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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(4)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224871

RESUMO

Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) is a stress-inducing enzyme with multiple cardiovascular protective functions, especially in hypoxia stress. However, transcriptional regulation of swine HMOX1 gene remains unclear. In the present study, we first detected tissue expression profiles of HMOX1 gene in adult Hezuo Tibetan pig and analyzed the gene structure. We found that the expression level of HMOX1 gene was highest in the spleen of the Hezuo Tibetan pig, followed by liver, lung, and kidney. A series of 5' deletion promoter plasmids in pGL3-basic vector were used to identify the core promoter region and confirmed that the minimum core promoter region of swine HMOX1 gene was located at -387 bp to -158 bp region. Then we used bioinformatics analysis to predict transcription factors in this region. Combined with site-directed mutagenesis and RNA interference assays, it was demonstrated that the three transcription factors WT1, Sp1 and C/EBPα were important transcription regulators of HMOX1 gene. In summary, our study may lay the groundwork for further functional study of HMOX1 gene.

2.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This mixed methods study evaluates the use and perceptions of a novel video genre of authentic, in-the-moment expert-student dialogue to support student preparation for a summative clinical competence assessment. METHODS: Expert-student dialogue videos were available on the university learning management system (Moodle) for self-directed access for a fixed prosthodontics course. These comprised 3 categories of video relating to dialogic episodes of previous student's performance relating to a clinical competence assessment. These were as follows: case suitability, case discussion and self-evaluation. Fourteen students who were taking the competence test and had watched the supporting videos were invited for focus group interviews. Twelve students participated in three focus groups within 24 hours of the assessment and the audio recordings were analysed. A thematic analysis was performed using an inductive approach. Video access data were also retrieved and analysed based on when the videos were watched. RESULTS: Three key themes were identified: assessment preparation, enhanced learning and affordance phenomena. By accessing the videos, students gained insights into the case suitability, assessment process and criteria, and the examiners' expectations. They reported reduced uncertainty and stress, improved confidence and better preparedness for the assessment. Students also reported this video genre stimulated higher-order thinking and provided a broader clinical experience. A diverse array of viewing patterns was observed immediately before the assessment and across the year. For the focus group of students, they watched 65% of all their videos for the prosthodontics course one week before their competency testing periods. CONCLUSION: The expert-student dialogue videos that captured peers clinical competence tests improved students' assessment literacy, increased their assessment preparedness, reduced stress and enriched their learning.

3.
Environ Res ; 184: 109261, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087442

RESUMO

To unravel the linkages between ecological ratios (C:N:P) and the microbial community in rhizosphere soil in response to fertilizer management, soil samples were collected from a proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) field under different fertilizer management systems, including nitrogen fertilizer (NF), phosphorus fertilizer (PF), combined N and P (NP) fertilizer, and organic fertilizer (OF); no fertilizer (CK) was used as a control. Furthermore, 16S rRNA and ITS gene sequencing were applied to represent the bacterial and fungal diversity in the soil. Moreover, the elemental properties, including the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents, in the microbial biomass and rhizosphere soil were evaluated. The results showed that the C, N, and P contents and microbial biomass (MBC, MBN and MBP, respectively) in the rhizosphere soil were augmented following fertilizer management. Increases in the alpha diversity indices (Shannon and Chao 1) of soil bacteria and fungi were observed in response to the fertilizers, and the responses were more closely related to the soil C:N and N:P ratios than to the C:P ratio. Additionally, with high relative abundances (>1%) across all soil samples, the composition of soil microbial phyla levels revealed different trends following fertilizer management. The abundances of Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes increased, while the abundances of Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae decreased (P < 0.05) following fertilizer management. Among the fungal taxa, the abundances of Ascomycota and Mortierellomycota responded positively to fertilizer. These results were largely influenced by changes in the C:N and N:P ratios in both the soil and microbial biomass. Overall, significantly increased C:N and decreased N:P ratios in the soil reflected the N deficiency that would limit increased microbial biomass and diversity. Together, all of these results indicated that interactions between ecological ratios (C:N:P) and microbial community composition play vital roles in resource imbalance in dynamic environments. Thus, N status should be an important factor for sustainable agricultural management. Moreover, the synergistic effects were better with the combination of C, N, and P or with organic fertilizer than with C, N and P separately.

4.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(1): 3-14, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated whether increased expression of activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases 1 (MEK1) restores ischemic post-conditioning (IPostC) protection in hypertrophic myocardium following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice received recombinant adeno-associated virus type 9 (rAAV9)-mediated activated MEK1 gene delivery systemically, then following the induction of cardiac hypertrophy via transverse aortic constriction for 4 weeks. In a Langendorff model, hypertrophic hearts were subjected to 40 min/60 min I/R or with IPostC intervention consisting of 6 cycles of 10 s reperfusion and 10 s no-flow before a 60-min reperfusion. Hemodynamics, infarct size (IS), myocyte apoptosis and changes in expression of reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway were examined. RESULTS: rAAV9-MEK1 gene delivery led to a 4.3-fold and 2.7-fold increase in MEK1 mRNA and protein expression in the heart versus their control values. I/R resulted in a larger IS in hypertrophic than in non-hypertrophic hearts (52.3 ± 4.7% vs. 40.0 ± 2.5%, P < 0.05). IPostC mediated IS reduction in non-hypertrophic hearts (27.6 ± 2.6%, P < 0.05), while it had no significant effect in hypertrophic hearts (46.5 ± 3.1%, P=NS) compared with the IS in non-hypertrophic or hypertrophic hearts subjected to I/R injury only, respectively. Hemodynamic decline induced by I/R was preserved by IPostC in non-hypertrophic hearts but not in hypertrophic hearts. rAAV9-MEK1 gene delivery restored IPostC protection in hypertrophic hearts evidenced by reduced IS (32.0 ± 2.8% vs. 46.5 ± 3.1%) and cardiac cell apoptosis and largely preserved hemodynamic parameters. These protective effects were associated with significantly increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), but it had no influence on Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3ß. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that rAAV9-mediated activated MEK1 expression restores IPostC protection in the hypertrophic heart against I/R injury through the activation of ERK pathway.

5.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate dental utilization among 3-,4-, and 5-year-old children in China and to use Andersen's behavioural model to explore influencing factors, thereby providing a reference for future policy making. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study. Data of 40,305 children aged 3-5 years were extracted from the Fourth National Oral Health Survey, which was performed from August 2015 to December 2016. Patient data were collected using a questionnaire, which was answered by the child's parents, and clinical data were collected during a clinical examination. Stratification and survey weighting were incorporated into the complex survey design. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations and hierarchical logistic regression results were then analysed to find the factors associated with oral health service utilization. RESULTS: The oral health service utilization prevalence during the prior 12 months were 9.5% (95%CI: 8.1-11.1%) among 3-year-old children, 12.1% (95%CI: 10.8-13.5%) among 4-year-old children, and 17.5% (95%CI: 15.6-19.4%) among 5-year-old children. "No dental diseases" (71.3%) and "dental disease was not severe" (12.4%) were the principal reasons why children had not attended a dental visit in the past 12 months. The children whose parents had a bachelor's degree or higher (OR: 2.29, 95%CI: 1.97-2.67, p < 0.001), a better oral health attitude ranging from 5 to 8(OR: 1.64, 95%CI: 1.43-1.89, p < 0.001), annual per capital income more than 25,000 CNY (OR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.18-1.65, p < 0.001),think their child have worse or bad oral health (OR: 3.54, 95%CI: 2.84-4.40, p < 0.001), and children who often have toothaches (OR: 9.72, 95%CI: 7.81-12.09, p < 0.001) were more likely to go to the dentist in the past year. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental service utilization was relatively low among preschool children. It is necessary to strengthen oral health education for parents and children, thereby improving oral health knowledge as well as attitude, and promoting dental utilization.

6.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 48(1): 32-41, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the factors associated with utilization of oral health services among Chinese adults and older adults according to the Andersen Behavior Model. METHODS: Data from the 4th National Oral Health Survey (2015-2016) in China were used. A total of 7206 people (3669 adults aged 35-44 years and 3537 older adults aged 65-74 years) were included in our analysis. Oral health service utilization in the past 12 months was the outcome variable. Explanatory variables were selected according to the Andersen Behavior Model. Descriptive statistics and bivariate associations (chi-square tests) were analysed, followed by hierarchical Poisson regression models, which were conducted to determine the factors associated with oral health service utilization. RESULTS: In total, 21.4% (95% CI: 19.4%-23.7%) of adults (35-44 years old) and 20.7% (95% CI: 18.6%-22.9%) of older adults (65-74 years old) utilized oral health services in the past 12 months. Nearly 80% of adults (78.7%, 95% CI: 74.0%-82.7%) and more than 90% of older adults (93.7%, 95% CI: 91.0%-95.6%) visited a dentist for treatment. Adults aged 35-44 years old who were female (IRR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.00-1.33, P = .047), had good oral health knowledge and attitudes (IRR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.59, P = .011), perceived their oral health status as fair (IRR:1.51, 95% CI:1.24-1.85, P < .001) or poor/very poor (IRR:2.52, 95% CI:2.01-3.18, P < .001) and had a decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index >0 (IRR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.11-2.09, P = .009) were more likely to report dental visits in the past 12 months. Older adults who utilized oral health services tended to be female (IRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59, P = .004); to be covered by Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) (IRR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.18-2.05, P = .002), Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) (IRR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.32-2.16, P < .001) or government medical insurance (GMI) (IRR: 1.03, 95% CI:1.01-2.16, P = .044); to have a high education level (IRR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08-1.74, P = .010); to have an income level in the 2nd tertile (IRR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.13-1.84, P = .003) or 3rd tertile (IRR:1.52, 95% CI:1.18-1.95, P = .001); and to perceive their oral health status as poor or very poor (IRR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21-1.95, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Sex and self-perceived oral health status were associated with oral health utilization among Chinese population. Additionally, for older adults, education level, household income and insurance coverage were determinants of dental service use. These findings can aid in creating more targeted policies to increase the use of dental services by Chinese adults.

7.
Food Chem ; 307: 125543, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634760

RESUMO

Phosphate fertilisation affects the growth, development and quality of Tartary buckwheat. In this study, the effect of different phosphorus levels, including 0, 15, 75, and 135 kg/ha (non-, low-, medium-, and high-phosphorus levels, respectively), on the characteristics of starch from Tartary buckwheat were investigated in 2015 and 2017. With increased phosphorus level, the median diameter of starch granules and the apparent amylose content initially decreased and then increased. All starch samples showed the features of A-type X-ray diffraction patterns. Starches under medium-phosphorus treatment showed higher relative crystallinity than those under non-phosphorus treatment, as well as the highest solubility, gelatinisation enthalpy and transmittance among all starches. Starches under low-phosphorus treatment exhibited higher pasting properties than those under non-phosphorus treatment. This research revealed that phosphorus treatments and year significantly affected the physicochemical properties of Tartary buckwheat starch, and can provide information for the applications of starch in the food and non-food industries.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/química , Fertilizantes , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Amido/química , Amilose/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Fagopyrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solubilidade
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 145-153, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846660

RESUMO

Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) of starch is defined as a physical method to change its properties. Compared with maize and potato, starches from common buckwheat (Xinong9976 and Pingqiao2) were isolated and its morphology and physicochemical properties investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ATR-FTIR analysis, rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were studied before and after HMT. The experimental results showed that there were obvious differences between native starch (NS) and resistant starch (RS) of common buckwheat. HMT altered the A-type crystalline pattern and the degree of short-range order of common buckwheat starches and significantly decreased water solubility, swelling power (70-90 °C), freeze-thaw stability and pasting properties and increased oil and water absorption capacities, light transmittance as well as thermal stability. This study shows that the NS and RS of common buckwheat can be used as the suitable raw materials in food processing.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817460

RESUMO

Pea (Pisum sativum L.), as a major source of plant protein, is becoming one of the major cultivated crop species worldwide. In pea, the pericarp is an important determinant of the morphological characteristics and seed yield. To investigate the molecular mechanism of pericarp elongation as well as sucrose and starch accumulation in the pods of different pea cultivars, we performed transcriptomic analysis of the pericarp of two types of pea cultivar (vegetable pea and grain pea) using RNA-seq. A total of 239.44 Gb of clean sequence data were generated, and were aligned to the reference genome of Pisum sativum L. In the two samples, 1935 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Among these DEGs, three antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to have higher expression levels in the grain pea pericarps at the pod-elongating stages. Otherwise, five peroxidase (POD)-encoding genes were detected to have lower expression levels in the vegetative pericarps at the development stage of pea pod growth. Furthermore, genes related to starch and sucrose metabolism in the pea pod, such as SUS, INV, FBA, TPI, ADPase, SBE, SSS, and GBSS, were found to be differentially expressed. The RNA-seq data were validated through real-time quantitative RT-PCR of 13 randomly selected genes. Our findings provide the gene expression profile of, as well as differential expression information on, the two pea cultivars, which will lay the foundation for further studies on pod development and nutrition accumulation in the pea and provide valuable information for pea cultivar improvement.

10.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 21(12): 1161-1169, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760800

RESUMO

Three new eremophilane-type sesquiterpenoids, alashanoids K-M (1-3), and one known analogue (4) were isolated from the peeled stems of Syringa pinnatifolia. All the compounds were isolated from the genus Syringa for the first time. Structures of these compounds were established using 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations were determined by experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism analysis, a modification of Mosher's method, and X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2 and 3 inhibited NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 14.23 and 12.20 µM, respectively, and showed cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells with the IC50 values of 34.41 and 40.86 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos , Syringa , Animais , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta
11.
Foods ; 8(11)2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744184

RESUMO

Proso millet, a grain which is principally consumed in cooked form, is favored by consumers because of its rich nutritional value. However, the changes in morphological and physicochemical properties of proso millet grains occurring during the cooking process have rarely been reported. In this study, we investigated the changes in morphological and physicochemical properties of cooked waxy and non-waxy proso millets. During the cooking process, starch granules in the grains were gradually gelatinized starting from the outer region to the inner region and were gelatinized earlier in waxy proso millet than in non-waxy proso millet. Many filamentous network structures were observed in the cross sections of cooked waxy proso millet. As the cooking time increased, the long- and short-range, ordered structures of proso millets were gradually disrupted, and the ordered structures were fully disrupted by 20 min of cooking. In both waxy and non-waxy proso millets, thermal and pasting properties significantly changed with an increase in the cooking time. This study provides useful information for the processing of proso millet in the food industry.

12.
Metabolomics ; 15(10): 136, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586238

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mass spectrometric data analysis of complex biological mixtures can be a challenge due to its vast datasets. There is lack of data treatment pipelines to analyze chemical signals versus noise. These tasks, so far, have been up to the discretion of the analysts. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to demonstrate an analytical workflow that would enhance the confidence in metabolomics before answering biological questions by serial dilution of botanical complex mixture and high-dimensional data analysis. Furthermore, we would like to provide an alternative approach to a univariate p-value cutoff from t-test for blank subtraction procedure between negative control and biological samples. METHODS: A serial dilution of complex mixture analysis under electrospray ionization was proposed to study firsthand chemical complexity of metabolomics. Advanced statistical models using high-dimensional penalized regression were employed to study both the concentration and ion intensity relationship and the ion-ion relationship per second of retention time sub dataset. The multivariate analysis was carried out with a tool built in-house, so called metabolite ions extraction and visualization, which was implemented in R environment. RESULTS: A test case of the medicinal plant goldenseal (Hydrastis canandensis L.), showed an increase in metabolome coverage of features deemed as "important" by a multivariate analysis compared to features deemed as "significant" by a univariate t-test. For an illustration, the data analysis workflow suggested an unexpected putative compound, 20-hydroxyecdysone. This suggestion was confirmed with MS/MS acquisition and literature search. CONCLUSION: The multivariate analytical workflow selects "true" metabolite ions signals and provides an alternative approach to a univariate p-value cutoff from t-test, thus enhancing the data analysis process of metabolomics.

13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 397, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought stress is a major abiotic stress that causes huge losses in agricultural production. Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) can efficiently adapt to drought stress and provides important information and gene resources to improve drought tolerance. However, its complex drought-responsive mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: Among 37 core Chinese proso millet cultivars, Jinshu 6 (JS6) was selected as the drought-sensitive test material, whereas Neimi 5 (NM5) was selected as the drought-tolerant test material under PEG-induced water stress. After sequencing, 1695 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in JS6 and NM5 without PEG-induced water stress (JS6CK and NM5CK). A total of 833 and 2166 DEGs were found in the two cultivars under simulated drought by using 20% PEG-6000 for 6 (JS6T6 and NM5T6) and 24 h (JS6T24 and NM5T24), respectively. The DEGs in JS6T6 and JS6T24 treatments were approximately 0.298- and 0.754-fold higher than those in NM5T6 and NM5T24, respectively. Compared with the respective controls, more DEGs were found in T6 treatments than in T24 treatments. A delay in the transcriptional responses of the ROS scavenging system to simulated drought treatment and relatively easy recovery of the expression of photosynthesis-associated genes were observed in NM5. Compared with JS6, different regulation strategies were observed in the jasmonic acid (JA) signal transduction pathway of NM5. CONCLUSION: Under PEG-induced water stress, NM5 maintained highly stable gene expression levels. Compared with drought-sensitive cultivars, the different regulation strategies in the JA signal transduction pathway in drought-tolerant cultivars may be one of the driving forces underlying drought stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Panicum/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Panicum/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(10): 1366-1376, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to assess the value of admission macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels in predicting clinical outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS: For this study we recruited 498 STEMI patients after they received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 40 with stable angina pectoris and 137 healthy participants. Plasma MIF levels were measured at admission and after PCI. The primary end points were in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardio-and/or cerebrovascular events (MACCE) during hospitalization and 3.2-year follow-up period. RESULTS: Admission MIF levels were elevated in 88.4% of STEMI patients over the upper reference limit of healthy controls and it was 3- to 7-fold higher than that in stable angina pectoris and control groups (122 ± 61 vs 39 ± 19 vs 17 ± 8 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Admission MIF levels were significantly higher in patients who died after myocardial infarction vs survivors. For predicting in-hospital mortality using the optimal cutoff value (127.8 ng/mL) of MIF, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for MIF was 0.820, similar area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for predicting short-term outcomes were observed for high-sensitivity troponin T, CK-MB, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score. Although peak high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide also predicted MACCE during the follow-up period, only higher admission MIF levels predicted in-hospital mortality and MACCE during the 3.2-year follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis showed the independent predictive value of a higher admission MIF level (≥ 127.8 ng/mL) on in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 9.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-47.2) and 3.2-year MACCE (hazard ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.6). CONCLUSIONS: A higher admission MIF level is an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality and long-term MACCE in STEMI patients who underwent PCI.

15.
Microb Pathog ; 136: 103699, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472261

RESUMO

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type C is one of major pathogenic causing diarrhea and other intestinal inflammatory diseases in piglets, which seriously affects the healthy development of the swine industries. Studies have found that miRNAs play important roles in regulating piglet diarrhea challenged by pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. However, little is known miRNAs in the ileum of diarrheic piglets caused by C. perfringens type C. Therefore, we studied the expression profiles of the ileum miRNAs of 7-day-old piglets infected with C. perfringens type C using small RNA-Seq, including control (IC), susceptible (IS) and resistant (IR) groups. As a result, 53 differentially expressed miRNAs were found. KEGG pathway analysis for target genes revealed that these miRNAs were involved in ErbB signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway and Wnt signaling pathway. The expression correlation analysis between miRNAs and target genes revealed that the expression of miR-7134-5p had negative correlation with target NFATC4, miR-500 had negative correlation with target ELK1, HSPA2 and IL7R, and miR-92b-3p had negative correlation with target CLCF1 in ileum of IR vs IS group, suggesting that miR-7134-5p targeting to NFATC4, miR-500 targeting to ELK1, HSPA2 and IL7R, and miR-92b-3p targeting to CLCF1 were probably involved in piglet resisting C. perfringens type C. The results will provide value resources for better understanding of the genetic basis of C. perfringens type C resistance in piglet and lays a new foundation for identifying novel markers of C. perfringens type C resistance.

16.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(12): e4690, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452234

RESUMO

Traditionally, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been consumed as fresh fruit or as pomegranate juice. Pomegranate peel, the dried husk of P· granatum, is an important herbal medicine for treating diarrhea, hemostasis and insect-induced abdominal pain in China. However, the quality control methods for pomegranate peel remain unsatisfactory. In this work, a new HPLC-based qualitative and quantitative method for quality control of pomegranate peel was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of polyphenols and triterpenes (including punicalagins A and B, ellagic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid) by solvent extraction and ratio blending method in tandem with wavelength switching. The average recoveries were 98.07-100.61% with relative standard deviation no more than 4.27%. In addition, the fingerprint analysis was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. Thirteen characteristic peaks were selected to evaluate the similarities of 16 batches of pomegranate peel. The similarities of samples were all more than 0.80, indicating that the samples from different areas of China were consistent. The results demonstrated that quantitative analysis and the HPLC fingerprint as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of pomegranate peel.


Assuntos
Lythraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Triterpenos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Frutas/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are at risk of oral health problems. This qualitative study aims to understand dental care-seeking behaviours of pregnant women and their oral health-related information acquisition, to identify barriers to and motivators for, dental visits, and further explore their expectations and possible strategies to improve oral health care during pregnancy. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 pregnant women (after 32 gestational weeks) enrolled in the antenatal care programme in a public hospital in Hong Kong. Two main areas of interest were probed: Dental care-seeking behaviour and oral health information acquisition. Their expectations and suggestions on oral health care service for pregnant women were also explored. An inductive thematic approach was adopted to analyse the data. RESULTS: Pregnant women's dental care-seeking behaviour was deterred by some internal factors, such as misunderstandings on oral health, and priority on other issues over oral health. External factors such as inconvenient access to dental service during pregnancy also affected their care-seeking behaviours. Oral health information was passively absorbed by pregnant women through mass media and the social environment, which sometimes led to confusion. Oral health information acquisition from antenatal institutions and care providers was rare. Greater attention was paid to dental visit when they obtained proper information from previous dental visit experience or family members. A potential strategy to improve oral health care suggested by the interviewees is to develop a health care system strengthened by inter-professional (antenatal-dental) collaboration. Efficient oral health information delivery, convenient access to dental service, and improved 'quality' of dental care targeting the needs of pregnant women were identified as possible approaches to improve dental care for this population. CONCLUSION: Dental care-seeking behaviour during pregnancy was altered by various internal and external factors. A lack of, or conflict between, information sources result in confusion that can restrict utilisation of dental service. Integrating dental care into antenatal service would be a viable way to improve dental service utilisation.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hong Kong , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987158

RESUMO

Flavonoids from plants are particularly important in our diet. Buckwheat is a special crop that is rich in flavonoids. In this study, four important buckwheat varieties, including one tartary buckwheat and three common buckwheat varieties, were selected as experimental materials. The total flavonoid content of leaves from red-flowered common buckwheat was the highest, followed by tartary buckwheat leaves. A total of 182 flavonoid metabolites (including 53 flavone, 37 flavonol, 32 flavone C-glycosides, 24 flavanone, 18 anthocyanins, 7 isoflavone, 6 flavonolignan, and 5 proanthocyanidins) were identified based on Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) system. Through clustering analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal signal correction and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), different samples were clearly separated. Considerable differences were observed in the flavonoid metabolites between tartary buckwheat leaves and common buckwheat leaves, and both displayed unique metabolites with important biological functions. This study provides new insights into the differences of flavonoid metabolites between tartary buckwheat and common buckwheat leaves and provides theoretical basis for the sufficient utilization of buckwheat.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/química , Flavonoides/química , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
19.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 72(4): 243-249, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918145

RESUMO

A case-control study was conducted in Shandong from January to December 2017 to explore the relationship between sleep quality and the risk of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Seventy-nine patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus coincident with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (DM-PTB) and 169 age, sex, and DM course frequency-matched controls (DM alone) were enrolled. Univariate and multivariable unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted. We further conducted subgroup analyses to explore the relationship between sleep quality and PTB risk, including DM course (≤5 and >5 years), age, sex, and the presence of overweight or obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 24 kg/m2). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that poor sleep quality had a borderline negative association with the odds of PTB (P = 0.065). Subgroup multivariate analyses showed that poor sleep quality increased the risk of PTB to more than 3 times among patients with a DM course > 5 years (odds ratio 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-10.13; P = 0.036) after adjusting for potential confounding factors including residential area, educational level, BMI, history of contact with tuberculosis patients, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, immune status, and frequency of blood glucose monitoring. In conclusion, poor sleep quality is an independent risk factor of PTB among DM patients with a course of > 5 years, which indicates significant epidemiological implications for PTB control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Sono , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco
20.
Food Chem ; 288: 283-290, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902294

RESUMO

Starch, one of the most important components of coarse grains, has received widespread attention because of its prominent potential health benefits. In the present study, we isolated starches from the grains of sorghum, tartary buckwheat, common buckwheat, mungbean, and pea and studied their structural and physicochemical properties. These five starches all showed the distinctive "Maltese cross" effect (birefringence) but significantly differed in morphology, size, and complexity of granules. Sorghum starch exhibited the lowest amylose content and highest weight-average molar mass. Mungbean contained more short amylopectin [degree of polymerization (DP) 6-12 = 23.4%]. Pea starch exhibited the highest amylose content, highest amylopectin average chain length, and lowest weight-average molar mass. The starches of sorghum, tartary buckwheat, and common buckwheat showed A-type crystallinity, whereas those of mungbean and pea showed C-type crystallinity. Our results provide useful information for the application of coarse grain starches in diverse industries.


Assuntos
Sorghum/metabolismo , Amido/química , Traqueófitas/metabolismo , Vigna/metabolismo , Amilopectina/análise , Amilose/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Microscopia , Peso Molecular , Análise de Componente Principal , Solubilidade , Amido/análise , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Difração de Raios X
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