results demonstrated that 11 batches showed good similarity on chemical constituents. The method could well display the chemical information of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. It was simple, reliable and could be used for the chemical quality control of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Nelumbo/química , Sementes/química , Controle de Qualidade
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