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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7811, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837241

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak that emerged in late 2019 has posed a severe threat to human health and social and economic development, and thus has become a major public health crisis affecting the world. The spread of COVID-19 in population and regions is a typical geographical process, which is worth discussing from the geographical perspective. This paper focuses on Shandong province, which has a high incidence, though the first Chinese confirmed case was reported from Hubei province. Based on the data of reported confirmed cases and the detailed information of cases collected manually, we used text analysis, mathematical statistics and spatial analysis to reveal the demographic characteristics of confirmed cases and the spatio-temporal evolution process of the epidemic, and to explore the comprehensive mechanism of epidemic evolution and prevention and control. The results show that: (1) the incidence rate of COVID-19 in Shandong is 0.76/100,000. The majority of confirmed cases are old and middle-aged people who are infected by the intra-province diffusion, followed by young and middle-aged people who are infected outside the province. (2) Up to February 5, the number of daily confirmed cases shows a trend of "rapid increase before slowing down", among which, the changes of age and gender are closely related to population migration, epidemic characteristics and intervention measures. (3) Affected by the regional economy and population, the spatial distribution of the confirmed cases is obviously unbalanced, with the cluster pattern of "high-low" and "low-high". (4) The evolution of the migration pattern, affected by the geographical location of Wuhan and Chinese traditional culture, is dominated by "cross-provincial" and "intra-provincial" direct flow, and generally shows the trend of "southwest → northeast". Finally, combined with the targeted countermeasures of "source-flow-sink", the comprehensive mechanism of COVID-19 epidemic evolution and prevention and control in Shandong is revealed. External and internal prevention and control measures are also figured out.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cell Calcium ; 97: 102408, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873072

RESUMO

Catalyzed by zDHHC-PAT enzymes and reversed by thioesterases, protein palmitoylation is the only post-translational modification recognized to regulate the sodium/calcium exchanger NCX1. NCX1 palmitoylation occurs at a single site at position 739 in its large regulatory intracellular loop. An amphipathic ɑ-helix between residues 740-756 is a critical for NCX1 palmitoylation. Given the rich background of the structural elements involving in NCX1 palmitoylation, the molecular basis of NCX1 palmitoylation is still relatively poorly understood. Here we found that (1) the identity of palmitoylation machinery of NCX1 controls its spatial organization within the cell, (2) the NCX1 amphipathic ɑ-helix directly interacts with zDHHC-PATs, (3) NCX1 is still palmitoylated when it is arrested in either Golgi or ER, indicating that NCX1 is a substrate for multiple zDHHC-PATs, (4) the thioesterase APT1 but not APT2 as a part of NCX1-depalmitoylation machinery governs subcellular organization of NCX1, (5) APT1 catalyzes NCX1 depalmitoylation in the Golgi but not in the ER. We also report that NCX2 and NCX3 are dually palmitoylated, with important implications for substrate recognition and enzyme catalysis by zDHHC-PATs. Our results could support new molecular or pharmacological strategies targeting the NCX1 palmitoylation and depalmitoylation machinery.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent infection by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma. Local hyperthermia at 44ºC has been proven efficacious to clear cutaneous or anogenital warts caused by HPV infection. This study aims to assess the effect of hyperthermia at 44ºC on the clearance of high-risk HPV. METHODS: A randomized, patient blind, sham treatment-controlled trial was conducted in four medical centers. We enrolled patients with positive high-risk HPVs and normal or insignificant cytological findings (Negative/ASCUS/LSIL). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either hyperthermia at 44 ºC or 37 ºC, for 30mins in each session. Patients in both groups received treatment once a day for three consecutive days, plus two more sessions 10 ± 3 days later. The primary outcome was clearance rate of HPV three months after the treatment. RESULTS: After a 3-month follow-up, hyperthermia treatment at 44 ºC and 37 ºC achieved HPV clearance rates of 85.19% (23/27) and 50% (13/26), respectively (p=0.014). There was no significant difference of treatment response between patients with single and multiple type of HPV by 44 ºC hyperthermia treatment. There were no significant adverse events recorded during the treatment period in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Local hyperthermia at 44 ºC safely and significantly aids in clearing cervical high-risk HPVs, the effect of which helps halting the progression of cervical transformation and transmission of the virus.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796116

RESUMO

Background: Pemphigus is a rare but life-threatening autoimmune skin disease characterized by blistering on skin and/or mucous membranes. The physiological process of blister formation involves IgG antibodies against the desmogleins (Dsgs) and desmocollins (Dscs). Additional autoAbs have also been suggested to mediate the disease heterogeneity, such as anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies, the essential culprits of the immune system in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Purpose: To investigate the levels and antibody positivity of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies in pemphigus patients. Methods: Antibody positivity and levels of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies in pemphigus patients as compared to healthy controls were examined. A meta-analysis was conducted by reviewing six similar studies. Results: 98 Chinese pemphigus patients and 65 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Our meta-analysis revealed a significant correlation between increased presence of positive anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies and pemphigus, particularly for pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Such correlation was also observed in our own hospitalized PV patients, but not in pemphigus foliaceus (PF) patients. In addition, the status of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies were also compared between females and males within PV patients, PF patients or controls, as well as compared for females or males between pemphigus patients and controls. In the analysis of T cell counts, we found abnormal low CD3 + T cell counts (< 690 n/µl) were only detected in patients whose thyroid antibody levels were less than 20 IU/ml. Conclusion: Pemphigus patients showed higher levels and antibody positivity of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies than healthy controls. Further investigations are needed to identify the pathogenic functions of these antibodies in pemphigus, as well as to identify the potential shared susceptibility genes.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803492

RESUMO

A series of sky surveys were launched in search of supernovae and generated a tremendous amount of data, which pushed astronomy into a new era of big data. However, it can be a disastrous burden to manually identify and report supernovae, because such data have huge quantity and sparse positives. While the traditional machine learning methods can be used to deal with such data, deep learning methods such as Convolutional Neural Networks demonstrate more powerful adaptability in this area. However, most data in the existing works are either simulated or without generality. How do the state-of-the-art object detection algorithms work on real supernova data is largely unknown, which greatly hinders the development of this field. Furthermore, the existing works of supernovae classification usually assume the input images are properly cropped with a single candidate located in the center, which is not true for our dataset. Besides, the performance of existing detection algorithms can still be improved for the supernovae detection task. To address these problems, we collected and organized all the known objectives of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) and the Popular Supernova Project (PSP), resulting in two datasets, and then compared several detection algorithms on them. After that, the selected Fully Convolutional One-Stage (FCOS) method is used as the baseline and further improved with data augmentation, attention mechanism, and small object detection technique. Extensive experiments demonstrate the great performance enhancement of our detection algorithm with the new datasets.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734531

RESUMO

A nickel-catalyzed highly γ-regioselective arylation and carbonylative arylation of 3-bromo-3,3-difluoropropene has been developed. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions, providing the gem-difluoroalkenes with high efficiency and good functional group tolerance. The resulting gem-difluoroalkenes can serve as versatile building blocks for diversified synthesis. Preliminary mechanistic studies and density functional theory calculations reveal that both non-radical and radical pathways are possible for the reaction, and the radical pathway is more likely. The high γ-regioselectivity results from the ß-bromide elimination of alkylnickel(II) species or from the reductive elimination of nickel(III) species [(aryl)(CF2 =CHCH2 )NiIII (Ln )X]. The γ-selective carbonylation of 3-bromo-3,3-difluoropropene under 1 atm CO gas also provides a new way for nickel-catalyzed carbonylation.

7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690780

RESUMO

Catalytic non-oxidative direct dehydrogenation of light alkanes serves as an effective reinforcement to selectively produce the corresponding olefins, and the heterogeneous metals and metal oxides, not limited to the commercially used Pt- and Cr-based catalysts, are widely investigated to enhance the efficiency. In this review, we outline the progress of these dehydrogenation catalysts that have been mainly developed in the past five years. For different classes of the most-promising catalysts in the selective dehydrogenation of ethane-to-ethylene and propane-to-propylene, their syntheses, structural information, catalytic properties and mechanisms are comparatively summarized.

8.
Plant Sci ; 305: 110769, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691974

RESUMO

Drought stress can significantly affect plant growth and agricultural productivity. Thus, it is essential to explore and identify the optimal genes for the improvement of crop drought tolerance. Here, a fungal NADP(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene (AcGDH) was isolated from Aspergillus candidus, and heterologously expressed in rice. AcGDH has a high affinity for NH4+ and increases the ammonium assimilation in rice. AcGDH transgenic plants exhibited a tolerance to drought and alkali stresses, and their photorespiration was significantly suppressed. Our findings demonstrate that AcGDH alleviates ammonium toxicity and suppresses photorespiration by assimilating excess NH4+ and disturbing the delicate balance of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, thereby improving drought tolerance in rice. Moreover, AcGDH not only improved drought tolerance at the seedling stage but also increased the grain yield under drought stress. Thus, AcGDH is a promising candidate gene for maintaining rice grain yield, and offers an opportunity for improving crop yield under drought stress.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Impaired brain cortices contribute significantly to the pathophysiological mechanisms of post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction (PTOD). This study aimed to use 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) to measure cerebral cortices' metabolism activity and then to explore their associations with olfaction in patients with PTOD. METHODS: Ethics committee-approved prospective studies included 15 patients with post-traumatic anosmia and 11 healthy volunteers. Olfactory function was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks. Participants underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scan and the image data were collected for the voxel-based whole brain analysis. Furthermore, the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) of the whole brain regions was measured and correlated with olfactory function. RESULTS: Patients with post-traumatic anosmia showed significantly reduced glucose metabolism in bilateral rectus, bilateral superior and medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), bilateral thalamus, left hippocampus and parahippocampus and left superior temporal pole (all p < 0.001). In contrast, patients with post-traumatic anosmia had significantly increased glucose metabolism in the bilateral insula (all p < 0.001). SUVR values among a total of 17 cerebral cortices including frontal, limbic, and temporal regions were significantly and positively correlated with olfactory function. The cerebral cortices with the top three correlations were the right middle frontal OFC (r = 0.765, p = 0.001), right caudate (r = 0.652, p = 0.010) and right putamen (r = 0.623, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Patients with post-traumatic anosmia presented with distinct patterns of brain metabolism and key cortices that highly associated with the retained olfactory function were identified. The preliminary results further support the potential use of PET imaging for precisely assessing brain metabolism in patients with PTOD.

10.
Small ; 17(13): e2005149, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690963

RESUMO

Photocatalysis is a promising energy conversion and environmental restoration technology. The main focus of photocatalysis is the development and manufacture of highly efficient photocatalysts. Semiconductor-based photocatalysis technology based on harnessing solar energy is considered as an attractive approach to solve the problems of global energy shortage and environmental pollution. Since 2009 pioneering work has been carried out on polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) for visible photocatalytic water splitting, thus PCN-based photocatalysis has become a hot research topic, demanding significant research attention. This article reviews the physical and chemical properties, synthesis methods, and the methods to control the morphology, heteroatom doping, and construction of heterojunctions to improve the performance of PCN-based photocatalysts in water splitting and nitrogen fixation. Through different design strategies, the photo-generated electron-hole pair separation efficiency of PCN materials can be effectively improved, thereby improving their photocatalytic performance. Finally, the challenges of PCN-based photocatalysts in water splitting and nitrogen fixation applications are discussed herein. It is strongly believed that through different design strategies, efficient PCN-based photocatalysts can be constructed for both water splitting and nitrogen reduction. These excellent modification strategies can be used as a guiding theory for photocatalytic reactions of other promising catalysts and further promote the development of photocatalysis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788695

RESUMO

With the advent of data science, the analysis of network or graph data has become a very timely research problem. A variety of recent works have been proposed to generalize neural networks to graphs, either from a spectral graph theory or a spatial perspective. The majority of these works, however, focus on adapting the convolution operator to graph representation. At the same time, the pooling operator also plays an important role in distilling multiscale and hierarchical representations, but it has been mostly overlooked so far. In this article, we propose a parameter-free pooling operator, called iPool, that permits to retain the most informative features in arbitrary graphs. With the argument that informative nodes dominantly characterize graph signals, we propose a criterion to evaluate the amount of information of each node given its neighbors and theoretically demonstrate its relationship to neighborhood conditional entropy. This new criterion determines how nodes are selected and coarsened graphs are constructed in the pooling layer. The resulting hierarchical structure yields an effective isomorphism-invariant representation of networked data on arbitrary topologies. The proposed strategy achieves superior or competitive performance in graph classification on a collection of public graph benchmark data sets and superpixel-induced image graph data sets.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598839

RESUMO

Simulating changes in the value of ecosystem services caused by land use changes in large cities under multiple scenarios is of great significance for cities to formulate land use policies and improve ecosystem services. Take Shijiazhuang, which is in the process of rapid urbanization, as an example. Based on the remote sensing image data and statistical yearbook of 1988, 1998, 2008, and 2018 as the basic data to analyze and estimate the 30 years of land use and ecosystem service value changes in Shijiazhuang. According to this, the CA-Markov model was used to simulate the land use change in Shijiazhuang under three scenarios in 2030 and estimate the value of ecosystem services under each scenario, using grid tools to visually express the spatial distribution of ecosystem service values and the degree of agglomeration under three scenarios. The results indicate that the most obvious feature of land use change in Shijiazhuang from 1988 to 2018 was that the farmland area decreased year by year, the built-up expanded rapidly, the farmland area decreased by 86,874.75 hm2 in 30 years, and the built-up increased by 154,711.90 hm2. In 1988, 1998, 2008, and 2018, the ecosystem service value of Shijiazhuang was 32.578 billion yuan, 32.799 billion yuan, 29.944 billion yuan, and 31.251 billion yuan respectively. In 2030, under three scenarios of natural development, farmland protection, and ecological protection, the value of ecosystem services is 331.111 billion yuan, 33.670 billion yuan, and 33.891 billion yuan in order. The hot spots are mainly concentrated in the northwest and southwest of Shijiazhuang, and cold spots are concentrated in the eastern cities, counties, and districts. Based on changes in land use brought about by urban expansion, simulating the value of ecosystem services under multiple scenarios in the future, providing scientific guidance for building urban ecological networks, and realizing sustainable urban ecological development.

14.
Cytokine ; 141: 155444, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose psychological consequences severely affect patient's quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate genes of rosacea for potential development of new target therapies. METHODS: Gene Expression Omnibus datasets were retrieved to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between rosacea patients and healthy controls. Gene ontology (GO) analyses were used to identify functions of candidate genes. Related signaling pathways of DEGs were analyzed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and gene set enrichment analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were applied using search tools for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins and modulations involving PPI networks were evaluated with use of the MCODE app. RESULTS: Samples from 19 rosacea patients and 10 healthy controls of dataset GSE65914 were enrolled. A total of 215 DEGs, 115 GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways were identified. A total of 182 nodes and 456 edges were enriched in PPI networks. Maximal clusters showed 15 central nodes and 96 edges. The toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway was the most significant pathway detected and 5 DEGs were identified as candidate genes which included TLR2, C-C motif chemokine (CCL) 5, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. The results were verified in rosacea patients with use of real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Cell-type enrichment analysis revealed 8 lymphocytes that were enriched in rosacea patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that both innate and adaptive immune responses were involved in the etiology of rosacea. Five DEGs in the TLR signaling pathway may serve as potential therapeutic target genes.

15.
Org Lett ; 23(4): 1400-1405, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544601

RESUMO

A nickel-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling between industrial chemical CF3CH2Cl and (hetero)aryl bromides and chlorides has been reported. The reaction is synthetically simple without the preparation of arylmetals and exhibits high functional group tolerance. The utility of this protocol has been demonstrated by the late-stage modification of pharmaceuticals, providing a facile route for medicinal chemistry.

16.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 24(4): 487-493, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608999

RESUMO

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease which mainly affects the spine, sacroiliac joint and peripheral joints. To date, the exact causes and pathogenesis of AS still remain unknown. It is considered that the pathogenesis of AS is associated with genetic, infection, environment, immunity and other factors. Among them, the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of AS has been studied most deeply. However, over the past few years, the function of environmental predisposition and epigenetic modification in the pathogenesis of AS has received extensive attention. This paper summarizes the recent progress in the epigenetics of AS, including abnormal epigenetic modifications at AS-associated genomic loci, such as DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA, and so on. In summary, the findings of this review attempt to explain the role of epigenetic modification in the occurrence and development of AS. Nevertheless, there are still unknown and complicated aspects worth exploring to deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of AS.

17.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501609

RESUMO

Melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant skin tumor with a high rate of metastasis and mortality. In this study, a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis was used to clarify the hub genes and potential drugs. Download the GSE3189, GSE22301, and GSE35388 microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), which contains a total of 33 normal samples and 67 melanoma samples. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) approach analyze DEGs based on the DAVID. Use STRING to construct protein-protein interaction network, and use MCODE and cytoHubba plug-ins in Cytoscape to perform module analysis and identified hub genes. Use Gene Expression Profile Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) to assess the prognosis of genes in tumors. Finally, use the Drug-Gene Interaction Database (DGIdb) to screen targeted drugs related to hub genes. A total of 140 overlapping DEGs were identified from the three microarray datasets, including 59 up-regulated DEGs and 81 down-regulated DEGs. GO enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs are mainly involved in the biological process such as positive regulation of gene expression, positive regulation of cell proliferation, positive regulation of MAP kinase activity, cell migration, and negative regulation of the apoptotic process. The cellular components are concentrated in the membrane, dendritic spine, the perinuclear region of cytoplasm, extracellular exosome, and membrane raft. Molecular functions include protein homodimerization activity, calmodulin-binding, transcription factor binding, protein binding, and cytoskeletal protein binding. KEGG pathway analysis shows that these DEGs are mainly related to protein digestion and absorption, PPAR signaling pathway, signaling pathways regulating stem cells' pluripotency, and Retinol metabolism. The 23 most closely related DEGs were identified from the PPI network and combined with the GEPIA prognostic analysis, CDH3, ESRP1, FGF2, GBP2, KCNN4, KIT, SEMA4D, and ZEB1 were selected as hub genes, which are considered to be associated with poor prognosis of melanoma closely related. Besides, ten related drugs that may have therapeutic effects on melanoma were also screened. These newly discovered genes and drugs provide new ideas for further research on melanoma.

18.
J Plant Biol ; : 1-14, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424241

RESUMO

Although morphology and grain size are important to rice growth and yield, the identity of abundant natural allelic variations that determine agronomically important differences in crops is unknown. Here, we characterized the function of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 from Oryza officinalis Wall. ex Watt encoded by OrMKK3. Different alternative splicing variants occurred in OrMKK3. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-OrMKK3 fusion proteins localized to the cell membrane and nuclei of rice protoplasts. Overexpression of OrMKK3 influenced the expression levels of the grain size-related genes SMG1, GW8, GL3, GW2, and DEP3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OrMKK3 is well conserved in plants while showing large amounts of variation between indica, japonica, and wild rice. In addition, OrMKK3 slightly influenced brassinosteroid (BR) responses and the expression levels of BR-related genes. Our findings thus identify a new gene, OrMKK3, influencing morphology and grain size and that represents a possible link between mitogen-activated protein kinase and BR response pathways in grain growth. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12374-020-09290-2.

19.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 9, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pacemaker lead dislodgement may cause malfunction in the pacing system, which may lead to severe adverse events. For patients with sick sinus syndrome but normal atrioventricular conduction, atrial lead dislocation may cause excessive unnecessary ventricular pacing, resulting in nonphysiological pacing leading to heart failure. The longer the unwanted ventricular pacing continues, the greater the chances that irreversible heart failure may occur. Ironically, we admitted a patient who had been refusing dislodged lead relocation for 7 years. The symptoms of heart failure were significantly resolved after new atrial lead implantation. We reviewed her clinical data before and after the procedure and believed the case was worthy of reflection. CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old Han Chinese woman presented with heart failure symptoms for 7 years due to the late macro-dislodgement of an atrial pacing lead. Her echocardiogram showed average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) but reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) during right ventricular pacing, indicating heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). After 7 years of refusal, she finally agreed to implantation of a new atrial lead. She has been doing well since the operation. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with sick sinus syndrome with dual-chamber pacemaker indication, atrial lead dislodgement should be appropriately managed if the atrioventricular function is normal. As the consequences are subtle and appear gradually, they might be overlooked by patients and even doctors. Implanting a new atrial lead is the right thing to do rather than just passively waiting or treating with symptom relief medications.

20.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(1): 16-21, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474883

RESUMO

In the early stage of infection in severe burn patients, the killing function of the natural immune cells is continuously low, which causes the immune system to continuously and compensatorily secrete a large amount of cytokines to improve the ability to resist bacterial infection. Once the cytokine secretion is out of control, a cytokine storm will form. In the late stage of severe burn infection, the bone marrow mobilization caused by continuous acute myelodysplasia will be exhausted, the level of immune response will be low, and the secretion of anti-inflammatory factors promoting repair will be increased, which will lead to immune suppression. Cytokine storm after burn infection is caused by excessive proinflammatory stimulation, inadequate inflammatory regulation, or a combination of the two. From the perspective of immunology, this review will briefly summarize the changing process of immune response against pathogenic bacteria after severe burn infection, cytokine storm in the early stage of severe burn infection and the mechanism of occurrence and transformation of immunosuppression in the late stage of severe burn infection. We suggest that future research direction from the following aspects: Mechanism of low bacterial killing function of innate immune cells after severe burns; The mechanism by which acute myeloid hyperplasia leads to myeloid inhibitory cells (MDSC) and nucleated erythrocytosis during the development of cytokine storms; The key regulatory mechanism between macrophage phagocytic dysfunction and cytokine hyperactivity; The role and key regulatory mechanism of destruction of the dynamic balance of M1/M2 macrophages and effector/regulatory T cells in triggering immune suppression.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Queimaduras/complicações , Citocinas , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Macrófagos
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