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1.
Sleep Med ; 75: 502-509, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022488

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Night-shift workers are exposed to nocturnal light and are more prone to circadian rhythm disorders. Although night-shift work is thought to be associated with the decrease in melatonin secretion, studies have shown inconsistent results. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis studied the association between night-shift work and melatonin levels. Pubmed and Embase databases were used for literature searching. The pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the differences between night-shift workers and the controls. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies reported in 25 articles (1845 night-shift workers and 3414 controls, mean age 45.12 years) were included after a systematic literature review. Data of circulating melatonin levels and its metabolites, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) in urine were collected for meta-analysis. The results showed that the first morning-void aMT6s level in night-shift workers was significantly lower than in day workers (SMD = -0.101, 95% CI = -0.179 to -0.022, P = 0.012). The level of mean 24-h urinary aMT6s was lower in night-shift workers than day workers (SMD: -0.264, 95% CI: -0.473 to -0.056, P = 0.013). Among fixed night-shift workers, the level of circulating melatonin, as well as first morning-void aMT6s was lower than that of day workers. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that experience of night-shift work is associated with suppression of melatonin production, especially among fixed night-shift workers.

2.
Pain Med ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have provided some evidence that pain is a risk factor for postoperative delirium (POD). Therefore, we investigated the relationship between preoperative pain and POD after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: POD was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and preoperative cognition was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before surgery. Preoperative pain was classified by its duration before surgery as chronic pain (lasting more than 1 month), acute pain (lasting less than 1 month), or no pain (no obvious pain). Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: From October 15, 2018, through August 12, 2019, a total of 67 patients were randomized; 7 were excluded because they were discharged before the seventh postoperative day. The prevalence of POD was significantly higher in the acute pain group (13 of 20; 65%) than in the chronic pain group (5 of 20; 25%) or the no pain group (6 of 20; 30%) (P = 0.019), indicating that delirium is associated with preoperative acute pain. The plasma level of preoperative CRP was also higher in the acute pain group than in the other two groups (mean [interquartile range]: 10.7 [3.3, 29.3] vs 1 [0.5, 3.8]mg/l; P < 0.001), suggesting that elevated preoperative plasma levels of CRP were associated with delirium. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative acute pain was associated with POD, and increased plasma levels of CRP provide a marker. In addition, we found that illiteracy and advanced age were risk factors for POD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed multidimensional models for predicting successful aging that incorporate both physical and cognitive-psychosocial elements among minority populations. This study aimed to establish a comprehensive lifestyle behavioral factors score (cLBF) and an integrative successful aging (ISA) score and explore their associations among older Puerto Rican adults. METHODS: Data were assessed from 889 adults (45-75y) participating in the longitudinal (baseline and 2y follow-up) Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Higher cLBF score (range 0-10) indicates healthier behaviors (non-smoking, lack of sedentarism, physical activity, high diet quality, and adequate sleep). The physical domain score of ISA included eight components (functional impairment, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, arthritis, osteoporosis) and ranged 0-11. The cognitive-psychosocial domain of ISA included five components (cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, social support, perceived stress, and self-rated health) and ranged 0-10. The sum of both domains comprised the ISA score, ranging 0-21. Higher scores of ISA and its domains indicate more successful aging. RESULTS: At 2y, the mean ± SD of cLBF score was 4.9 ± 1.8, and ISA was 10.1 ± 3.3. In multivariable-adjusted models, cLBF score was significantly and positively associated with 2-year change in overall ISA (ß (95% CI): 0.15 (0.07, 0.24) points), in physical domain (0.09 (0.04, 0.13) points), and in cognitive-psychosocial domain (0.08 (0.02, 0.14) points). CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining healthier lifestyle behaviors may contribute to successful aging through both physical and cognitive-psychosocial domains. The results support using a multidimensional definition of successful aging in Puerto Ricans and evaluating it in other populations.

4.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(5): 1683-1694, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000179

RESUMO

The loss of function mutation of AT­rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) often occurs in patients with breast cancer. It has been found that ARID1A knockout can enhance both the migratory activity of renal carcinoma cells and their sensitivity to therapeutic drugs by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, its mechanisms of action in breast cancer remain unclear. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT­qPCR) revealed that the expression of ARID1A in breast cancer tissues was significantly lower than that in paracancerous tissues, and patients with a low ARID1A expression had a lower survival rate. ARID1A was expressed at low levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, siRNA targeting ARID1A (siARID1A) and ARID1A overexpression vector were transfected into MCF7 and MDA­MB­231 cells, respectively. Proliferation assay revealed that ARID1A silencing increased cell viability and partially reversed the inhibitory effects of 5­fluorouracil (5­FU) on the MCF7 cells, while ARID1A overexpression exerted an opposite effect on the MDA­MB­231 cells. ARID1A silencing promoted proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis, and partly reversed the inhibitory effects of 5­FU on cell biological behaviors, while the overexpression of ARID1A further enhanced the inhibitory effect of 5­FU on the cells. Furthermore, ARID1A regulated the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells through EMT. On the whole, the findings of the present study demonstrate that ARID1A exerts an antitumor effect on breast cancer, and its overexpression can enhance the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to 5­FU.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22595, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleep deprivation on semen analyses, hormone levels and testicular histopathology in men. METHODS: this review will be included in a qualified case-control study. The search strategy will be implemented in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, Cochrane library, China National knowledge Infrastructure database, Wanfang Database, and the Cochrane library. We will solicit both English and Chinese case-control studies published from its beginning to July 31, 2020. The 2 examiners will independently screen, select research, extract data and evaluate quality. We use Revman5.3 software to generate funnel map, heterogeneity assessment, data analysis, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: in the current meta-analysis, we will provide some more practical and targeted results for the study of the effects of sleep on the male reproductive system, and sum up the main limitations of previous studies. CONCLUSION: this study will provide new evidence for the effect of sleep on male reproductive system.

6.
Nat Cell Biol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020597

RESUMO

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are abundantly expressed during cardiac hypertrophy. However, their functions and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we identified a cardiac-hypertrophy-associated piRNA (CHAPIR) that promotes pathological hypertrophy and cardiac remodelling by targeting METTL3-mediated N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of Parp10 mRNA transcripts. CHAPIR deletion markedly attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and restores heart function, while administration of a CHAPIR mimic enhances the pathological hypertrophic response in pressure-overloaded mice. Mechanistically, CHAPIR-PIWIL4 complexes directly interact with METTL3 and block the m6A methylation of Parp10 mRNA transcripts, which upregulates PARP10 expression. The CHAPIR-dependent increase in PARP10 promotes the mono-ADP-ribosylation of GSK3ß and inhibits its kinase activity, which results in the accumulation of nuclear NFATC4 and the progression of pathological hypertrophy. Hence, our findings reveal that a piRNA-mediated RNA epigenetic mechanism is involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy and that the CHAPIR-METTL3-PARP10-NFATC4 signalling axis could be therapeutically targeted for treating pathological hypertrophy and maladaptive cardiac remodelling.

7.
Microb Ecol ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006023

RESUMO

Biodiversity is recognized to be relatively low in the dryland ecosystem. However, we might overlook the accumulating genetic variation in those dryland micro-populations, which should eventually increase the dryland biodiversity. In the xeric steppes of western and northwestern China, there are two soil surface-dwelling and genetically close cyanobacterial species, Nostoc commune and Nostoc flagelliforme. They respectively exhibit lamellate and filamentous colony shapes. Their individual colony is consisted of hundreds of trichomes and the common exopolysaccharide matrix. N. flagelliforme is exclusively distributed in the dryland and supposed to be evolved from N. commune. We previously reported that the morphological diversity of N. flagelliforme colonies was very limited, being either cylindrical or strip-like. In this communication, we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the marker gene wspA as well as phylogenetic analysis of the WspA protein in N. flagelliforme colonies to gain insights into its genetic diversity. SNP analysis suggested that there existed plentiful nucleotide variations in the individual colonies and meanwhile these variations shared certain evolutionary regularity. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced proteins from the cloned wspA sequences suggested that the relatively regular variations were possibly dispersed in the N. flagelliforme populations of different regions. Thus, these results presented a scenario of the underestimated genetic diversity hidden behind the limited morphotype of dryland cyanobacteria. Maybe, we can consider the individual cyanobacterial colony as a potential biodiversity pool in the drylands.

8.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 144: 103467, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002606

RESUMO

Tos7 (Yol019w) is a Sur7/PalI family transmembrane protein in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since the deletion of TOS7 did not affect growth or cell morphology, the cellular roles of Tos7 have not been established previously. Here, we show that high-copy TOS7 expression suppressed the growth defect of the secretion-defective RGA1-C term-overexpressing mutant and sec15-1 mutant. Moreover, Tos7 physically interacted with Boi2 and the Rho GTPase Rho3, two key regulators of exocyst assembly, suggesting that Tos7 plays a role in secretion. We also show that the deletion of TOS7 rendered the cells more sensitive to the cell wall-disrupting agents Congo red and calcofluor white while high-copy TOS7 expression had an opposite effect, suggesting that Tos7 affects cell wall organization. Finally, we show that Tos7 localized to punctate patches on the plasma membrane that were largely co-localized with the plasma membrane microdomains named MCC (membrane compartment of Can1). Together, these results suggest that Tos7 contributes to cell surface-related functions. Tos7 is likely an auxiliary component of MCC/eisosome that specifically interacts with the secretory pathway.

9.
J Surg Res ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with rectal cancer treated at specialized or high-volume hospitals have better outcomes, but a minority of these patients are treated there. Physician recommendations are important considerations for patients with rectal cancer when making treatment decisions, yet little is known about the factors that affect these physician referral patterns. METHODS: Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted in 2018-2019 with Iowa gastroenterologists (GIs) and general surgeons (GSs) who performed colonoscopies in a community setting. A thematic approach was used to analyze and code qualitative data. RESULTS: We interviewed 10 GIs and 6 GSs with self-reported averages of 15.5 y in practice, 1100 endoscopic procedures annually, and 6 rectal cancer diagnoses annually. Physicians believed surgeon experience and colorectal specialization were directly related to positive outcomes in rectal cancer resections. Most GSs performed resections on patients they diagnosed and typically only referred patients to colorectal surgeons (CRS) in complex cases. Conversely, GIs generally referred to CRS in all cases. Adhering to existing referral patterns due to the pressure of health care networks was a salient theme for both GIs and GSs. CONCLUSIONS: While respondents believe that high volume/specialization is related to improved surgical outcomes, referral recommendations are heavily influenced by existing referral networks. Referral practices also differ by diagnosing specialty and suggest rural patients may be less likely to be referred to a CRS because more GSs perform colonoscopies in rural areas and tend to keep patients for resection. System-level interventions that target referral networks may improve rectal cancer outcomes at the population level.

10.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901371

RESUMO

The effective prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) needs to be explored, and the effect of preoperative pain on POCD remains unclear. We established a chronic pain model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) and models of acute pain and anxiety without pain in mice that were subsequently subjected to partial hepatectomy surgery. Morris water maze (MWM) tests were performed to evaluate the learning and memory abilities of the mice. ELISA was used to measure IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum, and HPLC-MS was used to detect neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortices and hippocampi of the mice. The results indicated that chronic pain induced by CCI might have significantly impaired the learning and memory abilities of mice, while acute pain and anxiety without pain only affected the memory abilities of mice. Perioperative acute pain increased the level of IL-1ß in serum, and CCI might have increased the level of IL-6. CCI and acute pain increased dopamine (DA) levels in the cortex, similar to anxiety. Like anxiety, CCI increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Acute pain led to a decrease in the acetylcholine (ACH) level in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that acute pain and CCI-induced chronic pain might aggravate postoperative cognitive dysfunction via neurotransmitters and by changing the levels of inflammatory factors such as IL-1ß and IL-6.

11.
Food Chem ; 340: 127948, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896779

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of enzymatic cross-linking of shrimp tropomyosin (TM) with tyrosinase and caffeic acid (TM-Tyr/CA) on the allergic response were assessed using in vitro and in vivo models. The RBL-2H3 and KU812 cell lines were employed to evaluate the changes in the stimulation abilities of TM-Tyr/CA that showed significant inhibition of mediators and cytokines. The digestibility of cross-linked TM was improved and the recognitions of IgG/IgE were markedly reduced, as revealed by western blotting. TM-Tyr/CA decreased anaphylactic symptoms, and hindered the levels of IgG1, IgE, histamine, tryptase and mouse mast-cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) in mice sera. Cross-linked TM downregulated the production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 by 51.36, 12.24 and 20.55%, respectively, whereas, IL-10 and IFN-γ were upregulated by 20.71 and 19.0%. TM-Tyr/CA showed reduced allergenicity and may have preventive effect in relieving TM induced allergic response via immunosuppression and positive modulation of T-helper (Th)1/Th2 immunobalance.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estimating the hospitalization risk for people with comorbidities infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is important for developing public health policies and guidance. Traditional biostatistical methods for risk estimations require: (i) the number of infected people who were not hospitalized, which may be severely undercounted since many infected people were not tested; (ii) comorbidity information for people not hospitalized, which may not always be readily available. We aim to overcome these limitations by developing a Bayesian approach to estimate the risk ratio of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients with comorbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We derived a Bayesian approach to estimate the posterior distribution of the risk ratio using the observed frequency of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients in hospitals and the prevalence of comorbidities in the general population. We applied our approach to two large-scale datasets in the United States: 2491 patients in the COVID-NET, and 5700 patients in New York hospitals. RESULTS: Our results consistently indicated that cardiovascular diseases carried the highest hospitalization risk for COVID-19 patients, followed by diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, hypertension, and obesity, respectively. DISCUSSION: Our approach only needs (i) the number of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and their comorbidity information, which can be reliably obtained using hospital records, and (ii) the prevalence of the comorbidity of interest in the general population, which is regularly documented by public health agencies for common medical conditions. CONCLUSION: We developed a novel Bayesian approach to estimate the hospitalization risk for people with comorbidities infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e016455, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954888

RESUMO

Background Night eating has been associated with an elevated risk of obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. However, there is no longitudinal study on whether habitual night eating, regardless of diet quality and energy intake, is associated with arterial stiffness, a major etiological factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results The study included 7771 adult participants without cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes mellitus prior to dietary assessment by a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2014 through 2015. Participants were categorized into 3 groups based on self-reported night-eating habits: never or rarely, some days (1-5 times per week), or most days (6+ times per week). Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity at baseline and repeatedly during follow-ups. Mean differences and 95% CIs in the yearly change rate of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity across the 3 groups were calculated, adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, total energy intake, diet quality, sleep quality, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. At baseline, 6625 (85.2%), 610 (7.8%), and 536 (6.9%) participants reported night eating as never or rarely, some days, or most days, respectively. During a mean 3.19 years, we observed a positive association between night-eating frequency and progression of arterial stiffness (P trend=0.01). The adjusted difference in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity change rate between the group that ate at night most days and the group that never or rarely ate at night was 14.1 (95% CI, 0.6-27.5) cm/s per year. This association was only significant in women, but not in men (P interaction=0.03). Conclusions In an adult population free of major chronic diseases, habitual night eating was positively associated with the progression of arterial stiffness, a hallmark of arteriosclerosis and biological aging. Registration URL: https://www.chictr.org.cn; Unique identifier: ChiCTR-TNRC-11001489.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(9): 763, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938906

RESUMO

Monocyte-derived cells were shown to promote cartilage repair in osteoarthritis. The role of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MM2P in this function of monocyte-derived cells remained unexplored. Treatment of RAW264.7 murine macrophages and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with IL-4 or IL-13 upregulated MM2P expression, upstream of STAT3 and STAT6 phosphorylation. Specifically, MM2P blocked SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of STAT3 at Try705 and interacted with the RNA-binding protein FUS. In turn, p-STAT3 increased the Sox9 gene expression. These cells released Sox9 mRNA and protein-containing exosomes, as demonstrated by a transmission electron microscope, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and detection of typical surface markers. Their culture supernatant promoted the differentiation of mouse primary chondrocytes, i.e., upregulated the expression of Col1a2 and Acan genes and promoted the secretion of extracellular matrix components proteoglycan and type II collagen. These effects were mediated by Sox9 mRNA and protein delivered to chondrocytes by exosomes. Together, ex vivo treatment of monocyte-derived cells with IL-4 or IL-13 promoted chondrocyte differentiation and functions through exosome-mediated delivery of Sox9 mRNA and protein.

15.
Circ Res ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985370

RESUMO

Rationale: Previous studies on the relationship between diabetes and arterial stiffness were mostly cross-sectional. A few longitudinal studies focused on one single direction. Whether the association between arterial stiffness and diabetes is bidirectional remains unclear to date. Objective: To explore the temporal relationship between arterial stiffness and fasting blood glucose (FBG) status. Methods and Results: Included were 14,159 participants of the Kailuan study with assessment of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) from 2010 to 2015, and free of diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease at baseline. FBG and baPWV were repeatedly measured at baseline and follow-ups. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident diabetes across baseline baPWV groups: <1,400 cm/s (ref), 1,400 {less than or equal to} baPWV < 1,800 cm/s, and {greater than or equal to}1,800cm/s. Path analysis was used to analyze the possible temporal causal relationship between baPWV and FBG, among 8,956 participants with repeated assessment of baPWV and FBG twice in 2010-2017. The mean baseline age of the observed population was 48.3{plus minus}12.0 years. During mean 3.72 years of follow-up, 979 incident diabetes cases were identified. After adjusting for potential confounders, the HR (95% CI) for risk of diabetes was 1.59 (1.34, 1.88) for the borderline arterial stiffness group and 2.11 (1.71, 2.61) for the elevated arterial stiffness group, compared with the normal ideal arterial stiffness group. In the path analysis, baseline baPWV was associated with follow-up FBG (the standard regression coefficient was 0.09; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.10). In contrast, the standard regression coefficient of baseline FBG for follow-up baPWV (ß = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.02) was not significant. Conclusions: Arterial stiffness, as measured by baPWV, was associated with risk of developing diabetes. Arterial stiffness appeared to precede the increase in FBG.

16.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954657

RESUMO

Carbon nano-onions with concentric fullerene-like carbon shells were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization of citric acids at 180 °C and formed through the intermediates of graphene quantum dots, graphitic nano-sheets and graphitic hollow polyhedrons. The graphene quantum dots were firstly formed by the dehydration of citric acids and then grew and stacked into graphitic nano-sheets, which curved into graphitic hollow polyhedrons due to the interface energy. The graphitic hollow polyhedrons eventually transformed into spherical carbon nano-onions with the lowest interface energy in the hydrothermal solution by disordering and rearrangement of the carbon shell.

17.
J Appl Gerontol ; : 733464820957151, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909502

RESUMO

eHealth literacy is a critical factor that influences caregivers' well-being. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between eHealth literacy, education, and caregiver burden among Chinese caregivers of older adults with cognitive impairment. Data came from structured interviews with 300 primary family caregiver-care recipient dyads in Wuhan, China. We used logistic regression to examine the association between eHealth literacy, education, and caregiver burden. An interaction effect between eHealth literacy and education on caregiver burden was identified. eHealth literacy was positively associated with caregiver burden among caregivers with less than a high school education, but not among those with a high school education or above. eHealth literacy is salient in the burden experienced by caregivers with low education. eHealth literacy needs to be enhanced with health information verification from health professionals and programs to support caregiving efficacy to realize its positive impact on caregivers' mental health.

18.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910726

RESUMO

Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Benth. (common name: Monkey-pod) is a perennial arbor tree belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is used to produce a traditional medicine to treat a variety of heat toxicity symptoms in China. The distribution of A. clypearia mainly include Guangdong, Fujian, and Zhejiang provinces in China as well as other countries in Southeast Asia. In 2018, about 30 Monkey-pod trees were observed showing typical dieback symptoms in a commercial plantation (114°36'09.401″E, 22°58'38.553″N) of Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China. In addition, white cylindrical sawdust exudates from exit holes of ambrosia beetles were observed on the trunks and main branches of the diseased trees. Discoloration was seen around the exit holes of the beetles by splitting the wood. Samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic wood tissues of branches, trunks, and roots were collected from 11 trees. To identify the pathogen, the samples were disinfected with a sodium hypochlorite solution containing 50 g/l chlorine for 60 s, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for culture at 25℃ for 14 days. Beetles from exit holes of the pathogen-infected wood tissues were also collected and identified as Xyleborus affinis by their cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences (GenBank accession numbers: MT921005 and MT921006) as well as morphological features. After two weeks incubation, 37 single-spore isolates were obtained (31 from galleries of branches and trunks, and 6 from mycangia and the body surface of beetles). Colonies on PDA were fusarium-like, pale orange, floccose with abundant aerial mycelia, and growing at the rate of 3.0 to 4.5 mm/d at 25℃. Conidiophores from the aerial mycelia often had single phialides. Microconidia were hyaline, 0-1 septate, (4-)6-12(-16) × 2-4 µm (n=100), Macroconidia were hyaline, ellipsoidal to falcate, 2-4 septate, (10-)25-45(-50) × 3-6 µm (n=100), with basal foot cells shaped to pointed and apical cells tapered and curved. Two representative isolates (CYML 367, 368) were used for molecular identification and pathogenicity tests. The internal transcriptional spacer region (ITS), ß-tubulin (TUB), and translation elongation factor-1α (TEF 1-α) regions were amplified with primers ITS1F/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), Bt2a/Bt2b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), and EF1-728F (Carbone and Kohn 1999) /EF-2 (O'Donnell et al.1998), respectively. DNA extraction and PCR conditions were followed the methods described by Yin et al. (2019). The amplified fragments were sequenced. The results of BLAST demonstrated that the fragment sequences of ITS (468 bp), TEF 1-α (616 bp), and TUB (295 bp) of isolates CYML367 and CYML368 had 100% similarity to correspondence sequences from the Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. emend. Snyder & Hansen species complex (GenBank accession numbers MT032694, JF740777, and MN451171, respectively). Sequences generated from this study were deposited into GenBank under accession numbers MN826824 and MN826825 (ITS), MN839680 and MN839681 (TUB), and MN839682 and MN839683 (TEF 1-α). Pathogenicity tests were conducted on 2-year-old seedlings (60-70 cm height, 1.0-1.2 cm in diameter) of A. clypearia with the representative isolates. Ten seedlings were inoculated with each isolate. The stem surface was disinfected with 75% ethanol for 30 s, and rinsed with sterilized water, wounded by removing part of the phloem and xylem, and placed with a mycelial plug (5 mm diameter) from the margin of a 7-day-old PDA plate with mycelia facing the cambium. The inoculated wounds were wrapped with a medical sterile gauze to prevent desiccation and contamination. Control plants were inoculated with non-colonized PDA plugs. These inoculated and control plants were incubated in a chamber at 25℃, 50% humidity, 12 h light/12 h dark cycle. After 3 weeks, all inoculated plants displayed Fusarium dieback symptoms similar to those observed on the original diseased trees in the plantation. The average lesion lengths (1.2/1.7 cm) caused by two isolates were all significantly longer than the wounds in the negative controls (P<0.05). The same fungus was re-isolated from the symptomatic plants, thus fulfilling the Koch's postulates. Further studies should be conducted on the potential vector association, transmission route, and management strategies of this pathogen on A. clypearia in growing regions of China. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing dieback on A. clypearia in China.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Findings regarding the prognostic value of soluble suppression of tumorigenecity-2 (sST2) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remain inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the long-term prognostic value of sST2 in patients with CAD. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted across the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to June 3, 2020. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). The secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) death, heart failure (HF), and myocardial infarction (MI). Pooled estimations and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-two articles that enrolled a total of 17,432 patients with CAD were included in the final analysis. CAD patients in the highest categories of baseline sST2 had a significantly higher risk of MACEs (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09-1.76), all-cause mortality (HR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.54-2.46), and CV death (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15-1.68), HF (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.87-2.94), but not that of MI (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: -0.73-3.04), than those in the lowest categories. These results were consistent when baseline sST2 was presented as continuous values in one unit increments. Moreover, subgroup analysis showed that elevated baseline sST2 levels increased the long-term risk of MACEs in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) population (HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.39-2.09) but only showed a trend toward higher risk of MACEs in the non-ACS population (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.87-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that a higher concentration of baseline sST2 is associated with a higher risk of MACEs, all-cause mortality, CV death, and HF in patients with CAD. Elevated sST2 levels could significantly predict future MACEs in the ACS population but not in the non-ACS population.

20.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924788

RESUMO

Objective: Antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) that lowers the effectiveness of current treatments for pneumonia is a growing problem. Qi Gui Yin is a Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to improve the efficacy of antibiotic therapy against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which Qi Gui Yin inhibits antibiotic resistance of PA. Methods: Active components of Qi Gui Yin were analyzed by chromatography. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) technology was used to compare protein expression profiles of PA strains cultured in serum from rats that were and were not treated with Qi Gui Yin. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was performed to detect gene expression changes. Results: Proteomic analysis identified 76 differentially expressed proteins between PA strains cultured in serum from rats that were or were not treated with Qi Gui Yin. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the largest number of differentially expressed proteins were associated with resistance mechanisms such as quorum sensing, bacterial biofilm formation, and active pumping. In addition, qPCR analysis confirmed that downregulation of iscU and arcA gene expression was associated with Qi Gui Yin treatment. Conclusions: Serum from Qi Gui Yin-treated rats could effectively inhibit antibiotic resistance of PA. Chlorogenic acid and astragaloside IV are the main components of Qi Gui Yin, which may mediate inhibition of antibiotic resistance. Our findings provide new insights into strategies involving Chinese herbal medicine that can be used to treat pneumonia caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

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