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2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232682, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459803

RESUMO

The site of Shuidonggou Locality 2 offers important evidence for the Late Paleolithic sequence of north China. The site not only contains one of the earliest instances of ornamental freshwater shell and ostrich eggshell beads in the region, but also stone artifacts with features arguably resembling the Initial Upper Paleolithic (IUP) blade technology found farther north. The appearance of these innovative archaeological forms have been attributed to the arrival of hominin populations, possibly modern humans, into the region during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Yet, the chronology of the site remains debated due to ambiguities in the existing dates. In this study, we conduct a systematical radiocarbon analysis of charcoal and ostrich eggshell samples obtained throughout the site sequence. Both acid-base-acid and the more stringent acid-base-oxidation pretreatment methods were applied to the charcoal samples. The resulting ages follow an age-depth relationship that is consistent with the stratigraphic profile. In line with previous stratigraphic assessments, Bayesian age modeling suggests that site formation history can be split into two phases: an early phase 43-35 cal kBP associated with a lacustrine depositional environment, and a later phase 35-28 cal kBP associated with rapid terrestrial silt accumulation. The chronology of the archaeological layers containing IUP-like artifacts are placed at 43-39 cal kBP and 35-34 cal kBP respectively. This finding supports the interpretation that an IUP-like blade technology appeared in the SDG region by at least ~41 ka.

4.
Science ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409524

RESUMO

Human genetic history in East Asia is poorly understood. To clarify population relationships, we obtained genome wide data from 26 ancient individuals from northern and southern East Asia spanning 9,500-300 years ago. Genetic differentiation was higher in the past than the present, reflecting a major episode of admixture involving northern East Asian ancestry spreading across southern East Asia after the Neolithic, transforming the genetic ancestry of southern China. Mainland southern East Asian and Taiwan Strait island samples from the Neolithic show clear connections with modern and ancient samples with Austronesian-related ancestry, supporting a southern China origin for proto-Austronesians. Connections among Neolithic coastal groups from Siberia and Japan to Vietnam indicate that migration and gene flow played an important role in the prehistory of coastal Asia.

5.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452785

RESUMO

Many real-world optimization problems involve multiple objectives, constraints, and parameters that may change over time. These problems are often called dynamic multiobjective optimization problems (DMOPs). The difficulty in solving DMOPs is the need to track the changing Pareto-optimal front efficiently and accurately. It is known that transfer learning (TL)-based methods have the advantage of reusing experiences obtained from past computational processes to improve the quality of current solutions. However, existing TL-based methods are generally computationally intensive and thus time consuming. This article proposes a new memory-driven manifold TL-based evolutionary algorithm for dynamic multiobjective optimization (MMTL-DMOEA). The method combines the mechanism of memory to preserve the best individuals from the past with the feature of manifold TL to predict the optimal individuals at the new instance during the evolution. The elites of these individuals obtained from both past experience and future prediction will then constitute as the initial population in the optimization process. This strategy significantly improves the quality of solutions at the initial stage and reduces the computational cost required in existing methods. Different benchmark problems are used to validate the proposed algorithm and the simulation results are compared with state-of-the-art dynamic multiobjective optimization algorithms (DMOAs). The results show that our approach is capable of improving the computational speed by two orders of magnitude while achieving a better quality of solutions than existing methods.

6.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421321

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate the ability of different quasi-classical mapping Hamiltonian methods to simulate the dynamics of electronic transitions through conical intersections. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the linear vibronic coupling (LVC) model. The methods compared are the Ehrenfest method, the symmetrical quasi-classical method and several variations of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) method, including ones that are based on the recently introduced modified representation of the identity operator. The accuracy of the various methods is tested by comparing their predictions to quantum-mechanically exact results obtained via the MCTDH method. The LVC model is found to be a nontrivial benchmark model that can differentiate between different approximate methods based on their accuracy better than previously used benchmark models. In the three systems studied, two of the LSC methods are found to provide the most accurate description of electronic transitions through conical intersections.

7.
Food Funct ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356551

RESUMO

Phytochemicals from functional foods are common ingredients in dietary supplements and cosmetic products for anti-skin aging effects due to their antioxidant activities. A proprietary red maple (Acer rubrum) leaf extract (Maplifa™) and its major phenolic compound, ginnalin A (GA), have been reported to show antioxidant, anti-melanogenesis, and anti-glycation effects but their protective effects against oxidative stress in human skin cells remain unknown. Herein, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Maplifa™ and GA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). H2O2 and MGO (both at 400 µM) induced toxicity in HaCaT cells and reduced their viability to 59.2 and 61.6%, respectively. Treatment of Maplifa™ (50 µg mL-1) and GA (50 µM) increased the viability of H2O2- and MGO-treated cells by 22.0 and 15.5%, respectively. Maplifa™ and GA also showed cytoprotective effects by reducing H2O2-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells by 8.0 and 7.2%, respectively. The anti-apoptotic effect of Maplifa™ was further supported by the decreased levels of apoptosis associated enzymes including caspases-3/7 and -8 in HaCaT cells by 49.5 and 19.0%, respectively. In addition, Maplifa™ (50 µg mL-1) and GA (50 µM) reduced H2O2- and MGO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 84.1 and 56.8%, respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that Maplifa™ and GA reduced MGO-induced total cellular ROS production while increasing mitochondria-derived ROS production in HaCaT cells. The cytoprotective effects of Maplifa™ and GA in human keratinocytes support their potential utilization for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications.

8.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369058

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as an emerging class of crystalline porous materials have received much attention due to their tunable porosity, modifiable skeletons, and atomically precise structures. Besides, COFs can provide multiple high-rate charge carrier transport (electron, hole, and ion) pathways, including conjugated skeletons, overlapped π electron clouds among the stacked layers, and open channels with a variable chemical environment. Therefore, they have shown great potential in electrochemical energy storage (EES) and conversion (EEC). However, in bulk COFs, the defects always impede charge carrier conduction, and the difficulties in reaching deep-buried active sites by either electrons or ions lead to limited performance. To overcome these obstacles, numerous research studies have been carried out to obtain COF nanosheets (NSs). This review first describes the preparation strategies of COF NSs via bottom-up and top-down approaches. Then, the applications of bulk COFs and COF NSs in EES and EEC are summarized, such as in batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. Finally, key challenges and future directions in these areas are discussed.

9.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(5): 2883-2895, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227993

RESUMO

Quasi-classical mapping Hamiltonian methods have recently emerged as a promising approach for simulating electronically nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. The classical-like dynamics of the overall system within these methods makes them computationally feasible, and they can be derived based on well-defined semiclassical approximations. However, the existence of a variety of different quasi-classical mapping Hamiltonian methods necessitates a systematic comparison of their respective advantages and limitations. Such a benchmark comparison is presented in this paper. The approaches compared include the Ehrenfest method, the symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) method, and five variations of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) method, three of which employ a modified identity operator. The comparison is based on a number of popular nonadiabatic model systems; the spin-boson model, a Frenkel biexciton model, and Tully's scattering models 1 and 2. The relative accuracy of the different methods is tested by comparing with quantum-mechanically exact results for the dynamics of the electronic populations and coherences. We find that LSC with the modified identity operator typically performs better than the Ehrenfest and standard LSC approaches. In comparison to SQC, these modified methods appear to be slightly more accurate for condensed phase problems, but for scattering models there is little distinction between them.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138165, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247135

RESUMO

Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that is ubiquitously present in water, biosolids and soil. Current agricultural practices, such as irrigation with treated wastewater and soil amendment with biosolids, often cause further triclosan contamination in agricultural fields. However, the fate and crop uptake of triclosan in agrofood systems and related human exposure are still not fully understood. In the present study, 14C-triclosan was used to trace the fate and distribution of triclosan in a soil-peanut plant system. 14C-triclosan in the system maintained an excellent mass balance ranging from 92.5% to 102.7%. 14C-triclosan uptake from soil to peanut plants at the harvest stage (120 d) was only 1.02 ± 0.17% of the applied 14C. The bioconcentration factors in different tissues followed the order of roots > stems > leaves > fruits. The concentration of 14C-triclosan in peanut fruits was 0.76-0.84 µg g-1. 14C-triclosan was more easily accumulated in peanut kernels (69.2 ± 6.30%) than peanut hulls (27.5 ± 5.77%) and skin (3.28 ± 0.53%). The estimated daily intake (EDI) values suggested that peanut consumption represented a minimal risk to human health. The results of this study help to develop a better understanding of the fate of triclosan in the soil-peanut plant system and assess its environmental and human health risks.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(19): 22200-22211, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315158

RESUMO

Flexible strain sensors have been widely used in wearable electronic devices for body physical parameter capturing. However, regardless of the stretchability of the sensing material, the resolution of small strain changes or the hysteresis between loading/unloading states has always limited the various applications of these sensors. In this paper, a microfluidic flexible strain sensor was achieved by introducing liquid metal eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) embedded into a wave-shaped microchannel elastomeric matrix (300 µm width × 70 µm height). The microfluidic sensor can withstand a strain of up to 320%, and the hysteresis performance was also improved from 6.79 to 1.02% by the wave-patterned structure which can restrain the viscoelasticity of the elastomer effectively. Moreover, an enhanced wave-shaped strain sensor was fabricated by increasing the length of the microfluidic channel; it has high sensitivity (GF = 4.91) and resolution, and even as low as 0.09% strain change could be detected, which is capable of resolving microdeformation; besides, the enhanced wave-shaped strain sensor exhibits quick response time (t = 116 ms), long-term stability, and durability under periodic dynamic load. As an example of potential applications, the enhanced flexible sensor showed excellent mechanical compliance and was successfully applied as a conceptual wearable device for distinctively monitoring various kinds of human body and robot activities, such as the different states of the finger, neck, breathing chest, robot's joint, and so forth. The flexible wave-shaped strain sensor has great promising applications for wearable electronics, motion recognition, healthcare, and soft robotics.

12.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 193: 105464, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interfaces build a communication pathway from the human brain to a computer. Motor imagery-based electroencephalogram (EEG) classification is a widely applied paradigm in brain-computer interfaces. The common spatial pattern, based on the event-related desynchronization (ERD)/event-related synchronization (ERS) phenomenon, is one of the most popular algorithms for motor imagery-based EEG classification. Moreover, the spatiotemporal discrepancy feature based on the event-related potential phenomenon has been demonstrated to provide complementary information to ERD/ERS-based features. In this paper, aiming to improve the performance of motor imagery-based EEG classification in a few-channel situation, an ensemble support vector learning (ESVL)-based approach is proposed to combine the advantages of the ERD/ERS-based features and the event-related potential-based features in motor imagery-based EEG classification. METHODS: ESVL is an ensemble learning algorithm based on support vector machine classifier. Specifically, the decision boundary with the largest interclass margin is obtained using the support vector machine algorithm, and the distances between sample points and the decision boundary are mapped to posterior probabilities. The probabilities obtained from different support vector machine classifiers are combined to make prediction. Thus, ESVL leverages the advantages of multiple trained support vector machine classifiers and makes a better prediction based on the posterior probabilities. The class discrepancy-guided sub-band-based common spatial pattern and the spatiotemporal discrepancy feature are applied to extract discriminative features, and then, the extracted features are used to train the ESVL classifier and make predictions. RESULTS: The BCI Competition IV datasets 2a and 2b are employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed ESVL algorithm. Experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods are performed, and the proposed ESVL-based approach achieves an average max kappa value of 0.60 and 0.71 on BCI Competition IV datasets 2a and 2b respectively. The results show that the proposed ESVL-based approach improves the performance of motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces. CONCLUSION: The proposed ESVL classifier could use the posterior probabilities to realize ensemble learning and the ESVL-based motor imagery classification approach takes advantage of the merits of ERD/ERS based feature and event-related potential based feature to improve the experimental performance.

13.
J Sep Sci ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246812

RESUMO

Jiao-Tai-Wan, which is composed of Coptis Rhizoma and Cinnamon Cortex, has been recently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Owing to lack of data on its prototypes and metabolites, elucidation of the pharmacological and clinically safe levels of this formula has been significantly hindered. To screen more potential bioactive components of Jiao-Tai-Wan, we identified its multiple prototypes and metabolites in the plasma of type 2 diabetic rats by ultra high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 47 compounds were identified in the plasma of type 2 diabetic rats, including 22 prototypes and 25 metabolites, with alkaloids constituting the majority of the absorbed prototype components. In addition, this is the first study to detect vanillic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3-hydroxycinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and 2-methoxy cinnamic acid after oral administration of Jiao-Tai-Wan. The prototypes from Jiao-Tai-Wan were extensively metabolized by demethylation, hydroxylation, and reduction in phase Ⅰ metabolic reactions and by methylation or conjugation of glucuronide or sulfate in phase Ⅱ reactions. This is the first systematic study on the components and metabolic profiles of Jiao-Tai-Wan in vivo. This study provides a useful chemical basis for further pharmacological research and clinical application of Jiao-Tai-Wan.

14.
Liver Int ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pathological hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an imbalance in hepatic lipid homeostasis, in which lipophagy has been found to play a vital role. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. METHODS: CMA activity was evaluated in liver tissues from NAFLD patients and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Liver-specific LAMP2A-knockout mice and HepG2 cells lacking LAMP2A [L2A(-) cells] were used to investigate the influence of CMA on lipolysis in hepatocytes. The expression of Plin5, a lipid droplet (LD)-related protein, was also evaluated in human and mouse liver tissues and in [L2A(-)] cells. RESULTS: Here, we found disrupted CMA function in the livers of NAFLD patients and animal models, displaying obvious reduction of LAMP2A and concurrent with decreased levels of CMA positive regulators. More LDs and higher serum triglycerides accumulated in liver-specific LAMP2A-knockout mice and L2A(-) cells under high-fat challenge. Meanwhile, deleting LAMP2A hindered LD breakdown but not increased LD formation. In addition, the LD-associated protein Plin5 is a CMA substrate, and its degradation through CMA is required for LD breakdown. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the disruption of CMA-induced Plin5 degradation obstacles LD breakdown, explaining the lipid homeostasis imbalance in NAFLD.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283922

RESUMO

It is well known that composite materials, consisting of at least two metal oxides, show qualities and sensing behavior very different from the single components. Recently, the preparation of core-shell nanomaterials for gas sensors has become extremely popular. Specifically, these materials have been found to show desirable sensor responses. The preparation of core-shell nanomaterials is, however, complex, limiting the commercial applicability. Composite materials can be more easily attained simply through the mechanical mixing of the various components. Although some studies exist that attempt to compare mechanically mixed composites to those prepared via a synthetic route, these examinations are often flawed, as due to varying preparation methods, the basic characteristics of the materials are not the same. Here, it was possible to separate the role of the contacts between the materials from that of the secondary core-shell structure, by using a soft method to mechanically break apart the structure. This ensures that the difference in morphology is the only change in the material characteristics. It was verified that the composite materials show a different sensing behavior from that of the pure materials. It was also found that regardless of the secondary structure, the composite materials showed very similar sensor responses. By examining materials containing different ratios of Cr2O3 to SnO2, it was possible to attribute the sensor behavior changes to the contacts between the different metal oxides. It was shown that by varying the concentration of each oxide it is possible to attain either an n- or p-type response and at a certain concentration even no response. This work is significant because it identifies that the contact between the materials plays the dominant role in the sensor response and it shows the viability of mechanical mixing for composite sample preparation.

17.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate preoperative assessment of hepatic functional reserve is essential for conducting a safe hepatectomy. In recent years, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) has been used as a noninvasive model for assessing fibrosis stage, hepatic functional reserve, and prognosis after hepatectomy with a high level of accuracy. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the clinical value of combining APRI with standardized future liver remnant (sFLR) for predicting severe post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Six hundred thirty-seven HCC patients who had undergone hepatectomy were enrolled in this study. The performance of the Child-Pugh (CP) grade, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), APRI, sFLR, and APRI-sFLR in predicting severe PHLF was assessed using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). RESULTS: Severe PHLF was found to have developed in 101 (15.9%) patients. Multivariate logistic analyses identified that prealbumin, cirrhosis, APRI score, sFLR, and major resection were significantly associated with severe PHLF. The AUC values of the CP, MELD, APRI, and sFLR were 0.626, 0.604, 0.725, and 0.787, respectively, indicating that the APRI and sFLR showed significantly greater discriminatory abilities than CP and MELD (P < 0.05 for all). After APRI was combined with sFLR, the AUC value of APRI-sFLR for severe PHLF was 0.816, which greatly improved the prediction accuracy, compared with APRI or sFLR alone (P < 0.05 for all). Stratified analysis using the status of cirrhosis and extent of resection yielded similar results. Moreover, the incidence and grade of PHLF were significantly different among the three risk groups. CONCLUSION: The combination of APRI and sFLR can be considered to be a predictive factor with increased accuracy for severe PHLF in HCC patients, compared with CP grade, MELD, APRI, or sFLR alone.

19.
Cell Immunol ; 352: 104077, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113615

RESUMO

B7-H3 as a newly identified costimulatory molecule that belongs to B7 ligand family, is broadly expressed in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. The overexpression of B7-H3 has been verified to be correlated with the poor prognosis and poor clinical outcome of several human cancers. In recent years, researchers reveal that B7-H3 is involved in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), etc. In this review, we will discuss the biological function of B7-H3 and summarize the progress made over past years regarding its role in the occurrence and development of autoimmune diseases. The insights gained from these findings could serve as the foundation for future therapies of these diseases.

20.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 19(5): 852-870, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132231

RESUMO

The redox-based modifications of cysteine residues in proteins regulate their function in many biological processes. The gas molecule H2S has been shown to persulfidate redox sensitive cysteine residues resulting in an H2S-modified proteome known as the sulfhydrome. Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) multiplexing strategies for large-scale proteomic analyses have become increasingly prevalent in detecting cysteine modifications. Here we developed a TMT-based proteomics approach for selectively trapping and tagging cysteine persulfides in the cellular proteomes. We revealed the natural protein sulfhydrome of two human cell lines, and identified insulin as a novel substrate in pancreatic beta cells. Moreover, we showed that under oxidative stress conditions, increased H2S can target enzymes involved in energy metabolism by switching specific cysteine modifications to persulfides. Specifically, we discovered a Redox Thiol Switch, from protein S-glutathioinylation to S-persulfidation (RTSGS). We propose that the RTSGS from S-glutathioinylation to S-persulfidation is a potential mechanism to fine tune cellular energy metabolism in response to different levels of oxidative stress.

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