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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104563, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359542

RESUMO

Bradysia odoriphaga is a destructive insect pest, damaging more than 30 crop species. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediating fast excitatory transmission in the central nervous system in insects are the molecular targets of some economically important insecticides including imidacloprid, which has been widely used to control B. odoriphaga in China since 2013. However, the clear characterization about nAChRs in B. odoriphaga is still unknown. Hence, our objective is to identify and characterize the nAChR gene family in B. odoriphaga based on the transcriptome database and sequence, phylogenetic and expression profiles analysis. In this study, we cloned seven nAChR subunit genes from B. odoriphaga, including Boα1, Boα2, Boα3, Boα7, Boα8, Boß1 and Boß3. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven nAChR subunits of B. odoriphaga shared the typical structural features with Drosophila melanogaster nAChR α1 subunit, including an extracellular N-terminal domain containing six functional loops (loop A-F), a signature Cys-loop with two disulfide bond-forming cysteines separated by 13 amino acid residues, and four typical transmembrane helices (TM1-TM4) in the C-terminal region. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that seven nAChR subunit genes in B. odoriphaga are evolutionarily conserved among four model insects, including D. melanogaster, Bombyx mori, Apis mellifera and Tribolium castaneum. Meanwhile, nAChR α4, α5, α6 and ß2 subunit genes may potentially exist in B. odoriphaga, which need further study. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the specific expression pattern of nAChR subunits in three body parts including head, thorax and abdomen, and developmental expression pattern of nAChR subunits throughout the B. odoriphaga life cycle. These results provided necessary information for further investigating the diverse functions of nAChRs in B. odoriphaga.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Receptores Nicotínicos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Abelhas , China , Filogenia
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104557, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359559

RESUMO

Insecticide induced-hormesis, a bi-phasic phenomenon characterized by low dose stimulation and high dose inhibition following exposure to insecticide, is crucial to insect pest resurgence. In this study, the effects of low or sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on biological traits and genes expression were investigated for Aphis gossypii Glover following 72 h exposures. Leaf-Dip bioassay results showed that thiamethoxam was very toxic against adult A. gossypii with an LC50 of 1.175 mg L-1. The low lethal (LC15) and sublethal (LC5) concentrations of thiamethoxam significantly reduced longevity and fecundity of the directly exposed aphids. However, stimulatory effects on pre-adult stage, longevity, and fertility were observed in the progeny generation (F1) of A. gossypii, when parental aphids (F0) were exposed to LC15 of thiamethoxam. Subsequently, biological traits such as intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased significantly to F1 individuals due to LC15 treatment. No significant responses were observed for LC5 of thiamethoxam. The LC15 of thiamethoxam significantly increased the expression level of vitellogenin and ecdysone receptors genes in progeny generation, while no effects were observed for treatment with LC5. Additionally, the expression levels of P450 genes including CYP6CY14, CYP6CZ1, CYP6DC1, CYP6CY9, and CYP6DD1 were up-regulated in the exposed aphids. Taken together, our results show the hormetic effects of thiamethoxam on F1 individuals, which might be due to the intermittent changes in expression of genes involved in fertility, growth and insecticide detoxification in A. gossypii.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Inseticidas , Animais , Fertilidade , Hormese , Tiametoxam
3.
J Econ Entomol ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372079

RESUMO

The melon/cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a notorious pest in many crops. The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam is widely used for A. gossypii control. To evaluate thiamethoxam resistance risk, a melon/cotton aphid strain with an extremely high level of resistance to thiamethoxam (>2,325.6-fold) was established after selection with thiamethoxam for 24 generations. Additionally, the cross-resistance pattern to other neonicotinoids and fitness were analyzed. The cross-resistance results showed the thiamethoxam-resistant strain had extremely high levels of cross-resistance against clothianidin (>311.7-fold) and nitenpyram (299.9-fold), high levels of cross-resistance against dinotefuran (142.3-fold) and acetamiprid (76.6-fold), and low cross-resistance against imidacloprid (9.3-fold). Compared with the life table of susceptible strain, the thiamethoxam-resistant strain had a relative fitness of 0.950, with significant decreases in oviposition days and fecundity and prolonged developmental duration. The molecular mechanism for fitness costs was studied by comparing the mRNA expression levels of juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT), juvenile hormone-binding protein (JHBP), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH), ecdysone receptor (EcR), ultraspiracle protein (USP), and Vitellogenin (Vg) in the susceptible and thiamethoxam-resistant strains. Significant overexpression of JHEH and JHBP and downregulation of EcR and Vg expression were found in the thiamethoxam-resistant strain. These results indicate that A. gossypii has the potential to develop extremely high resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous exposure, with a considerable fitness cost and cross-resistance to other neonicotinoids.

4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 166: 104565, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448419

RESUMO

Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the conjugation of small lipophilic endogenous and exogenous compounds with sugars to produce water-soluble glycosides, playing an important role in insect endobiotic regulation and xenobiotic detoxification. In this study, two UGT-inhibitors, sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil, significantly increased spirotetramat toxicity against third instar nymphs of resistant Aphis gossypii, whereas there were no synergistic effects in apterous adult aphids, suggesting UGT involvement in spirotetramat resistance in cotton aphids. Furthermore, the UHPLC-MS/MS was employed to determine the content of spirotetramat and its four metabolites (S-enol, S-glu, S-mono, S-keto) in the honeydew of resistant cotton aphids under spirotetramat treatment. No residual spirotetramat was detected in the honeydew, while its four metabolites were detected at a S-enol: S-glu: S-mono: S-keto ratio of 69.30: 6.54: 1.44: 1.00. Therefore, glycoxidation plays a major role in spirotetramat inactivation and excretion in resistant aphids. Compared with the susceptible strain, the transcriptional levels of UGT344M2 were significantly upregulated in nymphs and adults of the resistant strain. RNA interference of UGT344M2 dramatically increased spirotetramat toxicity in nymphs, but no such effect were found in the resistant adult aphids. Overall, UGT-mediated glycoxidation were found to be involved in spirotetramat resistance. The suppression of UGT344M2 significantly increased the sensitivity of resistant nymphs to spirotetramat, suggesting that UGT344M2 upregulation might be associated with spirotetramat detoxification. This study provides an overview of the involvement of metabolic factors, UGTs, in the development of spirotetramat resistance.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Inseticidas , Animais , Compostos Aza , Glicosiltransferases , Resistência a Inseticidas , Compostos de Espiro , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Difosfato de Uridina
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463694

RESUMO

Despite a number of excellent studies in detoxification enzyme mediated the interaction between insect and plant allelochemical, there are no reports on the pathway of transferrin effect in insect response to host plant allelochemical. Our research indicates that Helicoverpa armigera transferrin (HaTrf) inhibited the apoptotic cell death treated by 2-tridecanone, a host plant allelochemical present in tomato species (Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum), by cellular redox-related transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 can defend organisms against the detrimental effects of oxidative stress, and play pivotal roles in preventing host plant allelochemical-related toxicity. This study explain how HaTrf inhibited the apoptotic cell death during exposure to host plant allelochemical 2-tridecanone, and provides a novel view on transferrin and its anti-apoptotic role in plant-insect interactions.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8400, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439946

RESUMO

Two unique housefly strains, PSS and N-PRS (near-isogenic line with the PSS), were used to clarify the mechanisms associated with propoxur resistance in the housefly, Musca domestica. The propoxur-selected resistant (N-PRS) strain exhibited >1035-fold resistance to propoxur and 1.70-, 12.06-, 4.28-, 57.76-, and 57.54-fold cross-resistance to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, bifenthrin, phoxim, and azamethiphos, respectively, compared to the susceptible (PSS) strain. We purified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the N-PRS and PSS strains using a procainamide affinity column and characterized the AChE. The sensitivity of AChE to propoxur based on the bimolecular rate constant (Ki) was approximately 100-fold higher in the PSS strain compared to the N-PRS strain. The cDNA encoding Mdace from both the N-PRS strain and the PSS strain were cloned and sequenced using RT-PCR. The cDNA was 2073 nucleotides long and encoded a protein of 691 amino acids. A total of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), I162M, V260L, G342A, and F407Y, were present in the region of the active site of AChE from the N-PRS strain. The transcription level and DNA copy number of Mdace were significantly higher in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. These results indicated that mutations combined with the up-regulation of Mdace might be essential in the housefly resistance to propoxur.

7.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the prevalence and risk factors of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) among Chinese residents. METHODS: A multi-center population-based osteoarthritis study was conducted in 2014. Residents aged ≥ 50 years old were recruited using a cluster sampling method. Subjects completed a home interview and physical examination and had skyline view of radiographs at patellofemoral (PF) joints. Radiographs were read by two trained musculoskeletal researchers, and discordance of a subject's PFOA status between two readers was adjudicated with a third musculoskeletal researcher present. Radiographic OA at PF joint was defined if osteophytes (OST) score was ≥ 2 or if joint space narrowing (JSN) score was ≥ 2 with concurrent grade 1 OST in the PF joint. RESULTS: Of 3446 subjects (63.0% women) included in this analysis, the prevalence of radiographic PFOA was 23.9% (20.5% men vs. 25.8% women). Prevalence of lateral radiographic OA was higher than medial radiographic OA at PF joint. Grades of both osteophytes and joint space narrowing in the lateral patellofemoral compartment were higher than those in the medial patellofemoral compartment (all P values < 0.001). Women, older age, higher BMI, and fewer years of education were significantly associated with higher prevalence of radiographic PFOA, osteophytes, and joint space narrowing. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of radiographic PFOA was high among Chinese population.Key Points• The multi-center population-based osteoarthritis study shows the prevalence of radiographic PFOA was high among Chinese population.• Older age, female gender, obesity, and few years of education were associated with a high risk of PFOA.• Prevalence of lateral radiographic OA was higher than medial radiographic OA at PF joint.

8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid acts on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The mechanisms of insect resistance to imidacloprid include target-site alteration and increased detoxification metabolism. In Bradysia odoriphaga, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase has been found involved in metabolic resistance to imidacloprid. However, the situation of target-site related resistance to imidacloprid in B. odoriphaga is still unknown. RESULTS: Nine field-collected B. odoriphaga populations showed various sensitivities to imidacloprid compared with the susceptible (SS) strain, including susceptibility, decreased susceptibility, low resistance, moderate resistance and high resistance. Seven nAChR subunit genes including α1, α2, α3, α7, α8, ß1 and ß3, were examined for site mutation and changes in transcription levels in field populations. No nAChR polymorphism potentially related to the resistant phenotypes was found. However, differential expression of nAChR subunit genes was found in imidacloprid resistant field population. In high imidacloprid resistant population LC-2 (93.14-fold resistance), the transcription levels of α1, α2 and ß1 subunits were significantly down-regulated, while the transcription levels of α3 and α8 subunits were significantly up-regulated, compared with that in SS strain. In addition, imidacloprid acute exposure induced differential expression of nAChR subunit genes in B. odoriphaga. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed the transcriptional expression of Boα1 and Boß1, and decreased mortality of B. odoriphaga by 23.03% and 18.69%, respectively, when treated with imidacloprid. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that, although no target-site mutation was found in imidacloprid resistant B. odoriphaga population, the reduced expression of α1 and ß1 subunits contributed to B. odoriphaga resistance to imidacloprid.

9.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(4): 407-416, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193759

RESUMO

The chive maggot, Bradysia odoriphaga (Yang and Zhang) is an economically important insect pest, affecting many key vegetables, including Chinese chive, especially in northern China. Chlorfenapyr, a halogenated pyrrole insecticide that interferes with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is widely used against B. odoriphaga. In this study, we evaluated selection-induced resistance to chlorfenapyr and fitness costs in B. odoriphaga. The results showed that B. odoriphaga developed 43.32-fold resistance after continuous exposure to chlorfenapyr for over 10 consecutive generations. The life-history traits of chlorfenapyr-resistant and susceptible strains were compared using age-stage, two-sex life table approach. No significant effects were observed on the longevity and pre-adult period. However, reduction in the total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) and fecundity (eggs/female) were observed in the resistant strain. Moreover, the demographic parameters such as intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0) and finite rate of increase (λ) were also decreased significantly in the resistant strain compared to the susceptible strain. These results showed the potential of B. odoriphaga to develop resistance against chlorfenapyr under continuous selection pressure. Furthermore, there was a fitness cost linked with chlorfenapyr resistance in B. odoriphaga. We conclude that a better knowlegde on the trade-off at play between resistance degree and fitness cost could be crucial for developing further management of B. odoriphaga in China.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Masculino , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 71, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most aphids exhibit wing polyphenism in which wingless and winged morphs produce depending on the population density and host plant quality. Although the influence of environmental factors on wing polyphenism of aphids have been extensively investigated, molecular mechanisms underlining morph differentiation (i.e. wing development /degeneration), one downstream aspect of the wing polyphenism, has been poorly understood. RESULTS: We examined the expression levels of the twenty genes involved in wing development network, and only vestigial (vg) showed significantly different expression levels in both whole-body and wall-body of third instar nymphs, with 5.4- and 16.14- fold higher expression in winged lines compared to wingless lines, respectively in Rhopalosiphum padi. vg expression was higher in winged lines compared to wingless lines in third, fourth instar nymphs and adults. Larger difference expression was observed in third (21.38-fold) and fourth (20.91-fold) instar nymphs relative to adults (3.12-fold). Suppression of vg using RNAi repressed the wing development of third winged morphs. Furthermore, dual luciferase reporter assay revealed that the miR-147 can target the vg mRNA. Modulation of miR-147b levels by microinjection of its agomir (mimic) decreased vg expression levels and repressed wing development. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that vg is essential for wing development in R. padi and that miR-147b modulates its expression.

11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 163: 235-240, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973863

RESUMO

Although dibenzoylhydrazine-type non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, such as fufenozide, have an excellent performance record, the emergence of resistance could severely compromise the efficacy of these compounds in integrated pest management programs. To investigate possible mechanisms of resistance, we investigated the regulation of the expression of the PxEcR-B gene encoding the ecdysone receptor isoform B (PxEcR-B), which is the specific target of fufenozide in P. xylostella. Bioinformatics analysis revealed a putative miR-189942 binding site in the 3'-UTR of PxEcR-B mRNA. In a PxEcR-B 3'-UTR luciferase reporter system, miR-189942 downregulated the luciferase activity, and these effects were abolished by a deletion mutation in the putative miR-189942 binding site. Moreover, at 96 h after treatment with an agomir (mimic) or antagomir (inhibitor) of miR-189942, PxEcR-B expression was decreased by 71 ± 4% and increased by 4.19- fold respectively. Furthermore, overexpression or knockdown of miR-189942 changed the sensitivity of P. xylostella to fufenozide in vivo but had no influence on the sensitivity to chlorantraniliprole, which does not target PxEcR-B. These data indicate that miR-189942 suppressed PxEcR-B expression via binding at the 3'-UTR of PxEcR-B, thus increasing the tolerance of P. xylostella to fufenozide. These findings provide empirical evidence of the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of insecticide resistance.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Mariposas , Animais , Benzofuranos , Hidrazinas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptores de Esteroides
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999782

RESUMO

Fitness is closely associated with the development of pesticide resistance in insects, which determines the control strategies employed to target species and the risks of toxicity faced by non-target species. After years of selections with beta-cypermethrin in laboratory, a strain of housefly was developed that was 684,521.62-fold resistant (CRR) compared with the susceptible strain (CSS). By constructing ≤ 21 d and ≤ 30 d life tables, the differences in life history parameters between CSS and CRR were analyzed. The total production numbers of all the detected development stages in CRR were lower than in CSS. Except for the lower mortality of larvae, all the other detected mortalities in CRR were higher than in CSS. ♀:♂ and normal females of CRR were also lower than those of CSS. For CRR, the relative fitness was 0.25 in the ≤ 21 d life table and 0.24 in the ≤ 30 d life table, and a lower intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and net reproductive rate (Ro) were detected. Based on phenotype correlation and structural equation model (SEM) analyses, fecundity and viability were the only directly positive fitness components affecting fitness in CRR and CSS, and the other components played indirect roles in fitness. The variations of the relationships among fitness, fecundity and viability seemed to be the core issue resulting in fitness differences between CRR and CSS. The interactions among all the detected fitness components and the mating frequency-time curves appeared to be distinctly different between CRR and CSS. In summary, fecundity and its related factors separately played direct and indirect roles in the fitness costs of a highly beta-cypermethrin-resistant housefly strain.


Assuntos
Moscas Domésticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Aptidão Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Aptidão Genética/genética , Moscas Domésticas/genética , Moscas Domésticas/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Masculino
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(4): 1371-1377, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is one of the most destructive insect pests. It has evolved resistance to numerous insecticides around the world due to the application of insecticides. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) have been reported to potentially facilitate the detoxification process of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in A. gossypii. RESULTS: In this study, the field populations of A. gossypii developed different levels of resistance to multiple insecticides. A UGT inhibitor, 5-nitrouracil, dramatically increased the toxicity of acetamiprid in resistant populations, moderately increased the toxicity of sulfoxaflor in the imidacloprid susceptible (IMI_S) population, and populations from Yuncheng in Shanxi Province (SXYC) and Jingzhou in Hubei Province (HBJZ), and increased the toxicity of bifenthrin in the IMI_S and HBJZ populations, but there was no synergism on omethoate or carbosulfan. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that UGT344B4 and UGT344C7 were overexpressed in all field populations, and UGT344N4 was overexpressed in the SDBZ and HBZJ populations. Furthermore, the suppression of UGT344B4 or UGT344C7 by RNA interference significantly increased the susceptibility to bifenthrin in the IMI_S population and the susceptibility to sulfoxaflor in the SXYC population. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that UGTs are potentially involved in the detoxification of neonicotinoid, sulfoximine, and pyrethroid insecticides in A. gossypii. Furthermore, the overexpression of UGTs could be associated with insecticide resistance in field populations of A. gossypii. The results might be helpful for the management of insecticide resistance in field populations of A. gossypii. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

14.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(1): 35-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749037

RESUMO

Although esterase-mediated spinosad resistance has been proposed for several insects, the associated molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of esterase-based spinosad resistance in house flies using a susceptible strain (SSS) and a spinosad-resistant, near-isogenic line (N-SRS). Combined with the synergistic effect of DEF on spinosad in the N-SRS strain, decreased ali-esterase activity in the spinosad-resistant strain has implicated the involvement of mutant esterase in spinosad resistance in house flies. Examination of the carboxylesterase gene MdαE7 in the two strains revealed that four non-synonymous mutations (Trp251-Leu, Asp273-Glu, Ala365-Val, and Ile396-Val) may be associated with spinosad resistance in house flies. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis further indicated a strong relationship between these four mutations and spinosad resistance. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a female-linked MdαE7 expression pattern in the N-SRS strain, which may contribute to sex-differential spinosad resistance in house flies.

15.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 117: 103283, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759051

RESUMO

Cry protein toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are now widely used in sprays and transgenic crops to control insect pests. Most recently, ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins (ABC transporter), including ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCG1, ABCA2 and ABCB1, were reported as putative receptors for different Cry toxins. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism involved in the expression of these ABC transporter genes. In the present study, a conserved target site of miR-998-3p was identified from the coding sequence (CDS) of ABCC2 in diverse lepidopteran insects. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-998-3p could bind to the CDS of ABCC2 and down-regulate its expression through a conserved site and several non-conserved sites in three representative lepidopteran pests, including Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella. Injection of miR-998-3p agomir significantly reduced the abundance of ABCC2, accompanied by increased tolerance to Cry1Ac toxin in H. armigera, S. exigua and P. xylostella (Cry-S) larvae, while injection of miR-998-3p antagomir increased the abundance of ABCC2 dramatically, and thereby reduced the Cry1Ac resistance in a Cry1Ac resistant population of P. xylostella (GX-R). These results give a better understanding of the mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation of ABCC2, and will be helpful for further studies on the role of miRNAs in the regulation of Cry1Ac resistance in lepidopteran pests.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mariposas/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0221646, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743338

RESUMO

Plant allelochemicals are a group of secondary metabolites produced by plants to defend against herbivore. The mortality of two plant allelochemicals (tannic acid and gossypol) on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were investigated using feeding assays and the sublethal effects were evaluated using the age-stage, two-sex life table approach. Tannic acid and gossypol have deleterious effects on A. gossypii, and as the concentrations increased, the mortality of cotton aphid increased. The life history traits of A. gossypii including the developmental duration of each nymph stage, the longevity, oviposition days, total preadult survival rate and adult pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by sublethal concentration of tannic acid (20 mg/L) and gossypol (50 mg/L), while the population parameters (r, λ and R0) were significantly affected by these two plant allelochemicals. Furthermore, tannic acid can increase the pre-adult duration time and TPOP but reduce the fecundity of A. gossypii significantly compared to the control and gossypol treatment groups. These results are helpful for comprehensively understanding the effects of plant allelochemicals on A. gossypii.

17.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 114: 103204, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422151

RESUMO

Ionotropic receptors (IRs), as a member of the conserved chemoreceptor families in the peripheral nervous system, play a critical role in the chemoreception of Drosophila. However, little is known about IRs in Hymenoptera insects. Here, we comprehensively characterized the gene structure, topological map and chemosensory roles of antennal IRs (MmedIRs) in the hymenopteran parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator. We found that the IRs were conserved across various insect species. In the in situ hybridization assays, most IRs showed female antennae biased features, and there was no co-expression of the IRs and the olfactory receptor co-receptor (ORco). Moreover, three IR co-expressed complexes, IR75u-IR8a, IR64a1-IR8a and IR64a2-IR8a, were detected. Two genes with high similarity, IR64a1 and IR64a2, were located in distinct neurons but projected to the same sensillum. In two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings, IR64a1 was widely tuned to the chemicals from habitat cues released from host plants over long distances, whereas IR64a2 responded to a narrow range host cues and plant odors with low-volatility. Notably, IR64a2 was able to perceive Z9-14: Ald, a vital sex pheromone component that is released from Helicoverpa armigera, which is the preferred host of M. mediator. Furthermore, most ligands of IR64a1 and IR64a2 can trigger electrophysiological responses in female wasps. We propose that IR64a1 and IR64a2 collaboratively perceive habitat and host cues to assist parasitoids in efficiently seeking hosts.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/metabolismo , Vespas/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Vespas/genética , Xenopus
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 98-106, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400791

RESUMO

The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a destructive global crop pest. Control of A. gossypii has relied heavily on the application of chemical insecticides. The cotton aphid has developed resistance to numerous insecticides, including imidacloprid, which has been widely used to control cotton pests in China since the 1990s. Our objective was to investigate the potential role of UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) in imidacloprid resistance based on transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of field-originated imidacloprid-resistant (IMI_R) and -susceptible (IMI_S) A. gossypii clones. The transcriptomic and proteomic analyses revealed that 12 out of 512 differentially expressed genes and three out of 510 differentially expressed proteins were predicted as UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT). Based on quantitative real-time PCR analysis, nine UGT genes, UGT343A4, UGT344A15, UGT344A16, UGT344B4, UGT344C7, UGT344C9, UGT344N4, UGT 24541, and UGT7630, were up-regulated in the IMI_R clone compared to the IMI_S clone. Meanwhile, UGT344A16, UGT344B4, UGT344C7, and UGT344N4 were overexpressed at the protein level based on western blot analysis. Furthermore, knockdown of UGT344B4 or UGT344C7 using RNA interference (RNAi) significantly increased sensitivity to imidacloprid in the IMI_R clone. In conclusion, UGTs potentially contributed to imidacloprid resistance in A. gossypii originating from cotton-growing regions of China. These results provide insights into the way we study insecticide resistance in cotton aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Afídeos/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Proteômica , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12291, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444364

RESUMO

Buprofezin, a chitin synthesis inhibitor that can be used for the control of hemipteran pests, especially melon aphid, Aphis gossypii. The impact of low lethal concentrations of buprofezin on the biological parameters and expression profile of CHS1 gene were estimated for two successive generations of A. gossypii. The present result shows that the LC15 and LC30 of buprofezin significantly decreased the fecundity and longevity of both generations. Exposure of F0 individuals to both concentrations delay the developmental period in F1. Furthermore, the survival rate, intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) were reduced significantly in progeny generation at both concentrations. However, the reduction in gross reproductive rate (GRR) was observed only at LC30. Although, the mean generation time (T) prolonged substantially at LC30. Additionally, expression of the CHS1 gene was significantly increased in F0 adults. Significant increase in the relative abundance of CHS1 mRNA transcript was also observed at the juvenile and adult stages of F1 generation following exposure to LC15 and LC30. Therefore, our results show that buprofezin could affect the biological traits by diminishing the chitin contents owing to the inhibition of chitin synthase activity in the succeeding generation of melon aphid.

20.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 40-46, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378359

RESUMO

Aphis gossypii Glover is an economically important pest of numerous crops throughout the world. Some field populations of A.gossypii in China have developed moderate level of resistance to sulfoxaflor, a newly released sulfoximine insecticide for management of sap-feeding pests. To evaluate the effect of sulfoxaflor resistance on the fitness cost of A. gossypii, the life history traits of sulfoxaflor-resistant strain (SulR) and an isogenic susceptible strain (SS) were compared using the age-stage, two-sex life table approach. The results showed that the resistant strain had a reduction in fitness (relative fitness = 0.917), along with significantly decreases in longevity, fecundity, net reproductive (R0), mean generation time (T) and gross reproductive rate (GRR). Compared to the susceptible strain, SulR strain showing a shorter developmental duration of each nymph instar stage. Moreover, the adult pre-oviposition period (APOP) and total preoviposition period (TPOP) of SulR strain were also significantly shorter than that of the susceptible strain. Investigation of six development and reproduction related genes indicated that EcR, USP and JHBP were overexpressed in the SulR strain, while the mRNA transcript level of Vg was decreased significantly compared to the susceptible strain. These results suggest that there is a fitness cost associated with sulfoxaflor resistance in A. gossypii and the different expression of EcR, USP, JHBP, and Vg may play very important role in this trade-off.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Enxofre/farmacologia , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Afídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/metabolismo
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