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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125333, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416005

RESUMO

This study was performed to determine Parvalbumin (PV), a well-known fish allergenic protein, digestion kinetics and immunoreactivity of digestion products with Immunoglobulin G/Immunoglobulin E recognition to understand its allergic potential with or without lipid emulsion process. PV was subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion in emulsified condition. Digestion kinetics of the protein was analysed by electrophoresis, IgG/IgE binding ability by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA. Lipid emulsion significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the degree of PV hydrolysis by 52.10% for gastric digestion. Immune fragments of gastric digestion were detectable for 90-120 min longer in emulsified condition showing resistance. Consequently, lipid emulsion decreased the digestive ability of PV in stomach, increasing resistance to gastrointestinal digestion by pepsin proteases. It also altered IgG/IgE binding ability of digestion products, thereby indicating that PV with lipid emulsion was resistant to digestion and possessed increased IgE binding ability resulting in higher risk of allergy among sensitized individuals.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/farmacocinética , Emulsões/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Peixes da Dieta/farmacocinética , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Parvalbuminas/farmacocinética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Digestão , Emulsões/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes da Dieta/imunologia , Linguados , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Immunoblotting , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Lipídeos/farmacocinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Parvalbuminas/imunologia , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo
2.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary diversity is widely advocated in national and international recommendations although whether the beneficial effects on survival or longevity still apply in the final phase of the lifespan remains understudied. We aimed to prospectively examine the association of dietary diversity, food items with all-cause mortality among the oldest old (80+) and determine whether dietary diversity recommendations were appropriate for this population. METHODS: The study included 28,790 participants aged 80+ (9957 octogenarians, 9925 nonagenarians, and 8908 centenarians). A baseline dietary diversity score (DDS) was constructed based on nine food items of a food frequency questionnaire. Cox models with penalized splines evaluated non-linear associations of DDS as continuous variable with mortality to identify cut-offs of DDS. RESULTS: We documented 23,503 deaths during 96,739 person-years of follow-up. Each one unit increase in DDS was associated with a 9% lower risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.91; 95% confidential interval (CI): 0.90-0.92). Compared to participants whose DDS less than 2 scores, those with a DDS of 2, 3, 4, 5, and higher than 6 scores had a lower mortality risk, the HRs were 0.86 (0.82-0.89), 0.78 (0.75-0.81), 0.69 (0.66-0.72), 0.65 (0.62-0.68), and 0.56 (0.53-0.58) respectively, and a significant trend emerged (p < 0.001). Protein-rich food items were associated with prominent beneficial effects on mortality including meat (HR and 95% CI for high vs low frequency: 0.70 (0.68-0.72)), fish and sea food (HR, 0.74 (0.72-0.77)), egg (HR, 0.75 (0.73-0.77)), and bean (HR, 0.80 (0.78-0.82)). CONCLUSIONS: Even after the age of 80, the DDS tool may offer a simple and straightforward mean of identifying and screening individuals at high risk for mortality. Recommendation of dietary diversity, especially consumption of protein-rich food, may be advocated to reduce mortality risk and promote longevity in the oldest old.

3.
Neurology ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between physical activity and prodromal features of Parkinson disease that often precede the clinical diagnosis. METHODS: Included are participants in 2 well-established cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Physical activity was assessed using validated questionnaires at baseline (1986) and every 2 years until 2008. Prodromal features (e.g., constipation, hyposmia, and probable REM sleep behavior disorder [pRBD]) were assessed in 2012-2014. RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having ≥3 prodromal features vs none comparing the highest to the lowest quintile were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53-0.79; p trend = 0.0006) for baseline physical activity and 0.52 (95% CI 0.35-0.76; p trend = 0.009) for cumulative average physical activity. Considering each feature independently, baseline physical activity was associated with lower odds of constipation (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73-0.83; p trend < 0.0001), excessive daytime sleepiness (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.86; p trend = 0.002), depressive symptoms (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.97; p trend = 0.13), and bodily pain (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.96; p trend = 0.03). Similar or stronger associations were observed for cumulative average physical activity, which, in addition, was associated with pRBD (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.95; p trend = 0.02). In contrast, neither hyposmia nor impaired color vision was associated with physical activity. Early life physical activity was associated with constipation and, in men only, with the co-occurrence of ≥3 features. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced prevalence of prodromal features associated with Parkinson disease in older individuals who were more physically active in midlife and beyond is consistent with the hypothesis that high levels of physical activity may reduce risk of Parkinson disease.

4.
Adv Nutr ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711095

RESUMO

Food insecurity (FI) may limit cognitive functioning during aging. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize existing evidence linking FI and general or specific cognitive functions in middle and older adulthood. A systematic search of human studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 April 2018 was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and CAB Direct. Four independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of identified articles and conducted data extraction and data quality assessment. Ten studies were included in the review, including 1 cluster-randomized controlled trial, 2 longitudinal studies, and 7 cross-sectional studies. Three studies reported the association between early-life FI experience and a global cognitive function measure. Nine studies reported later-life FI experience in relation to global or specific cognitive functions. The results suggest an adverse association between FI experienced in early or later life and global cognitive function; and between later-life FI and executive function and memory. Findings from the review are preliminary because of sparse data, heterogeneity across study populations, exposure and outcome assessments, and potential risk of bias across studies. Future studies are recommended to better understand the role of FI in cognitive function, with the goal of identifying possible critical windows for correction of FI in vulnerable subpopulations to prevent neurocognitive deficit in adulthood.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713023

RESUMO

PBC is a chronic progressive autoimmune disorder involving the destruction of intrahepatic small bile ducts, cholestasis, fibrosis, and ultimately cirrhosis if left untreated. It is largely driven by the autoimmune response, but bile acids and the intestinal microbiota are implicated in disease progression as well. The only drugs licensed for PBC are UDCA and OCA. UDCA as a first-line and OCA as a second-line therapy are safe and effective, but the lack of response in a significant portion of patients and inadequate control of symptoms such as fatigue and pruritus remain as concerns. Liver transplantation is an end-stage therapy for many patients refractory to UDCA, which gives excellent survival rates but also moderate to high recurrence rates. The limited options for FDA-approved PBC therapies necessitate the development of alternative approaches. Currently, a wide variety of experimental drugs exist targeting immunological and physiological aspects of PBC to suppress inflammation. Immunological therapies include drugs targeting immune molecules in the B cell and T cell response, and specific cytokines and chemokines implicated in inflammation. Drugs targeting bile acids are also noteworthy as bile acids can perpetuate hepatic inflammation and lead to fibrosis over time. These include FXR agonists, ASBT inhibitors, and PPAR agonists such as bezafibrate and fenofibrate. Nonetheless, many of these drugs can only delay disease progression and fail to enhance patients' quality of life. Nanomedicine shows great potential for treatment of autoimmune diseases, as it provides a new approach that focuses on tolerance induction rather than immunosuppression. Tolerogenic nanoparticles carrying immune-modifying agents can be engineered to safely and effectively target the antigen-specific immune response in autoimmune diseases. These may work well with PBC especially, given the anatomical features and immunological specificity of the disease. Nanobiological therapy is thus an area of highly promising research for future treatment of PBC.

6.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with rectal cancer surgery performed at high-volume hospitals (HVHs) and by high-volume surgeons (HVSs), including the roles of rurality and diagnostic colonoscopy provider characteristics. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although higher-volume hospitals/surgeons often achieve superior surgical outcomes, many rectal cancer resections are performed by lower-volume hospitals/surgeons, especially among rural populations. METHODS: Patients age 66+ diagnosed from 2007 to 2011 with stage II/III primary rectal adenocarcinoma were selected from surveillance, epidemiology, and end results-medicare data. Patient ZIP codes were used to classify rural status. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with surgery by HVH and HVS. RESULTS: Of 1601 patients, 22% were rural and 78% were urban. Fewer rural patients received surgery at a HVH compared to urban patients (44% vs 65%; P < 0.0001). Compared to urban patients, rural patients more often had colonoscopies performed by general surgeons (and less often from gastroenterologists or colorectal surgeons), and lived substantially further from HVHs; these factors were both associated with lower odds of surgery at a HVH or by a HVS. In addition, whereas over half of both rural and urban patients received their colonoscopy and surgery at the same hospital, rural patients who stayed at the same hospital were significantly less likely to receive surgery at a HVH or by a HVS compared to urban patients. CONCLUSIONS: Rural rectal cancer patients are less likely to receive surgery from a HVH/HVS. The role of the colonoscopy provider has important implications for referral patterns and initiatives seeking to increase centralization.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how urate concentrations are related to the risk of having possible REM sleep behavior disorder (pRBD) in a community-based cohort. METHODS: The study included 12,923 Chinese adults of the Kailuan Study, free of Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia. Plasma urate concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Cumulative average urate concentration was used as primary exposure. In 2012, we determined pRBD status using a validated RBD questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK). Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between urate concentrations during 2006-2010 and odds of having pRBD in 2012 or pRBD case with symptom onset within 1 year. RESULTS: Higher average urate concentrations were associated with a lower odds of pRBD (P-trend <0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR), for the highest versus lowest urate quintiles, was 0.43 (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.32-0.57). Significant association was consistently observed when we examined the association of a single urate assessment (2006 or 2010) or the rate of change in urate concentrations during 2006-2010 with pRBD (P-trend <0.001 for all). However, restricting to pRBD onset during 2011-2012, we observed a nonsignificant trend between high urate concentration and high odds of pRBD (P-trend = 0.09). INTERPRETATION: Higher average urate concentrations were associated with a lower likelihood of having pRBD, but not new-onset pRBD. Because of its observational study design, the result should be interpreted with caution due to the possibility of residual confounding.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 836, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685825

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are versatile immune cells that promote a variety of malignant behaviors of pancreatic cancer. CD59 is a GPI-anchored membrane protein that prevents complement activation by inhibiting the formation of the membrane attack complex, which may protect cancer cells from complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). The interactions between CD59, TAMs and pancreatic cancer remain largely unknown. A tissue microarray of pancreatic cancer patients was used to evaluate the interrelationship of CD59 and TAMs and their survival impacts were analyzed. In a coculture system, THP-1 cells were used as a model to study the function of TAMs and the roles of pancreatic cancer-educated macrophages in regulating the expression of CD59 in pancreatic cancer cells were demonstrated by real-time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The effects of macrophages on regulating CDC in pancreatic cancer cells were demonstrated by an in vitro study. To explore the potential mechanisms, RNA sequencing of pancreatic cancer cells with or without co-culture of THP-1 macrophages was performed, and the results showed that the IL-6R/STAT3 signaling pathway might participate in the regulation, which was further demonstrated by target-siRNA transfection, antibody neutralization and STAT3 inhibitors. Our data revealed that the infiltration of TAMs and the expression of CD59 of pancreatic cancer were paralleled, and higher infiltration of TAMs and higher expression of CD59 predicted worse survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Pancreatic cancer-educated macrophages could protect cancer cells from CDC by up-regulating CD59 via the IL-6R/STAT3 signaling pathway. These findings uncovered the novel mechanisms between TAMs and CD59, and contribute to providing a new promising target for the immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755062

RESUMO

The particulate matter (PM) could be simultaneously removed during the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) process. To analyze the underlying mechanism and removal efficiency, the PM removal process in a desulfurization system was numerically simulated based on the population balance model and general dynamics equation in this study. The equation was solved using the fixed-step Monte Carlo method to determine the PM removal characteristics under different working conditions (such as spray intensity, velocity of the flue gas, and layers of slurry spray). When the flue gas velocity decreased from 7 to 3 m/s, the removal efficiency increased from 90.93 to 93.52%, and when the mean geometric droplet size decreased from 3 to 1 mm, the removal efficiency increased from 67.18 to 99.14%. Besides, large diameter PM was more easily removed by the desulfurization system. Thus, the numerical simulation method was proven to be feasible by comparing these results with field measurements of a WFGD system in a coal-fired power plant.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study focused on perceived threat of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) in Chinese older adults and investigated its associations with their perceived stigma and knowledge of ADRD. METHODS: We examined Chinese older adults' perceived threat of ADRD and its associations with perceived stigma, knowledge of ADRD, family variables and health variables. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected by student interviewers in 2016. The participants (N=754) were recruited from two urban communities in mainland China and their ages ranged from 60 to 89 (M=69.54, SD=7.35). RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that those who are younger, have more depressive symptoms and lower levels of family cohesion are more likely to worry about ADRD. More ADRD knowledge and higher levels of perceived stigma are significantly associated with perceived threat of ADRD. Community site moderated the relationship between stigma and perceived threat of ADRD. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention or service programs need to promote ADRD knowledge and awareness in a culturally sensitive way as well as address stigma and fear toward ADRD in the older population. Future studies are needed to incorporate more cultural and environmental factors to fully understand Chinese older adults' attitudes toward and literacy of ADRD.

11.
Orthop Surg ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755245

RESUMO

The iASSIST navigation system is a handheld accelerometer-based navigation system that has been applied in clinical practice in recent five years. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes of iASSIST navigation with conventional surgical techniques for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to compare the surgery time between an iASSIST group and a conventional treatment group. This systematic review and meta-analysis included all comparative prospective and retrospective studies published in Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Web of Science and the CNKI databases over the past 20 years. Inclusion criteria were studies that compared the iASSIST navigation system with conventional TKA. The primary outcomes were mechanical axis (MA) and outliers, which means postoperative MA varus or valgus of more than 3°. Secondary outcomes were coronal femoral angle (CFA) and coronal tibial angle (CTA). Knee Society Score (KSS) was used to evaluate functional outcome. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Eight studies involving 558 knees were included in this meta-analysis. Of these, 275 patients used the iASSIST navigation system and 283 used conventional surgical techniques. A total of 5 studies were considered high quality and the other 3 were considered to be of moderate quality. The occurrence of malalignment of >3° in the iASSIST group was 13.3%, compared with 29.04% in the conventional group. Postoperative MA of the iASSIST group was significantly better than that of the conventional group (I2 = 19%, OR = -0.92, 95% CI = -1.09 to -0.75, P < 0.00001). The iASSIST navigation system provided significantly increased accuracy in the coronal femoral angle (I2 = 79%, OR = -0.88, 95% CI = -1.21 to -0.54, P < 0.00001) and the coronal tibial angle (I2 = 34%, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = -0.48 to -0.30, P < 0.00001) compared with conventional techniques. However, the duration of surgery using the iASSIST procedure was longer and there was no significant difference in the short-term KSS in the iASSIST group compared with the conventional group. We found that when pooling the data of included studies, the number of outliers was fewer in the iASSIST group, and compared with conventional TKA techniques, the iASSIST system significantly improved the accuracy of lower limb alignment but the duration of surgery was prolonged in addition to there being no apparent advantage in terms of short-term functional score.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 947-958, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668704

RESUMO

Human-specific duplications at chromosome 16p11.2 mediate recurrent pathogenic 600 kbp BP4-BP5 copy-number variations, which are among the most common genetic causes of autism. These copy-number polymorphic duplications are under positive selection and include three to eight copies of BOLA2, a gene involved in the maturation of cytosolic iron-sulfur proteins. To investigate the potential advantage provided by the rapid expansion of BOLA2, we assessed hematological traits and anemia prevalence in 379,385 controls and individuals who have lost or gained copies of BOLA2: 89 chromosome 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 deletion carriers and 56 reciprocal duplication carriers in the UK Biobank. We found that the 16p11.2 deletion is associated with anemia (18/89 carriers, 20%, p = 4e-7, OR = 5), particularly iron-deficiency anemia. We observed similar enrichments in two clinical 16p11.2 deletion cohorts, which included 6/63 (10%) and 7/20 (35%) unrelated individuals with anemia, microcytosis, low serum iron, or low blood hemoglobin. Upon stratification by BOLA2 copy number, our data showed an association between low BOLA2 dosage and the above phenotypes (8/15 individuals with three copies, 53%, p = 1e-4). In parallel, we analyzed hematological traits in mice carrying the 16p11.2 orthologous deletion or duplication, as well as Bola2+/- and Bola2-/- animals. The Bola2-deficient mice and the mice carrying the deletion showed early evidence of iron deficiency, including a mild decrease in hemoglobin, lower plasma iron, microcytosis, and an increased red blood cell zinc-protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio. Our results indicate that BOLA2 participates in iron homeostasis in vivo, and its expansion has a potential adaptive role in protecting against iron deficiency.

13.
Eur J Immunol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756255

RESUMO

Pyroptosis is a type of programmed lytic cell death which could be activated by either the canonical or non-canonical inflammasome pathway. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of hypertonic solution on non-canonical pyroptosis in macrophage. We found that although hypertonic solution had a general inhibitory effect on non-canonical pyroptosis, the underlying mechanism varied by the solute causing hypertonicity. Specifically, hypertonic NaCl or KCl solution inhibited the cleavage of gasdermin D, the pore-forming protein in pyroptosis, whereas hypertonic saccharide solution did not affect the cleavage or membrane binding of gasdermin D. In this case, nevertheless, pyroptosis was still inhibited as evidenced by the preserved mitochondria activity and cell membrane permeability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 21(12): 52, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748963

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically examine the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and risk of hemorrhagic stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: A previous meta-analysis of prospective studies published in 2013 showed that higher concentrations of LDL-C were associated with lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Recently, seven large cohort studies were published examining LDL-C and risk of hemorrhagic stroke in different populations. Twelve prospective studies with 476,173 participants and 7587 hemorrhagic stroke cases were included in the current meta-analysis. The results showed that a 10 mg/dL increase in LDL-C was associated with 3% lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke (pooled relative risk [RR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-0.98). The association appeared to be more pronounced in Asians (pooled RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98), relative to Caucasians (pooled RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-1.00), with a p heterogeneity of 0.05 between two ethnic groups. Further genetic studies and clinical trials with a stricter safety monitoring strategy are warranted to understand the underlying pathogenesis and determine the treatment target of LDL-C range with the lowest risk of hemorrhagic stroke in different population groups.

15.
Environ Res ; : 108905, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767354

RESUMO

Expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) is regarded as a promising reactor to carry out denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) and elemental sulfur (S0) recovery. Although the recirculation ratio is an essential parameter for EGSB reactors, how it impacts the DSR process remains poorly understood. Here, three lab-scale DSR-EGSB reactors were established with the different recirculation ratios (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) to evaluate the corresponding variations in pollutant removal, S0 recovery, anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) characteristics and microbial community composition. It was found that an intermediate recirculation ratio (6:1) could facilitate long-term reactor stability. Adequate recirculation ratio could enhance S0 recovery, but an excessive recirculation ratio (9:1) was likely to cause AGS fragmentation and biomass loss. The S0 desorbed more from sludge at higher recirculation ratios, probably due to the enhanced hydraulic disturbance caused by the increased recirculation ratios. At the low recirculation ratio (3:1), S0 accumulation as inorganic suspended solids in AGS led to a decrease in VSS/TSS ratio and mass transfer efficiency. Although typical denitrifying and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (e.g., Azoarcus, Thauera and Arcobacter) were predominant in all conditions, facultative and heterotrophic functional bacteria (e.g., Azoarcus and Thauera) were more adaptable to higher recirculation ratios than autotrophs (e.g., Arcobacter, Thiobacillus and Vulcanibacillus), which was conducive to the formation of bacterial aggregates to response to the increased recirculation ratio. The study revealed recirculation ratio regulation significantly impacted the DSR-EGSB reactor performance by altering AGS characteristics and microbial community composition, which provides a novel strategy to improve DSR performance and S0 recovery.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17065, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745158

RESUMO

Porous carbon are excellent electrode materials for energy-storage devices. Here, we present a facile in-situ reduction method to improve the electrochemical performance of carbon materials by gold nanoparticles. The prepared porous carbon microspheres decorated with gold-nanoparticle had a 3D honeycomb-like structure with a high specific surface area of about 1635 m2 g-1, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The electrochemical performance of as-synthesized porous carbon microspheres was exemplified as electrode materials for supercapacitor with a high specific capacitance of 440 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, and excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 100% after 2000 cycles at 10 A g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Our method opened a new direction for the gold-nanoparticle-decorated synthesis of porous carbon microspheres and could be further applied to synthesize porous carbon microspheres with various nanoparticle decorations for numerous applications as energy storage devices, enhanced absorption materials, and catalytical sites.

17.
Structure ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669042

RESUMO

"Universal" synthetic antibody (sAB)-based fiducial marks have been generated by customized phage display selections to facilitate the rapid structure determination of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling complexes by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (SP cryo-EM). sABs were generated to the two major G protein subclasses: trimeric Gi and Gs, as well as mini-Gs, and were tested to ensure binding in the context of their cognate GPCRs. Epitope binning revealed that multiple distinct epitopes exist for each G(αßγ) protein. Several Gßγ-specific sABs, cross-reactive between trimeric Gi and Gs, were identified suggesting they could be used across all subclasses in a "plug and play" fashion. sABs were also generated to a representative of another class of GPCR signaling partner, G protein receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) and evaluated further, supporting the generalizability of the approach. EM data suggested that the subclass-specific sABs provide effective single and dual fiducials for multiple GPCR signaling complexes.

18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 153, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been reported to be associated with carotid artery plaque (CAP). However, it remains unclear whether hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, a marker for long-term glycemic status, is associated with altered CAP risk in individuals with fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations below the current cutoff for diabetes. METHODS: Included were 16,863 Chinese adults (aged 18 years or more; 9855 men and 7008 women) with fasting blood glucose < 7.0 mmol/L at baseline (2013). Both HbA1c level and CAP (assessed via ultrasound B-mode imaging) were annually assessed during 2014-2018. All the participants were further classified into three groups based on baseline HbA1c level: ≤ 5.6%, 5.7-6.4%, and ≥ 6.5%. We used Cox proportional-hazards model to evaluate the association between HbA1c level and incident CAP, adjusting for a series of potential confounders. RESULTS: During 5 years of follow up, 3942 incident CAP cases were identified. Individuals with higher baseline HbA1c had higher future risk of CAP (p-trend < 0.001). In the full-adjusted model, each percent increase of HbA1c was associated with a 56% (HR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.37, 1.78) higher risk of CAP. Excluding participants with chronic inflammation, as assessed by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and white blood cell, and those with FBG ≥ 5.6 mmol/L at baseline generated similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated HbA1c level was associated with high risk of developing CAP in Chinese adults without FBG defined diabetes.

19.
Environ Res ; 180: 108843, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that ambient air pollution exposure can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly. In consideration of the common underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, exposure to air pollution may also increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the current evidence was inconsistent and has not well been systematically reviewed. Our goal was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the association between air pollution exposure and GDM. METHODS: An extensive literature search was conducted in selected electronic databases for related human epidemiological studies published in English language. Summary effect estimates were calculated using random-effect models for a) risk per unit increase in continuous air pollutant concentration and b) risk of high versus low exposure level in individual study if each exposure that had been examined in ≥2 studies. We evaluated the heterogeneity using Cochran's Q test and quantified it by I2 statistic. Publication bias was also evaluated through the funnel plot when sufficient number of studies are available. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies evaluating the association between GDM and exposure to air pollution were identified finally. The summary odds ratio (OR) for incidence of GDM following a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester was 1.04 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.01, 1.09) and in NOx during the first trimester was 1.03 (95%CI: 1.00, 1.07) per 10 ppb increase, while for high versus low SO2 exposure during the second trimester was 1.25 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.53). High heterogeneity among study-specific results in majority of the analyses were observed, and attributed to different exposure assessment methods, populations, study locations, and covariates adjustment. Publication bias cannot be excluded because of the inclusion of small number of studies. CONCLUSIONS: The present study supports the evidence that air pollution exposure increases the risk the GDM, albeit the existence of high heterogeneity. Further studies are necessary to elaborate the suggestive associations. These results are of public health significance since worsening air pollution in developing countries has been expected to increase the risk of GDM development.

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